Saturday, October 17, 2020



Saturday, October 17, 2020


(By Francis Mbuga)



It was Kenya’s national entry to the second world Black and African Festival of Art and Culture in Lagos, Nigeria in 1977.It is a play within a play we have the play where Jusper is the main character and it is this main character who composed a play to entertain the visitor which makes creatively ending of the first play. Due to this we can say. Mbuga’s play is very unique as he composes two plays in one .It is the second play which gives the title of the main play which is “Betrayal in the City”.

It is a tragic comedy play as it has elements of both plays (tragedy and comedy).It is a tragedy as it appeals to sadness where we see many people suffer in jail and some of the killing in the Adika, Chagga, Mulili, Kabito. It is a comedy because there are some areas that appeals laughter .For instance in page 36 where Jusper says” shit! God what crap Is your toilet repaired”, Also in page 47 he says”…you need a little grey and perhaps a blue here and there” again in Page 49.Tumbo tell Jusper” Jusper tell your cousin that life is not a straight line” Jusper tells his cousin………”Jusper tell your cousin that we are here for a season”. Also Mulili language (poor grammar) “so I wakes up .I go to my cousin to explanation him “Page 54”I objection Mr. Chairman! Children should must………”page 55”That one, he be a green grass in snake page 59”.

Generally the play examine problems that encounter most of African Independent countries. As we seen from the play francis Mbuga shows how African leaders treat the citizens. We see in Kafira one is not allowed to shout against evils. We see people like Adika and Kabito who were killed in cold blood.Moses and Jere were jailed because they stand for the truth.


Plot summary

Francis Mbuge ‘s play start by showing the contradiction between Africans culture inherited government system in Africa Francis cuts a clear distinction between leaders and mass.The play opens by showing the life of Nina and Doga who mourn for their lost child,who was killed on an organized demonstration ,which was focused on Africa dictatorship and corruption.

Plot is built up by the author by adding more character who represent different situations on different circumstances.For instance we see Mulili an illeterate soldier who was employed and given high post because the president (Boss )is his cousin.On the same scene we see Jere who is faithfull soldier and he adores African style of life.Him and Mulili fall into fight since they take different couses of reasoning,Here Mullli representing the ruling class and it is common habits of bulldozing the society.

Again country is provern rotten and how harmfull speaking the truth.
We see how those dare to open their mouths and reveal of truth face difficulties,sometimes are being imprisoned if not sillenced.For example Jusper,Jere and Mosses also the late Adika.

Title of the Play
Title of the play “Betrayal in the city”is straight forward to what we see in the play as the general concept is to show the relationship between the system and the citizens after independence .Leader go against the agreement and the expectation that people had during the struggle for independence.People are still suffering from exploitation,Poverty,injustice and many other evils.So leaders have failed to fulfill what they promised.

Saying(Proverbs and Idiom)

-“A mouse does not share a bowel with a cat”Doga tell Nina.Here Doga is against the sub chief because Chagaga killed Adika Page 3

-“A cloudy sky does not always cry rain “said Doga as he tells Nina that the ceremony will be conducted no matter what they say page 3

-“Silence is the best ship home” Askari acknowledge Mosese in Page19

-“The tree -climber begins from the bottom,not the top” page53

Kabito tells his member of the committee that we better know about the potatoes then we shall talk about the responsibilities of the committee

-“Colour name in blood page 59.Mulili tells boss that Kabito colour his name in blood to mean that Kabito has said bad thing against him(Boss).

-“Determination is greater in worth than numbers”Page 65 says Jusper that means if you are determined number is not a factor.

” Hot mouth” Page 19 to be tocative. Askari worn Moses

-“In cold blood”Means he died inocently page 24. Moses explains to why he is jailed just by attending the funeral of his student Adika who was killed in cold blood.

-“Bend so low “Page 26.Means to be humble and Mosese is not ready for that ,Moses believes that because he is not guilt he can never bend low as by doing so is to sale his dignity.

-“Black and white”means to be transparent in Page 47 Jusper says in Kafira things are not in black and white instead you need a little grey and perhaps a blue here and there.”

-“Tears in eyes” to cry page 63.This is when Mulili was explaining about the death of Kabito and says “Boss is with tears in his eyes.”
-“Cut short”Means to stop someone from saying something “Don’t cut me short,You do the listening I talk”.Askari tells Jere.

-“You work like the meteorological department “This means that No public  questions into method used and no assurance page 17

-“We have no choice like caged animals,we move but inside the cage .Says Tumbo in Page 62.This means that though they are in the committee they’ve no choice they are to do as the instruction of the boss”.

-For instance Regina says”there is no brand of beer that Jusper hasn’t tested”Page 41.This is exaggeration of fact because it not true that Jusper has tested all brand of beer.The idea here is that Jusper drinks too much.

-Coins in the grave symbolize money of illiteracy of the people in the system.

-Potatoes symbolize money page44

-Mulili poor grammar is a symbol of illiteracy

-Also the picture on the cover of the play  shows the pressure of injustice/torture


-When Jusper picks up two sticks and hold them as if they were two pistols…….squad,attention!Aim…,two….in page 66.This was a prediction of what will happen later,he kills Mulili at the end in the same way.

-Doga’s curse foreshadow the death of Mulili…..”….May you die the way Adika died!”page 10.

-Paradox eg:Jere tells Askari “I know .innocence can be an offense “page29.

-Has it ever occurred to you that the outside of this cell may well be the  inside of another Page 16.

Is a speech in a play in which a character who is alone on the stage,Speaks his/her thoughts it is like monologue

e.g.Observe Jusper speech on page 5-6
also Mosese’s speech on page 30-31

e.g- Tu-tu-tu-tu !this is the sound of the gun given by Jusper in page6.This means that in Kafira state killing is something common
Generally Language used in the play is standard and understood except the ungrammatical structure used by Mulili which is made intentionally to show incompetence of some of the leaders.Mulili is the adviser of the boss while his English shows that he is uneducated person .This lead to the failure of the government due to involving people who are not qualified.

Character & characterization

1.      Jusper  Wendo

Patriotic    –    he advocated for change

Brave        –    did not sway away regarding issues for truth





2.      Mulili

         Soldier, Jere’s colleagues then a farmer bods distance cousin

         Betrayer

         Flamboyant

         Not very educated

         Self centered

         Ego

3.      Jere

         Mulili’s  colleague, comes from a difference culture

         Kind heated

         Trust worthy

         Short- tempered

         Religious

         Naive

4.      Boss

         Head of state of Kafira, wasn’t liked by the students mostly

         Arrogant

         Naive

         Dictator

         Womanizer

5.      Mosese
         Lecture in Kafira, Regina’s brother, framed for drugs and got arrested

         Intellectual

         Silent

         Philosophical  thinker

         Caring

         Patriotic

         Tolerant

6.      Nina
–          Caring

–          Religious

–          Tradition

–          Courageous (pg 9)

–          Uneducated

7.      Doga

–          Traditionalist

–          Religious

–          Courageous

–          Vocal

–          Egocentric

–          Looks down upon women (wife)

8.      Regina
–       Caring

–          Truthful

–          Naive

–          Courageous

9.      Tumbo

–          Corrupt

–          Self  centered

–          Kind

–          Coward


10.  Nicodemo

–          Lazy

–          Greedy

–          Betrayer

–          Self centered

–          Coward

–          Uses innuendo

11.  Kabito

–          Considerate

–          Coward

–          Corrupt

–          Greedy

–          Educated

–          Unhappy


1.      Jusper wendo
    –      Patriotic because he advocated for change being one of the students in Kafira university he also played port in the protest that ended up with the death of  Adika (one who loves his country).

–      Brave and courageous due to the fact that the was not afraid to speak truth regarding matters of Kafira and he did not sway away from that.

–       Stubborn, this is seen through the conversation between him and his mother (page 6) and also with Regina his girlfriend who seems to be advising him and convincing him to change (scene 3) page 32 (determined not to change)

–      Creative because he could come up with a play for the visiting of the  head of state

–       Philosophical – He is a philosophy student at Kafira University. In page 33 he claim  it himself that  he is a philosophy student and also it can be proved by the way he speaks.

–       Vocal  in  a sense  that  he   expresses his ideas loudly (evident in normal conversations  with  others)


2.      Mulili

He is an ex – soldier who is now a farmer. He is Jere colleague and Boss distance causing

–       Betrayer because he betrayed Jere, his colleague who trusted him (evident in pg 14 were Jere reminds him that he had not told on him regarding a man called Mustafa who escaped.

–      Flamboyant – one who misreads others

Not very educated this is evident on the way he speaks e.g. 11 what have happen? And many more in his conversations.


–   Ego – the act of thinking that you are right and if gets you way you seal with him or her. Mulili has e.g., this is evident on the way he dealt with Kabito who seemed to get on his way. He ended up three


–   Self centered – to think about you and not about other people. Mulili though much of himself, regarding his action of betrayal having ego.


3.      Jere

Mulili’s colleague comes from different culture

–      Trust worthy – one that you can trust. Jere is trust worthy because he could keep a secret (about Mustafa) and never told, unlike mulili.

–      Religions – to be connected with religion (having strong belief) Jere shows that he is religious, as he claims to read the bible (the New Testament) and taught religious knowledge for three years before he went to the army.

–       Short tempered – to be easily annoyed

Jere prises to be short tempered (page 15) considering his conservation with Mulili after having a misunderstanding he reaches a point of aiming a pistol at him

–      Naive – to be easily convinced

Jere is naive in the sense that he was easily coned by Mulili on the matter of Mustafa

–       Patriotic is one who loves his country and Jere being one of them proves it by.

–       Kind –Hearted because of his intentions of do good Jere (page 13) feels the need to allow the ceremony to go on


4.      Boss

Head of state of Kafira and wasn’t like so much mostly by the students of the university

– Boss was naive because he was easily convinced by Mulili through false information that led to the death of Kabito.

–  Also he was a dictator, one who rules with force, He wanted everything his way caring less what others think, that why people did not like him.

–  Arrogant that is one who thinks he is better or more important than others (pg 60) after     finding out that had gone against him, he deals with him.

–  Womanizer is also a trait for Bods whereby despite of being married to Mercedes he also wanted Regina.

5. Mosese

Lecturer at Kafira University (philosophy) He is Regina brother and was frames with drugs and got arrested.

–       Mosese is intellectual ni the sense that he has the ability to reason and understand. This is a fact because he is a lecturer at the university.

–      He is silent in the sense that he rarely speaks or makes noise. This is evident in prison whereby there was silent up until Askari decides to ask him (page 18) and he repels saying “it prudent to be silent”.

–       Moses is a philosopher / thinker regarding to the way he speaks e.g. Page 28 where he talks of memories,  the post and the future.

–      Caring in the sense that he was concerned about his sister  Regina, he was not ready to let her face the Boss knowing what man he was  and what might happen to her.

–     Patriotic due to the fact that  he plays part in the play which was based on advocating for change and stopping the worse that could probably happen in Kafira.

            6. Nina

Doga’s wife and Jusper and Adika’s mother

–       Caring – being concerned about someone or something, Nina cared much about his son, and mostly evident towards Jusper as the only son left.

–      Religious – one who is greatly concerned with religion Nina proves to be religious when she decides to put the day in God’s hands and saying a prayer (page 8).

–       Traditionalist – very concerned with tradition Nina and Doga her husband were to have a ceremony for their dead son Adika (shaving ceremony)

–      Courageous – showing that you are not afraid when you do something that might be dangerous or difficult. Nina has his trait in the sense that the way she was able to confront  Mulili and Jere who wanted to stop the ceremony was with courage and without fear regarding what who said and their response (page 9).

–       Remorseful – a feeling of guilty or compassion

This is shown by Nina in (page 12) whereby she feels guilty having to send her son to address something which she didn’t know therefore ever thought would bring trouble but rather it does.

7. Doga
  –   Nina’s husband

–    Jusper and Adika father

–     Courageous also in the way he addressed issues without fear of the consequences of what is saying.

–      Traditionalist in the sense that he is so attached to it and seems to know much (pg 4).he practises the shaving ceremony for Adika.

–       Religions, his also concerned with religion (page 12) he offers Jere a pocket Bible and tells him that may God open his eyes to the suffering of his people.

–      Vocal as in he expresses his ideas loudly, the  way he speaks with Jusper, his wife Nina

–       Egocentric also describes Doga in the sense that he thinks he is always right.

–       Looks down upon women whereby he tends to crash most of his wife thoughts and also (pg 3) he speaks of women they think the beds upon which they wide for the night.

8. Regina

Mosese sister and Jusper’s girlfriend

– Caring

She was very concerned about both Mosese and Jusper she gave Jusper advice despite his stubbornness and wanted to help Mosese get out of prison through seeing the Boss to help Mosese get out of prison through seeing the Boss.

– Truthful

Regina preferred to stick to the truth when Tumbo brought the idea of having Jusper win play write competition immediately so as to get extra cash.

– Naive

She was easily convinced by Tumbo to go see Boss.


Regina courageous because she could address matters without fear and also had the courage to face Boss for the sake of his brother Mosese.

– Wise

She is wise because she could give advice to Jusper regardless his stubbornness.


–  Chairman of the visitors entertainment committee corrupt – his corrupt due to his unfair or dishonesty of conducting the play write competition.

–   Kind – Tumbo has a good heart because he brought drinks for Regina and Jusper and also connected Regina with boss.

–    Coward – Tumbo is afraid of Boss, has no courage

–    Self centered – Misuses  play write by making short cuts also in page 42

10. Nicodemo

One of the members of the visiting committee.

– Lazy

Nicodemo proves to be lazy by asking for a three hour break as the meeting begins.

– Greedy

Page.53 Nicodemo is so anxious to know the size of the potato (money) that he will be getting from the committee he insists on been played  per hour.


He betrayed Mosese by framing him with drugs on page 52 he speaks of what a tragedy it would be to him if mosese is pardoned after the visit of the head of state.

-Self centered

Does not like the fact prisoners are been treated nicely, now that they are going to act a play.


He is afraid of the boss and knows what is due to happen.

 11. Kabito

Member of the visiting committee.

–       Considerate

Whatever decisions brought forward, Kabito tends to consider the possible impact of them (page 55) the school children.

–      Coward – He is afraid of the boss (pg.52)

–       Corrupt he practiced corruption by giving people cash and being nice so as to get a tender which he didn’t get.

–      Greedy – he is interested to know the amount of money he will be getting as payment in the committee before it even begins.

–       Educated – this is due to the way he gave ideas which proved at some point that the was intellectual.




The main idea in a literary work.

i.      Betrayal

The act of being disloyal/unfaithful to someone a serious breach of trust

–          Nicodemo betrayed Mosese (page 25)

–          Nicodemo frames Mosese with drugs

–          Mulili betrays Jere by dinning to keep a secret unlike Jere who did not tell about Mustafa escape.

–          Mulili betrayed Kabito who ended up dead.

–          Mulili betrayed the boss denning that he is his cousin and that they can kill him.

–          Boss betrayed people of Kafira by putting power into people such as Mulili and Tumbo.

–          The government betrayed the people of Kafira by breaking their trust in protecting them but yet they end up shooting Adika during the protest.

–          Tumbo betrayed the visitor’s entertainment committee and the boss by not practising a fair play write competition for the money.

–          The boss betrayed Mercedes by being a womanizer.


–          Jusper betrayed Doga and Nina; he left the grave when he was told to guide it.


ii.       Corruption

Misuse of power and office position for personal use /gain

–  Tumbo squandered the money for the play write.

–   Mulili let Mustafa escape using his position.

         To get the milk tender (convinced  boss regarding the fact  that they are relative)

         Used his position to do  away with people by convincing the boss also (kabitos death).

         Kabito birded people  expecting to get the milk tender but it didn’t work, Mulili get it instead.


iii.      Protest

Is a statement/action that shows disagreement to something or

A reaction against unwanted situation.

–          University student of  Kafira against the government  which led to the death of Adika.

–          Nina and Doga against  Mulili who wanted the ceremony not to go ahead.

–          Kabito against Mulili which led to his death.

–          Jusper by killing the  sub – chiefs brother.

–          Mosese against the system from boss.

–          Jere against Mulili.


iv.      Conflict

Clash between two parts which can be ideological.

–  Students of university of Kafira and the government

Why – didn’t like the system

How – they protested, and Adika ended up shot

  Kabito and Mulili

Why – Mulili took kabito tender

How – throwing words to one another

  –  Nina and boga against Mulili

Why – Mulili did not want the ceremony to go on

How – Nicodemo framed mosese with drugs

      Jere against Mulili

Why – about the ceremony and the fact that  milili was a betrayer

How – he gets upset they throw words against each other and jere aims a pistor at mulili

– Jusper against sub – chief’s’ brother

Why – he thought he was responsible for the shooting of Adika

How – Jusper kills him

– Boss and Mercedes

Why – Boss was cheating, he wanted Regina

How – Mercedez reacted to boss after finding out “she become rude”

v.        Nepotism

– Giving favour because of a relation either blood, tribe, schoolmate … mostly they don’t deserve the favour.

Boss favoured Mulili – they are distant relatives

Tumbo favoured jusper

Jusper might be able to write a play but he was favoured in the sense that he did not go through a competition and the fact that Regina was in relation  with him

Mulili favoured Mustafa who escaped across the border.

vi.      Dehumanisation

To treat a person a person in a way that makes him or her less human (denies him/her basic rights)

–          Student of  Kafira university been shoot at as they demonstrate against  the government.

–          Doga  and Nina are denied there right to mourn for their son and to conduct the shaving ceremony.

–          Kabito was denied the right  to live

–          Adika was denied the right to live

vii.    Patriotism

Is the feeling of love and willingness to do anything for the benefit of one’s country

Jusper wendo

University studens  + adika

Mosese (passive protest)

Jere  (passive protest)

 An Enemy of the People
Author   – H.ibsen


Ibsen is a Norwegian playwright he was born in 1828-1905.The play deals with political and environmental issues .The action of the play passes during four consecutive days in early spring of the year 1881-1882 at a costal town in southern part.

The town in which the play was set built a huge bathing complex which was very crucial for the development of the town .Doctor Stockman discovers that the baths drainage system is seriously contaminated. He decides to report the matter to Mr. Houstad,Billing and Aslaksen who are the people working in the newspaper(The Herlad).

Next morning his brother Peter Stockman who is the Mayor of the town hears that his young brother has discovered something in the bathing system. Mayor tells Dr. ignore his discovery as it is very expensive to repair the bathing system.

As if not enough the mayor goes to the Herlad to order the workers (Horstad,Billing and Aslaksen) that they should not print Dr’s article. After that obstacle Dr. Decided to call the meeting to talk to his people about his finding once again he finds some challenges in getting the venue. Finally, Dr. succeeds to find a place where he can address the majority .Unfortunately the solid majority see his speech offensive to them .Next morning they went to Dr’s house and renderlise it. Her daughter Retra was fired from her job, Morten and Elif was chosen away from school, Captain Hostar and Dr. himself


Act One

At  Dr. Thomas stockman’s sitting room, Katherine together  with Mr. Billing who is eating after been served a meal, later joined by peter, then Mr. hovstad they begin speaking about the bath and how it has played a role in bringing development in the town plus the “The herald magazine. Dr. Stockman arrives with the boys later on along with captain Horste.

Peter and Dr. stockman begin talking, peter is curious to know why Thomas is so caught up with writing articles about the bath and warns him that if he gets too far it might cost him then he leave normal conversation proceeds, they decide to have a cup of tea (today) later on Petra gets back home with a letter for Dr. Thomas he receives it anxiously because his been waiting for it for long. He exists to another room to read it, Katherine on the other hand explains how this letter must be of importance to him to the others.

Dr Stockman comes back later claiming he got good news a victual discovery about the baths being a play spot, he examines how he got all this discovered.

Katherine argues why he didn’t say earlier but on the other hand it was found out on the right time. After all that, they had to wish Dr. Stockman good luck knowing what he might face bringing this news to public.

Act Two

The same scene as in act one, Katherine brings a letter to Dr. Stockman from peter it says that he will here to see him during midday. Morten kiil comes in asking about what he heard   about the bath, he was told by Petra on the way, and Dr. Stockman confirms that it’s true. But the morten kiil brings the idea that it might not please Peter as in the discovery Mr. Hovstad also hearing about the news as they speak about it he comes up with a thought that he believes that is the pollutions not the only cause for this issue but rather a marsh what he calls it, it involves the people in high positions (something to do with bureaucrats) he also tells doctor that how sure is he that he might get his way in this situation.

The doctor believing that this is common sense it therefore should be solved.  Another  visitor Mr Aslaksen also  asking if the new about the  discovery is true, after the doctor confirms it, he offers to give support claiming that middlemen forming a “solid majority” are behind him he even speaks having a demonstration, regarding to the fact that he is the chairman of the house holders Association hence has influence to a great number of people. They also agree that an article about this should be written.

Peter arrives later on when Hovstad and Morten have left, Petra is back peter and Thomas have a private conversation in the dining room. Peter is angry regarding the investigation on the   baths done behind his back, the suggestions made towards the issue that they might cost allot, it will also lead to decline in economy in the town. The conversation was long and involved threats as well (Dismissal) this leads to the saying enemy of the people which was told to Thomas by Peter Katherine is worried about her husband who is now angry about is going on.

Act Three

At the editors office into the Herald office, Mr. Billing and Mr. Hovstad were having a chat on the possibility of anything happening towards the recent issue on the bath with regards to the major.  Letter on Dr. Thomas enters, angry still emphasis on the printing of the article which should be supervised by Aslaksen conservation among au proceeds proving Dr. Stockman to be courageous.And the rest assuring him that they will support him. Dr. Stockman leaves later on a chat they the matter proceeds whereby Mr. Hovstad Mr. Aslaksen seems to be worries that if things go too far, there might be worried that if things go too far, there might to be problems, the rest claim that he is scared.

Petra comes in later on wanting to return a story book was given to her translate it, she says she cannot, Mr.  Hovstad does not know the content of whatever is in it simply because he cannot read English.  Petra argues that whatever is in there cannot be kept in the herald simply because it carried along things that don’t really happen in reality, Mr. Hovstad now puts the blame on Billing that he was the one who brought the idea. The conversation became bitter when they end up talking about Petra’s father and the discovery plus Mr. Hovstad saying that Thomas cannot do it without him. Petra leaves, by surprise the mayor comes to the Herald’s office.

Without wanting to be seen he uses the back door, his aim is to persuade hovstad and the rest not to print the article but mostly not to support Dr. Stockman, he speaks of the costs the town will incur loans if possible, raising tax and at the end forcing the other to change their minds. Suddenly Dr. Stockman forcing Peter to hide (billing office).With panic hovstad asks why he is back, and the Doctor say that he is so concerned that he doesn’t mind coming back twice. Kate also walks in wanting or claiming that she supports her husband  she is here to tell him that he is been fooled, he disagrees but within or  claiming that she supports her husband, she is here to tell him that he is been fooled, he disagrees but within a minute, he finds out that its true.

Seeing Peters cap and stick, proving that he is here and was trying to talk them over. This was true right after Dr. Stockman saw him and started to confront him, but it still does no good after Hovstad and Billing together with Aslaksen refuse to help again, stockman and his wife leave the office with anger and determination to stand on the truth, he claims to organize a mass meeting.

Act Four

A mass meeting was prepared in captain Horster’s house, people of all classes enter, almost full mostly men, few women and a small group of school boys. Few citizens’ start questioning why they are here, because of Dr. Stockman who going to have a go at the mayor, his brother, why the House Holder Association nor the city club didn’t give him a hall and much more.

Captain Horster, a brave man who cares and supports Dr. Stockman and his family, Hovstad,  Aslasksen and Billing are also present, later on Peter and Thomas also arrive. Doctor is ready to start when Aslasksen suggest that they elect a chairrman, the citizens also agree, first they choose the mayor but he choose Aslasksen (president of the House – Holder Association)

Peter  is honoured  as the  mayor to Address then Dr. Stockman begins whereby his speech is faced with objections at large, All this is due to his  discovery, but rather not the baths as what he claims, he speaks of his love for his native town what he has done and much more.

Being told not to talk about the baths, Dr. Stockman decides to speak of moral decay in the society that the people are morally polluted. Also he talks of how the majority is always wrong because it is full of fools (pg 80) but rather the minority is always right, Mr. Hovstad declared that the Doctor is a revolutionary, he as wondering from the subject (page 81) which he agrees because he wants to stand on the truth an why the people do not want to listen to him (83)

Also Dr. Stockman claims that Mr. Hovstad is a Hypocrite (pg 84) because he turned the whole thing upside down. As the presentation proceeds, Dr Stockman is declared an enemy of people   because he would rather see the town perish than prospering on a lie (page 86) and people agree. Mr Billing and Mr Aslaksen as agree to the Dr. Being an enemy of the people.

The meeting ends with noises, people shooting that the Dr. Is an enemy of the people (pg. 90) Dr and his family together with captain, Horster leave.

Act Five

The last act in the play takes place in Dr. Stockman’s consulting room. It is the morning after the lecture (p.92) window panes are broken a few stones can be seen. We than remember that the crowd promised to smash the windows and they did. Dr. Stockman collects them so as to be a reminder for Eilif and Morten when they grow up.

A letter arrives, it is a notice from the landlord that they have to move out, it is obvious that he is forced by authority to do because he was such nice man. Petra gets back home because she has been dismissed from where she was teaching by Mrs Busk who also received threats (3 letters comes to her things morning) Also in this act it is also learn that captain Horster has been dismissed from his work as a captain of the ship only because lent Dr. Stockman (pg 97) his house by his boss Mr. Vik. This also affects the fact that Dr. Stockman was to give him a lift as he was to leave the polluted country.

Peter also comes hypocritically, to sympathize with Dr. Stockman for what happened last night and at the same time he gives the Doctor a letter of dismissal that he will not be a doctor anymore, he was not be consulted and after wards peter advises him to write a letter of apology (meaning that he made a mistake but the doctor remains firm. He simply tell Katherine to scrub the floor to remove Peter’s dirt (pg (102).

Another consequence is that Dr stockman is made to experience is the fact that  Mortem kiil decides to buy more shares  of the spa baths, he uses the  money that he wanted to give Katherine (103 – 104). He did this to punish Dr. Stockman who still stays firm and calls his father in law a devil (105).

Dr. Stockman proves that he hates hypocrisy by chasing away Mr. Hovstad and Aslaksen, threaten to hit them with an umbrella, they came to sympathize.

Also his sons come  back suspended from  school the doctor he will teach them himself (113) And because the doctors is determined to stay  firm, he declares himself as the strongest man in the world “the  strongest man in the world is he who stands alone.


1.      Dr  Thomas stockman

  • Father of Motern , Eilif, Petra and husband to Katherine
  •  He is a doctor (intellectual)
  •  A brother to peter
  • Traits
  •  Determined
  •  Confident
  •  Patriotic
  • Radical
  •  Short temptered
  •  Caring
  •  Enthusiastic
  •  Humble
  •  Brave
  •  Optimistic
  •  Naive

2.     Peter

  •  Selfish
  •  Self centred
  •  Coward
  •  Hypocrite
  •  Cunning
  •  Conniving
  •  Jealous
  •  Greed

3. Mr. Hovstad


  •  Hypocrite
  •  Naive
  •  Coward
  •  Egocentric

4. Katherine

Dr. Stockman’s wife

  •               Kind – way she deals with visitors
  •               Patriotic
  •               Responsible
  •              Hospitality
  •              Humble


  •         Hardworking
  •         Patriotic
  •         Confident
  •         Confident
  •         Radical
  •         Activist

6. Mr. Aslaksen

Chairman of house holders association, sub- editor

  •           Hypocrite
  •           Naive
  •           Coward
  •           Betrayer – the doctor


7. Captain Hoster – A captain, travelled

  •                Caring
  •                Generous
  •                Courageous
  •                Patriotic
  •                 Wise



8. Morten kill

  •            Master tanner

A. Elaborations of Character traits

1. Dr. Stockman

– Determined – to find out.

Dr. Stockman was determined to act upon his discovery, that is to ensure renovation of the baths from the pollution.

-Confident – believe in one’s ability

Dr. Stockman knew he was right and he trusted his ability to stand and fight against any form of obstacle regarding his discovery.

– Patriotic – Love for ones country

Dr. Stockman proved to love his own country and was ready to do anything regardless the consequences for it. The way he fought for his discovery because he cared about the peoples welfare and ended up being the enemy of the people.

-Radical – One who advocated for change

Dr Stockman wanted the baths renovated after his discovery regarding its contamination.

-Optimistic – believe that good things will prevail

After the doctor made his discovery he believed that eventually actions will be taken upon the matter.

-Humble – Does not think he is better or more Important than others

Dr. Stockman was kind to visitors at his home

Caring – feel concerned about someone

Dr. Stockman care about his town much that he wants to expose a disgraceful   state of affairs

2. Peter

-Selfish  – To think about yourself and not about  (self centred) other people

Peter was selfish in the sense that he did not care about others regarding the discovery he didn’t want renovation to take place he didn’t want   renovation to take place because there would be a loss on his side.


Hypocrite – Pretend to have feelings that you don’t have


Peter went back to the doctor after the meeting claiming that he cared but he actually didn’t.


Also he pretended to care about the people by telling them the effects of the renovation which were false.


Also he was a hypocrite to Hovstad  and aslaksen telling them false information hence they changed their mind towards helping Dr. Stockman.


-Conning – Plan something behind someone’s back.

Peter being gains the discovery, he decided to speak to hovstad and aslaksen behind the doctors back so as to change their minds.


Cunning – To achieve something by lying

Peter achieved what he wanted   by lying to Hovstad, Aslasksen and the society by making them belief that the renovation of the baths will cost a lot and they will have to contribute to it.


3. Mr. Hovstad

-Hypocrite – to pretend to have feelings that you don’t  have Mr.Hovstad pretended to side with the doctor after betraying him because of peter, he and Aslaksen came back later to apologise but the doctor chased them away.

-Naive – Easily convinced by peter to betray the doctor with his discovery after peter claiming the  effects of the renovation.

-Coward – He was a coward because he was afraid of peter who convinced him to side with him against stockman.

–  Egocentric – Because he thinks he is very important and that others cannot do without him (pg 56) He speaks to Petra, then ends up telling her that her father cannot do without him.

4. Katherine

-Kind – Having intentions to good. Katherine was kind because of the way she was dealing with visitors.
–  Responsible – Having a job or duty to do something Katherine was a responsible mother regarding the fact she cared much about her kids future life consider   the situation they were getting into and
its effect.
-Hospital/humble – she cared about others mostly the way she handled visitors and also she did not think that others are not important.
5. Petra

-Radical – Concerning the most basic and important parts of something.
-Petra was concerned with the system of the society (how children are taught lies at school and at  home are not told the truth).
-Confident – feeling sure about her ability to do something.

6.  Mr. Aslaksen

-Hypocrite –  Pretend to have feelings that you don’t  have Aslaksen pretended  to care about Doctor stockman and dared to come apologies but was chased away
together with Hovstad.
-Naive – Easily convinced
Peter convinced him together with Aslaksen to betray stockman by giving them wrong information about effects to having to renovate the baths.       -Coward – One
who is afraid

Aslaksen was afraid of the mayor, him and hovstad and hence they were easily convinced to betray the Doctor.

– Betrayer – a serious breach of trust.
Aslaksen not only betrayed the doctor but also the citizens by feeding them wrong information.


7. Captain Horster

– Caring – Cared about doctor Stockmann and his family as he was beneath them through the whole situation.

– Generous – Kind  enough to let the doctor use his house for the meeting and offered to sail with them before the cost his job.

– Courageous – Regardless the whole Dr. Situatation, the  captain did not hold back to support them.

– Patriotic – Loves his country enough to support for what’s good for it .

– Wise – He has moved around the world, hence knows a lot to make them know the best.


i. Betrayal

–          Peter betrays his brother

–          Motern kill betrays Katherine and the kids

–          Hovstad and Aslaksen betray the doctor

–          Solid majority betrays the doctor

–          The bosses of  petra, Dr, Hoster betrayed

ii. Corruption

Misuse of power for personal gain

–          The   mayor practises corruption towards hovstad and Aslaksen

–          The mayor towards the solid majority.

iii. Patriotism

Love for ones country

–   Dr. Stockman

–   Petra

–   Captain Horster

iv. Hypocrisy

Pretending to have feelings that you don’t have.

Mr Hovstad and Aslaksen is hypocrite to Katherine, doctor, and to the people

Peter is hypocrite to Dr.Stockman, people, Hovstad and aslaksen

v. Conflicts

A clash between two parties

–   Dr.Stockman + Katherine

–    Dr.Stockman + Peter

–    Dr.Stockman + Aslaksen and Hovstad

–    Dr.Stockman + People

–    Dr.Stockman + Hovstad

–     Dr.Stockman + Peter

–    Dr.Stockman + Morten Kiil

–    Petra what goes down in the entire society.

vi. Ignorance

Lack of knowledge or information about something people of the society

vii. Pollution

Introduction of unwanted material to the environment

–          Pollution of  the water bath

–          Pollution of the land (marsh land)

–          Society is polluted through receiving the wrong information from the media

viii.  Protest

– Reaction against unwanted situation

– Doctor why discovery

– How publisizing, holding a meeting

– People against the doctor

Why against his idea

How threw stones

–          Petra against the system  society

–          Why – they teach lies

–          How express her views and saying

–          That she could open her own school

ix. Bravery

Act of dealing with something difficult or unpleasant in order to achieve something

– Doctor

– Captain Hoster

x.  Arrogance

The behaviour of a person when they feel that they are more important than other people

–    Peter

–     Mr. Hovstad (pg 56)

–     Mortern kill

xi. Cowardice

Fear or lack of courage

–     Mr Hovstad and Aslaksen


The play uses simple less formal and didactic language possibly with the intention of making sure that reader understands.

Originally the play was written in Norwegian language – Nordic which was later translated to an English version by max Faber.

A part from the simple language used, he has also made use of imagery.

a.     Symbolism

A symbol refers to the use of specific concrete objects to stand for one or more  abstract ideas for example a wedding ring has came to symbolize the qualities which marriage ideally represent the ring symbolizes the following.

i. The preciousness of the ring (gold) symbolizes the preciousness of marriage.

ii. The ring symbolizes lifelong commitment it is circular with no end,

In the play the following symbols are found.

i. The baths

These symbolize the town leaders and their followers. These baths are contaminated filthy and dirty hence represent leaders like the major, Hovstad, Aslaksen and the people who clear them up.

ii. Water in the baths

The water symbolizes the citizens of the town. The water was tasted in the hall but could not stand the taste for truth and therefore they (citizens) are guilty in fact they are contaminated by their leaders’ guilty.

iii. Tannery

The Tannery symbolise the greediness of the leaders which deeds to the filth of precipitation of all the filth.

E.g. of the filth





Not here that the contaminating germs in the baths are from the tannery the ills of the leaders are a result of their greediness.

b.      Foreshadowing

This is the arrangement of the presentation of events and information in a fiction or drama in such a way that later events into the work are prepared for (introduced in advance)


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