Monday, May 3, 2021



Monday, May 3, 2021




A person who does not plan is always planning to fail. So whenever we want to do something we have to plan how to go about it

The word” proposal “originated from the word “propose” which means to put forward, suggest or advice. Proposal therefore refer to suggestion, intention , plan or scheme

A researcher proposal may be defined as a systematic plan, suggestion or request which bring together in organized form the preliminary scheme that will be required to fulfill a particular research project

The research proposal is used to provide to guideline to the research during the research process and also provide a means of evaluating the research study

The research proposal is considered to be a plan since puts forward for consideration one’s scheme of intent


1.A research proposal is used to administrative purpose. It is a basis for written agreement or contract between the researcher and management (sponsor ). A proposal acts as a record for agreement

2.It helps the researcher to think over important issues about the study. ( about what he/she want to do)

( the what, why, how, where and to whom the research to be conducted are thought out and answered at this stage of developing proposal

3.Before conducting a research sometimes a researcher need to get go ahead from his client. A client can be from the organization you are working with, sponsor or university. Eg NGO’s Providing funds for research will not sponsor any form of research until they have received and approved a detailed research proposal.

4. Proposal are used to make a choice among the competing suppliers ( researchers) and to influence positively the decision to fund the proposal study


Format of content of a research proposal

Research proposal  It is divided into 3 parts

  1. Preliminary pages
  2. The main body of the research proposal
  3. Back page


The primary page of research proposal it consist

  • Title page – title of the study
  • Research name
  • Degree requirement
  • Awarding University or institution
  •  Year of study


Main body

The main body part of the research proposal it includes the followings

1.0 Chapter I : Introduction

1.1   Background of the study

1.2   Statement of the problem

1.3   Objective of the study

1.4   Research hypothesis/question

1.5   Scope of the study

1.6   Significance of the study

1.7   Conceptual or theoretical framework

2.0Chapter II : Literature review

This chapter is devoted to a survey of the body of knowledge that already exist and identifying the existing gaps in knowledge which the research intended to fill

  • It should point out how the problem under investigation is related to the previous research finding
  •  It should put into consideration some theories that are elated to the problem under investigation


3.0 Chapter III: Research methodology

  •  It indicate the area of the study
  • Population
  • Research design
  • Sample and sampling technique with will be used
  • Data collection method or ( strategy )
  • Data analysis technique
  •  Budget, time frame


Back pages

This is the list of all sources that were consulted in writing the proposal.

(they are not numbered, are written in alphabetical order using surname)


Qualities of an effective research proposal

It should clearly state:

  • What is being proposal or what the project is about
  •  How it will be carried out
  • When it will be carried out
  • How much it will cost


Research methodology

Refer to the study of how research is to be conducted involving the development and analysis of the theories, principles, approaches and view to be employed in a particular research

  • It concerned with the rational and the philosophical assumption that underlie a given study
  • It cover study area, study population, sampling design as well as data gathering and analysis

It involving the principle or rules underlying series of process, admit and task to be performed in a given research study



It is conceptual structure within which research is conducted or a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study

  • It is the plan structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research question. Research design specific the objectives’ of the study, methodology and techniques to be applied for achieving the specified research objective
  • In a nut shell the design of research provided a systematic plan of the procedures for the researcher to follow

It is blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data

Features of good Research design

1. Flexible

2. Appropriate

3. Efficient

4. Economical

5. Accurate ( give minimum experimental error)

6. Yielding maximal information


Types of research design

Case study research design 

1. Case study is an in-depth comprehensive study at a social or natural phenomena in any branch of knowledge

  • Case study aims at studying everything about something rather than something about everything
  • It purpose is to understand the interaction between factors that explain the present status or the development of the study unit over a period of time
  • It involves the study of a single study unit like a family, a community, a group, a class and a specific geographical area
  • The case study design can be classified as an intensive investigation of a single unit or group

 Advantage of a case study design

1. It is flexible with respect to data collection method

2. It provide an opportunity for the intensive analysis of many specific details that are overlooked in other methods or designs

3. Case study an extend virtually to any dimension of the topic to be studied

4. Case study may be conducted practically to any kind of social and natural settings

5. It gives to the researcher a wide range of insights into human life

6. It is useful for testing the hypothesis about the structural and procedural characterizes of a specific social on geographical unit


Disadvantage of case study design

1. It is not suitable in generation at facts and findings ( limited generalization ability) this is because studies are studies of stray cases which are not sufficient enough for making meaningful generalization of larger studies

2. Time consuming

3. It is inadequate for an analysis of a macro problems.

4. There is a danger of researcher’s over- confident


Survey research design

It is a broad based investigation of a phenomena through administration of data collection instrument to a target population or a sample of respondents selected from the target population

  • It is extensive investigation of a particular research problem covering a large number of study units
  • It is useful for testing hypotheses about large social or geographical aggregates and allows generalization of a study finding if based on a representative sample, the survey of research design if appropriate for making descriptive studying of large population
  • Only two methods of data collection can be used. The methods are interview and questions


Experimental research design

It is a type of research design involving random classification at the respondents or items understudying into experimental group and control group and then conducting an experiment through exposing the experimental group to unusual conditions

  • These bases on experimental groups of people or items. Two similar groups are used where one becomes experimental and another control group to see if the deference is worth while
  • After the experimental group being given special treatment the researcher is to observe any change that might be taking place to the experimental group or making comparison between the control and experimental so long as the two groups were assumed to be initially equivalent

It consist of

I.  Experimental group:

It is the one exposed to some novel Or special condition

II.  Control group:

it is the one exposed to normal existing condition

III.  Treatment:

It is an object or specific condition subjected to the experimental group to as to see whether an induce or influence some changes to this experimental group


Descriptive research design

It is a research design used to describe the state of affairs as if exists involving the fact finding and about people’s attitude, opinion, habits or any variety at natural or social issue under studying

( state of affair – situational condition)


Historical research design

It is a research design concerned with the study of past records and other information sources with a view of reconstructing the origin and development of an institution, phenomena or movement or system and discovering the trend in the past

  • It is descriptive in nature describing fact on the past situation
  • This design depends upon inference and logical analysis of recorded data and indirect evidence rather than upon direct observation

Correlation research design ( causal comparative)

  • This is the research design which enables the researcher to assess the degree of relationship that exists between two or more variable
  • It analyses the correlation between two or more variable under study eg compare the geography find exams results of a group of students who frequently attended geography periods and those who rarely attended geography period


Cross- cultural research design

This is a research design used to compare the behavior patterns of different culture. Using this design a researcher can perceive how various cultures experience given economical, political, educational and social outcomes.

E.g.:- you can compare urban and rural secondary school students level of computer literacy



This is the last stage in conducting a field research whereby the finding, obtained in the research are documented or published and being handed over to the appropriate authority for action to be taken or kept for other to see it,

 It has 3 parts

(a)    Preliminaries

(b)   Main body

(c)    Reference

(a)    Preliminary

  •       Cover page
  •        Fill the page
  •        Certification/declaration
  •        Copyright
  •        Acknowledgement
  •        Dedication
  •        Abstract
  •        Table of contents
  •        List of tables and figures
  •        Abbreviation and acronym


(b)Main body
Chapter1: Introduction

1.1 .  Background of the problem

1.2.  Statement of the problem

1.3.  Purpose of research study

1.4 . Objective of research study

1.5 . Research question /hypothesis

1.6 . Significance of the study

1.7 .Limitation or scope office study

1.8 .Conceptual framework

Chapter 2: literature review

Relevant sub heading


Chapter 3; Research methodology

  • Study area
  • Targeted population
  • Sample size
  • Sampling strategic
  • Research design
  • Data collection methods
  • Data analysis plan

Chapter 4: Research findings, presentation and discussion


Chapter 5: summary , conclusion and recommendation

  • Summary of the study
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

(c)Back page

(iii) Reference

  • Appendix


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