Thursday, August 18, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS.

CHEMISTRY FORM 5-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS.

CHEMISTRY FORM 5-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS.
Thursday, August 18, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS

UNAWEZA JIPATIA NOTES ZETU KWA KUCHANGIA KIASI KIDOGO KABISA:PIGA SIMU: 07872327719




ALSO READ;

  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS

(i.e COMPOUNDS OF Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Zn, Cu AND Pb)

METAL OXIDES

Definition; An oxide is binary compound made up of oxygen and other elements, example  MgO, PbO, Al2O3, H2O2, NO2, SO2 etc

Therefore metal oxides are binary compounds made up of oxygen and metal, example PbO, FeO, ,  etc

NOTE:   The binary oxygen – fluorine compounds are not called oxides of fluorine, but are called fluorides of oxygen since fluorine is more electronegative than oxygen (example OF2- oxygen difluorine)

GENERAL METHODS IN PREPARATION OF METAL OXIDES

There are two methods of preparing metal oxides

a)  DIRECT METHOD

b)  INDIRECT METHOD



  A. DIRECT METHOD OF PREPARATION  OF METAL OXIDES

In this method a metal reacts with a reagent or oxygen or air to give metallic oxide

I)  A metal  oxide  may be prepared  by burning  a metal in air or oxygen

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image061.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image062.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image063.gif

 

II)  A metal  oxide may be prepared  by passing  steam on red heat metal

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image064.gif

III)  A metal oxide  may be prepared by reacting  a metal with an oxidizing agent like HNO3

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image065.gif

B.  INDIRECT  METHOD OF PREPARATION  OF METAL OXIDES

In this method, the metal oxide is obtained by heating carbonates, hydroxides and nitrates etc

Example;        

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image066.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image067.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image068.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image069.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image070.gif

                 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image071.gif

TYPES OF METALLIC OXIDE

The metal oxides may be classified as follows:

1)  BASIC OXIDE

2)  ACIDIC OXIDES

3)  AMPHOTERIC OXIDES

4)  PEROXIDES

5)  SUPEROXIDE

6)  MIXED OXIDES



1. BASIC OXIDES

These are oxides which react with acids to form salt and water only. They also combine with acidic oxides to form salts. Basic oxides may be ionic or covalent

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image072.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image073.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image074.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image075.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image076.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image077.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image078.gif

 

2. ACIDIC OXIDE

Acidic oxide are formed by metals in their higher oxidation states,
example   D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image079.gif

These oxides are generally covalent in nature. They dissolve in water to form oxy-acids and hence are called acid anhydrides.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image080.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image081.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image082.gif

3.  AMPHOTERIC OXIDE

These are oxides with both basic and acidic properties. They react with both acids and bases. Amphoteric oxides include ZnO, Al2O3, BeO, PbO, SnO2, Cr2O3,
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image083.gif

i) AS BASES: They react with acids  to form salt and water only

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image085.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image084.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image086.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image087.gif

 

ii) AS ACIDIC OXIDES:  These react with bases to form salt and water

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image088.gif
Sodium metastannate

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image089.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image090.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image091.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image092.gif
Sodium ferrite



4. PEROXIDES

Peroxides are compounds containing the peroxide ion  Na2O2  Peroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals can be prepared.

a)  By heating the metal in the presence of excess oxygen or air

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image094.gif       D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image095.gif
b)  By heating the monoxides of the metal alone or in the presence of oxygen/air.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image096.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image097.gif

c)  By the action of oxygen or air on the metal dissolved in liquid ammonia. This method is for the preparation of K2O2, Rb2O2 and  Cs2O2

d)  By the action of H2O2 on metallic  salt solution in the presence  of an alkali.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image098.gif

PROPERTIES OF PEROXIDES

  • Stability of peroxides  increases with increasing of the electropositive character  of the metal
  • Peroxides are more stable in dry state than when they are in solution form
  • Many  peroxides are highly hydrated due to hydrogen bonding,

           example Na2O2.8H2O, CaO2.8H2O, BaO2.2H2O etc

  •  They dissolved in water to form alkaline solution  and hydrogen peroxide

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image099.gif

(Ice-cold water)

  • When treated  with dilute  mineral  acids peroxides give H2O2

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image101.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image102.gif

  •  Peroxide give O2 on heating and hence act as oxidizing  agents

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image103.gif



NB:  PbO2  is not peroxide since this oxides does not give water when treated with mineral acids.

5. SUPEROXIDES

These are oxides of metals containing the ion  the known superoxides are these of potassium (KO2), Rubidium (RbO2) and Caesium (Cs2O2)

Preparation
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image105.gif

Superoxides of K, Rb, and Cs can be prepared by burning the metal in excess of oxygen or air

PROPERTIES OF SUPEROXIDES.

•  They are yellow solids

  • The stability of these superoxides  is in the  order  KO2 Rb CsO2
  • They are strong oxidizing agents
  • They are hydrolyzed by water forming H2O2 and oxygen.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image108.gif
Ionically;
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image109.gif

  •  Superoxides are paramagnetic in nature due to the presence of one unpaired electron in  ion.

6.  MIXED OXIDES

These are oxides composed of two simple oxides. The two simple oxides may be of the same metal or different metal in different oxidation states, example Red–Lead (Pb3O4) is combination of 2PbO and. Due to this  can be written ionically

Also magnetite (Fe3O4) is a combination of FeO and Fe2O3

The mixed oxides with different metals are as follows;

Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4)  MgOFe3+2O3

ZnFe2O4   nOFe23+O3 (Zinc ferrite)

PROPERTIES

  • It is  a brilliant  scarlet (bright red) solid insoluble in water
  • Red lead behaves chemically as if it were a loose compound of lead monoxide (PbO) and lead dioxide ( PbO2).  For example it reacts  with dilute HNO3 on warming  to give and water  whereby  PbO2  is left with no reaction

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image119.gif

  • The reaction  above is a redox reaction indicating that  is a reducing agent

USES; Red-lead is used as pigment in oil plants

FERROUS –FERRIO OXIDE (Fe3O4) (FeO.Fe2O3)

Fe3O4 occurs naturally as Magnetite. It may be prepared by heating iron with oxygen or steam

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image121.gif

 PROPERTIES

– The compound is black in color

– Very strongly ferromagnetic

– The compound is inactive chemically

– React  with acids as a double oxide giving a mixture of ferrous and ferric salts in solution

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image122.gif



HYDROXIDES OF THE METALS

These  are compounds  of metals  which contains  hydroxide  ions (OH) as the only  negatively  charged  ion, example NaOH, Mg(OH)2,  Zn(OH, Fe(OH)3

PREPARATION OF METAL HYDROXIDES

There are two methods of preparation of metal hydroxides.

A)   DIRECT METHOD OF PREPARATION OF METAL HYDROXIDES

The hydroxides which can be prepared by this method are those composed of strongly electropositive metals. Example LiOH, NaOH and Ca(OH)2

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image124.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image125.gif

B) INDIRECT METHOD OF PREPARATION OF METAL HYDROXIDES

In this method the metal hydroxide is prepared by

a) The action  of water on the metal oxide;

example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image124.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image125.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image128.gif

NB: the metal hydroxides which are prepared by action of water on metal oxides are soluble in water.

b) Action of calcium hydroxides (milk of lime) on a solution of carbonate, example preparation of NaOH and KOH. These metal hydroxides are prepared by precipitation the unwanted ions and layering a solution of the alkali. For instance  when potassium  carbonates and (Ca(OH) solution  are mixed and then allowed  to settle, a solution  of potassium hydroxides  may be  decanted

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image129.gif

c)  Precipitation of a metal hydroxide  by adding ammonia solution or sodium  hydroxide solution  to a solution of salt of the metal

 

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image130.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image131.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image132.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image133.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image134.gif

d)  Electrolysis of a solution of the metal chloride, example preparation of NaOH. Alkali  metal chlorides  form conducting  solutions  and since  these metals  are highly  in the electrochemical  series, their ions  remain in solutions  during  electrolysis  and hydrogen  evolved  at the cathode. Preferential discharge of chlorides ions enable hydroxyl ions formed by ionization of the water to accumulates in the solution. As a result dilute  solution  of the metal hydroxide  is produced



PROPERTIES OF METAL HYDROXIDES OF THE SELECTED METALS

1. ALKALI  METAL HYDROXIDES (MOH)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

-The hydroxides  of group IA metals are white crystalline solids

-They melt at moderate temperature  without decomposition except (LiOH)

-They are deliquescent solids

-They are very soluble in water (form alkali  solutions)

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS

CHEMICALS PROPERTIES

-The basic strength of the alkali increases down the group, example calcium is the strongest  base

-When cold  and dilute alkali’s reacts  with chlorine to form  metal chloride and hydrochlorite

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image135.gif

-When hot and concentrated alkali’s react with chlorine to form metal chloride and chlorate (v)

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image136.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image137.gif
In the two reactions chlorine undergoes disproportion

– Most NaOH and KOH absorbs COfrom the air whereby a metal  carbonates is formed

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image138.gif

– The hydroxides of Group IA metal reacts  with acids to form salts and water  only, example undergo neutralization reaction

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image139.gif

USES OF HYDROXIDES OF Na AND K

  1. Owning  to their  highly  basic character alkali metal hydroxides are used to absorb acidic gases, example CO2
  2. Alkali metal hydroxides are used in neutralization reaction.

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image140.gif

  1. Alkali metal hydroxides are used in precipitation reaction

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image141.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image142.gif

  1. Caustic soda (NaOH) is used in the manufacture of silk, paper and soap
  2. Caustic potash (KOH) is used to manufacture soft soaps




2. ALKALINE EARTH METAL HYDROXIDES (M(OH)2)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

– They  are white crystalline solids

– Solubilities increases considerably down the group from beryllium hydroxides (Be) to barium hydroxides (Ba). Beryllium hydroxide is insoluble in water.

Solubility of calcium  hydroxide  decreases with rise  in temperature,  the others increase, magnesium  slightly  but  strontium  and  barium  hydroxide greatly. Increase  in solubility  down the group is due  to the fact  that lattice energy  decreases  faster than hydration  energy (Be() is essentially  covalent  because of the high polarizing effect of the small

– Group IIA hydroxides are much less soluble

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image146.gif

-The hydroxides of Na and K precipitates  some metals  from their soluble salts (example, Aqueous solutions of their salts) as hydroxides

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image147.gif

             D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image148.gif                            

             D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image149.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image150.gif         

 

– Both NaOH and KOH liberates ammonia gas when added to ammonium salts

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image151.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image152.gif

REACTION WITH AMPHOTERIC METALS

Zinc, Aluminium, Lead and Tin react with hydroxides of sodium and potassium to form complexes, example aluminate, plumbate, zincate and stumnate.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image153.gif
Aluminate ion

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image154.gif

Zincate ion

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image155.gif

Plumbate ion

 

REACTION  WITH CARBONDIOXIDE

When  CO2 is bubbled  through aqueous  solutions of the NaOH and KOH the carbonates  are formed,With excess  of the CO2the hydrogen  carbonates are formed.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image156.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image157.gif

Of group  IA  elements  due to the  decrease in metallic  character  of  the elements (example Group IA  elements  are more electropositive  than their corresponding Group IIA elements). Also  the decrease  in solubility may be due to decrease ionic character of the hydroxides from Group IA to Group IIA

NB;  A Suspension  of slaked lime(calcium hydroxide) in water is called Milk of lime




CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

1. ACTION  WITH ACIDS  AND ALKALIS

  •   Beryllium  hydroxide  is amphoteric. It reacts   with excess  sodium hydroxide  forming  a solution of sodium beryllate

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image158.gif

Sodium beryllate

The other hydroxide of group IIA metals  do not react with alkalis but react  with acids to form salt and water only

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image159.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image160.gif

 2. ACTIONS WITH CARBON DIOXIDE

  •  Moist hydroxides absorb CO2 from air forming carbonates

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image161.gif

–  When  is bubbled through  lime water (Ca(OH)2) white  precipitate of CaCO3 are formed. This causes  the lime water  to turn milky. The milky  colour disappears  when excess CO2 in bubbled through it. The milky colour  disappears  because  calcium carbonates is converted into calcium  hydrogen carbonate which is soluble in water

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image163.gif

Clean solution                        White precipitate (milky)

 

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image164.gif

(Milky)            (Excess)                     Clear solution

3.  ACTION OF HEAT

The temperature at which the hydroxides begin to decompose increases down the group from about 3000C for beryllium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide to about 7000C for barium hydroxide.

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image165.gif
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image166.gif

4.  ACTION WITH AMMONIUM SALTS

All the hydroxides except Be(OH) 2 react with aqueous ammonium salts to give ammonia gas. The ammonia gas is easily identified because it turn alkaline to litmus paper.

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image151.gif

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\EXTRACTION OF METALS_files\image167.gif

5. ACTION WITH SULPHUDIOXIDE  

Sulphur dioxide turn lime water milky due to calcium sulphite formed. When excess SO2 is added the milky colour disappears (example, a clear solution is formed). The milky colour disappears due to the formation of calcium bisulphite which is soluble in water.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\yamoto.jpg



USES

1. Lime water is used to test for carbon dioxide.

2. A suspension of  Magnesium hydroxide in water (milk of magnesium)is used as an ant-acid.

3. Ca(OH)2 is used  in making builders mortar (mixture  of slaked lime, sand and water).

4. A mixture  of Ca(OH)2 is used in making  bleaching powder.

5. Ca(OH)2 is used  for neutralizing  acids in the soil.

6. A mixture  Ca(OH)2  and water (white wash) is used  for coating  walls  and ceiling.

7. Ca(OH)2 is used in water softening.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\I7.jpg

8. Ca(OH2) is used  in sugar refining filtered.



CHEMISTRY FORM 5-INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SELECTED COMPOUNDS OF METALS.
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