Tuesday, August 30, 2022



Tuesday, August 30, 2022




  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers


Are the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviors that enable individuals to deal effectively and efficiently with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Generally life skills are the strategies or techniques that a person must pass in order to perform his or her activities successfully.

What is life?

Life = existence + activities.

Skills – are learning abilities to carry out the activities efficiently and effectively. Skills – education, training and experience.

The core skills of life skills are;

  1. Decision making.
  2. Problem solving skills. Realize actual situation and realize the desired outcomes/ situation. Take action come out with strategies to take you to your desired destination.
  3. Critical thinking skills.
    1. DECISION MAKING SKILLS – the ability to evaluate information and advice to make informed decisions, assess the advantage and disadvantages of different options, change decisions to adopt new situations and plan for the future.
    2. CRITICAL THINKING – the ability to analyze social issues/ influences as well as cultural influences on attitudes, values, behaviors, injustice, stigma, explore and evaluation.
    3. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS – Ability for understanding how others are communicating.
    4. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS – Ability to build the positive relationships with others.
    5. EMPATHY – Ability of putting oneself in other person’s shoes, in order to understand them well.
    6. COPING WITH EMOTIONS AND STRESS – Ability to deal with threats and challenges
    7. SELF AWARENESS – Ability to identify personal strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities, clarify personal values and beliefs and recognize personal worth and personal happiness.


      • Moral – ethical principle that distinguishes what is right and what is wrong.
      • Ethics – are the fundamental moral principles and rules that guide people in performing their activities. Every institution or profession has its professional code of conduct for behavioral guidance on its members.
      • Moral value means: Things held to be right or wrong desirable or undesirable. They are acquired through teaching and inheriting from parent and the society.
      • Value – All good practices in any society.

Character – involves good habits and civil virtues which hold a community together and allow us to live together in harmony.

Moral values are the universal accepted principles that govern the day to day living of life.


-Are the rules that guide a person. A child growing up in a family is introduced to various values held by the family members. Children get to learn things from their peers or elders in not appropriate behaviors.


-Are the rules or values that are considered important by the member of the family. Most of the families will emphasize the basic values. On the other side most families have a set of values that are to the members of that family.


-Are the values held by all members of the society or community, they are formulated based on religious doctrines or political ideology. These values are maintained through the use of law, norms and rule established by that large group.


I.) Moral judgment involves on evaluation of actions with respect to norms and values established in a society.

→Moral Judgment competence; Ability to apply/ use moral orientations and principles in a consistent and differentiated manner in varying social institutions.

II.) Moral action; An action that does not involve the violation of another person’s rights

III.) Moral motivation; It involves a response/reward from our actions or behavior in our daily life.


i.) Moral values help society to maintain peace and harmony.

ii.) They help people to abandon feelings of anger against themselves. iii.) They help to promote fairness and justice in society.

iv.) They help people to understand their limitations and other people’s limitations on different matters/phenomena.

v.) They help people to overcome any threat and challenge because people will not let fear hold them back and therefore they will be able to achieve their objectives successful.

vi.) They help members of the society to promote socio-economic development.

vii.) Moral values help people in a society to advance in their personality and professional life. viii.) They help to promote unity, love and cooperation among members of the society.

ix) They help to reduce social crimes and evils in the society


  • The erosion of moral values is growing throughout the world. The world we live in is changing rapidly. Towns and cities are growing and the the lifestyles of the people who are living in them are changing too. The decay of moral values certainly does erode the strength of the society, because morals are the social strength


i.) Fall of human dignity. Actions practices devaluing humanity(humans) respect.

ii.) The growth of individualism, Involves the practice or actions of considering one’s needs/priorities before community or others needs.

iii.) Increase of number of divorces.

iv.) Violation of professional code of conduct. Eg. Corruption

v.) Increase of dropouts in schools.

  1. Arrogance ; Feeling that one is more importance than other
  2. Excessive drinking over feeling
  3. Discrimination practice of treating some one or a particular group of people less fairly than other


  1. Diffusion of ideas, beliefs and ideologies(cultural change)

-in a positive way diffusion of ideas help peoples to get new knowledge and increase people’s thinking ability or ways of thinking but on the other side other people tend to imitate immoral practices or values such as homo sexuality,fighting, improper dressing, prostitution, drug abuse etc.

Development of ICT (Technological change)

-in positive side development of ICT is very important for society’s development in its all spheres of life but on the other side many people especially the use tend to misuse the electronic devices by imitating immoral practices like drug trafficking, cyber crimes, sexual relation before marriage, improper dressing, sending to one another naked pictures, watching pornographic movies etc

Development of Urbanization

-it leads to occurrence of immoral practices/ actions due to congestion of people with different social statues and values, unemployment problems, housing problems etc then others tend to engage in immoral practices prostitution, theft, killing etc so that to run their life.

Market system

-Presence of capitalist economy characterized by free market economy and profit maximization, the producers ignore the moral values for the purpose of getting super profit for instance some produces employ children (child labor) contrary to the society’s norms and law.

Growth of democratization

-other people misuse the aspects of democracy like individual freedom, they ignore the ethical principles and rules in order to exercise their freedom, they ignore limitation on individual freedom, also people are killed when they engage in political demonstration etc.

Individual over ambitious desire

-other people purposeful engage in immoral practices in order to become rich in a short period of time.

Exposure to drugs

-other people enter in immoral practices because of the influence of drugs like cocaine, marijuana etc. The drug users are ready steel the property of other people so as to get money for buying drugs.

Decline in religious upbringing

-other religions teach their fellows to perform suicide so that to reach to a good place in heaven when they die, hence people engage in terrorist attacks etc.

Genetic influence

-others are engaging in immoral practices due to the influence of genetic, they biologically inherit the character of their elders or parents, characters like telling lies, prostitution etc

Socio-economic influence

-poverty also influences other people to engage in immoral practices such as prostitution, stealing et


-The erosion of moral values is growing throughout the world. The world we live in is changing rapidly. Towns and cities are growing and the lifestyles of the people who are living in them are changing too. The decay of moral values certainly does erode the strength of the society, because morals are the social strength.


  1. Increase of the number of crime cases

In the society as people purposeful engage in immoral practices such as robbery, kidnapping, killing, drug & human trafficking, corruption etc.

The strength of the society is being eroded

-The society lacks peace, unity and justice. Many people come to ignore the available social norms and rules. Every thinks for his or her own family as a result unity and love and cooperation come to disappear.

Violation of people’s rights

-other people come to ignore limitations to individual freedom, they interfere the rights of others just to satisfy their own desire in immoral way. This makes other people not to have access to education or health services. For instance some parents in rural areas for their daughters to get marriage while they’re still young. They stop them to attend schools so that to live with men/ husbands.

Increase of the income gap between the poor and the rich

-other people ignore the available ethical principles because of the desire accumulate a lot of wealth for their own; they do not consider the needs of others. The policies and laws are made in such a way that they favor the few And undermine majority as a result the few become more rich and majority become poor and poor. For instance, some leaders in government’s departments distribute national resources such funds unfairly in order to benefit their areas where they come from and make other areas undeveloped.

Unequal and unfair distribution of National resources

For instance, some leaders in government’s departments distribute national resources such funds unfairly in order to benefit their areas where they come from and make other areas undeveloped.

Poor performance in primary and secondary schools in internal and national examination

-many researches show that there is a close relationship between performance and rate of discipline among students. According to many academic researches, the students who have good discipline they perform better academically than students with poor discipline.

Increase of dropouts in schools

-many student are losing their opportunity or right to get education because of engaging in immoral practices or behavior such as sex before time, drug abuse, forced marriage etc

Increase of truancy in schools

-other students/ pupils become truants because of engaging in immoral practices such as attending night clubs, doing business, prostitution etc

Disappearance of justice & fairness in social, legal, political and economic institutions

-immoral practices such corruption in legal institutions make poor people to lose their rights simply because they don’t have money to corrupt officials in courts.



Cultural refers to the ideas, beliefs and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a given society. It is time relevant, changing with circumstances.

The change of the ideas and beliefs shared by people in a particular society signifies that always not static but dynamic


Cultural Change I the process of social adaption of new circumstances brought by external or internal forces like introducing new technology, new religion., new language and increasing social- economic development of productive forces within societies.

Factor influencing cultural change include the following

(i) Migration / Immigration : Migration is the movement of people from one place to another such as from rural to urban and from one country to another. A person may be affected by the ways of life the area of destination. This is because he/she must imitate certain system of his or her residents so as to cope with them. For example people from rural areas tend to be absorbed by town cultural because in town traditional cultural is normally abandoned.

  1. Communication; People communicate with others from different parts of the

world. Through communication, people imitate new cultural from different groups. This process makes cultural to change because of learning new ways of life

  1. Social, political , cultural and economic; Liberalization means removing something that brings restrictions political, economically and socially. Free market economy leads to influx of goods which may adversely affect cultural of indigenous people.
  2. Influence of socialization agents: Socialization agents include peer groups , schools, religion and mass media. These are instruments through which a person can learn and get different information about a society. Mass media such as magazine , newspaper radio, and television make us to learn new system of life which are not present in the society. For example wearing styles, shaving styles, application of decoration and cosmetics for beauty.

Advantage of cultural change

  1. It helps man to master his environment better due to acquisition of new life skills.
  2. New technology improves the welfare of the people economically, politically, socially, etc.
  3. It helps man acquire new skills , behavior, and knowledge. Hence , mastery of his social, political and economic life.
  4. Through education , society is exposed to external cultural contrast and challenge.

Disadvantage of cultural change

  1. The education and knowledge acquired from outside may conflict with tribal cultural and traditions. Hence, create passivity from the concerned tribes.
  2. Strategic customs like female short dress, tight clothes. etc. have been a sources of problems. For example , temptation to men towards offences like rape.

Technology change and Moral values

The question is whether is conflict between the technological change values and the moral values of society. Has it done more good than him? If this is taken into account the following are effects of technological change on moral values.

  1. Increase of social vices: The uses of internet , television, videos, and pornographic picture has led to increase of bad behavior such as murder, violence, robbery, prostitution, drug abuse and racial segregation.
  2. Environmental destruction: The invention of nuclear bomb has negative impact on societal values of taking care of environment since the nuclear wastes are radioactive.
  3. The invention of test tube bases technology: Test tube babies are produced bay taking an egg from a woman and placing it in a container with sperms from a man. If the egg is fertilized the resulting embryo is placed in the woman’s womb to develop normally , this reduces the dignity of humankind since it alters the natural for fertilization reproductive organs which requires sexual intercourse for fertilization to take place contrary to this it means family ties are not important
  4. Unemployment problem; The use of computer has eliminated many from employment. Lack of employment leads to acts like robbery, prostitution, etc, in the society.


  1. Environment conservation
  2. Costs of maintenance are always low
  3. Life span of the various facilities will be prolonged


Leadership ethics refers to identified values at work place such as stewardship, discipline, pursuit of excellence in service, loyalty to government, diligence, integrity, accountability to the public, respect for the law, proper, use of official information, impartiality, punctuality and trust

Thus, a leader working while complying with law is an ethical leader

These effect resulting from failure of political and government leaders to adhere to leadership ethics include the following:

  1. Corruption and abuse of public office will be high
  2. Nepotism and red-tape will be rampant
  3. People lose confidence and trust to their government and leaders
  4. Nation fails to derive political goods, protection, social security, the executive will not be able to serve the people and the parliament will not be able to do its versing role
  5. Hostility
  6. Immorality
  7. Incivility Rude behavior
  8. Discrimination . Practice of treating dome body or a particular group of people less fairly than others
  9. Aggression; Feelings of anger and hatred that may result in threatening or violent behavior
  10. Arrogance : Feeling that one is more important than other people
  11. The use of foul language


Most of the violent/ ant- social incidences that happen in our societies can be prevented or reduces in the following

  1. Law enforcement and punishment for law breakers
  2. Adherence to religious teachings.
  3. Civic education to people to have a good values system
  4. To discourage importation and uses of drugs
  5. Tackling the continuing social scourges like poverty+, hunger ,unemployment
  6. Individuals to develop a critical thinking mind



It is a system of planning maintenance which involves inspection, followed by maintenance and modification necessary to be made to so that property can be used for a long period.

Maintenance involves repairing property timely before it gets damaged completely.


Preventive care should be considered under the following

  1. Cleanliness of the surroundings
  2. The frequency of cheek- up and inspection on property
  3. Maintenance that minimizes the costs of up-keeping of buildings, furniture and fixture
  4. Regular maintenance that creates a conductive environment to user.
  5. Institutions or public places should have a timetable to ensure preventive care.
  6. Regular care and maintenance of existing buildings and facilities so as to ensure and prolong the life of buildings and equipment.


  1. Increase in costs of repair. Man – made objects like buildings, roads, railways and property like books and domestic items need to be repaired immediately when damages occurs. Otherwise they will cost much if they are neglecting.
  2. Environmental degradation; This is caused by deforestation, soil erosion, water erosion and air pollution. Land degradation caused by man should be avoided in order to conserve

our environment .

  1. Rampant destruction of private and public properties



  1. Personal skills

These skills are such as self- awareness self – steam, assertiveness, copying with emotion, decision making and negotiation to mention just a few

Self awareness

  • involves the ability of individuals to know and understand their potentialities, feeling, biases, emotions, weaknesses and strengths. People should not live as if there are no reasons to live. People should know that, they have crucial reasons to live and objectives to accomplish so as to make the world as a good place for every person to live.

Self awareness helps a person to identify his/her areas of weakness and strength before taking any decision. It helps a person to understand his/her value and the need of taking care of his/her body or health.

Self awareness helps a person to cope with any situation including emotions. It helps a person to recognize emotions and ways to overcome emotions.


Refers to the individual’s ability to express his/her emotions and needs without violating the rights of others and without being aggressive. Assertiveness is built by self esteem. It helps a person to have ability to respond confidently to any situation. It gives courage to a person to find information or facts before making any decision. It makes a person to think and work for better results. Assertiveness makes a person to value and respect other people.

Self esteem:

It is acceptance of the way we are so one becomes proud on oneself. If a person has high self esteem, he/she can not engage in any attempt of changing her/his physical structure, the color of the skin, the style of the hair etc.

Coping with emotion/ stress:

Emotions are strong feelings such as fear, love, anger, shyness and the desire to be accepted or loved. Each individual has emotions. Emotions are unpredictable and often lead to actions that are not based on reasoning. On the other side,Stress is the body’s reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can be caused by examination fever, broken relationship, family problems, unwanted pregnancies, death of a friend of family member etc. stress may result to pressure, mental disorder, heart attack etc.

Skills for coping with stress/emotions help an individual to identify or recognize stress/ emotion, understanding the causes and effects of stress/ emotion and make a right decision that take account of them. Failure to cope with stress/ emotions may lead to suicide, fighting, murder, divorce, pressure, heart attack, strokes, death etc.

Analytical skill:

Is the ability to visualize, articulate, and solve both complex and uncomplicated problems and concepts and make decisions that are sensible based on available information. Such skills include the ability to apply logical thinking, to gathering and analyzing information, designing and testing solutions to problems, and formulating plans.

Creative thinking skills:

Are the abilities that involve the generation of new ideas within or across domains of knowledge, established symbolic rules and procedures, It usually involves the behaviors of preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, elaboration, and communication.

Creative thinking skills help individuals or learners to engage in;

    • Bringing together existing ideas into new configurations;
    • Developing new properties or possibilities for something that already exists; and
    • Discovering or imagining something entirely new.

Critical thinking skills

-involve the active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or form of knowledge, the grounds that support it, and the conclusions that follow.

It involves analyzing and evaluating one’s own thinking and that of others. Critical thinking skills help people to engage in;

    • Raising vital questions and problems and formulating these clearly and precisely;
    • Gathering and assessing relevant information, and using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively;
    • Reaching well-reasoned conclusions and solutions and testing them against relevant criteria and standards;
    • Openly considering alternative systems of thought; and
    • Effectively communicating to others the analysis of and proposed solutions to complex challenges.
  1. Problem solving technique: Is the ability to identify differences between actual state and desired state of affairs and then take the right actions or decision to clear the problem. A problem can be defined as a doubtful or difficult matter requiring a solution or something hard to understand or accomplish or deal with.

Decision making skill:

Ability to evaluate information and advice to make informed decisions, assess advantages and disadvantages of different options, change decision to adapt to new situations, and plan for future.

Interpersonal skills

-are the abilities for building positive relationship with other people. Building positive relationship with other people involves the ability of people to meet and relate with others in various settings. For instance when children grow up, they develop relation with family members, adults, peers and people they meet in life, hence children need to know how to react appropriately in each relationship they develop.

We have cases where children are cheated by adults who pretend to be their friends but with bad intentions. Children end up be mishandled, raped and even murdered. Parents have the responsibility of guiding children build this skill of positive relationship with others.

Friendship formation:

Is the ability to understand how friendships are formed, how to form and develop positive friendship. A person should be able to identify and recognize good and bad friendship through studying the behavior, perception and character of persons. A person should be able to resist relationship with people who have developed behaviors like telling lies, stealing, taking alcohol, dangerous sexual behavior( prostitution, anal sex, oral sex & homosexuality) etc.


Is the ability of putting oneself in other people’s shoes with the intention of understanding them well and collecting more information about them that will enable a person to make right decisions and helping others overcome different problems and challenges in their life.

Peer resistance:

Is the ability to stand up for one’s values and beliefs conflicting ideas from friends or peers. Peers can come with unacceptable or wrong suggestions and may put pressure on one to accept the wrong suggestions. A person needs to defend his or her decision with strong and clear reasons of not accepting that ideas. If possible a person can even decide to stay apart from that group if he will be forced to accept unacceptable practice like taking illegal drugs.

Negotiation skills:

Is the ability to compromise on issues without destroying one’s principles, It helps a person to manage to state his or her own position and building mutual understanding with people without fighting or violence. It involves assertiveness, empathy and friendship formation skills.

Effective communication:

Is the ability of listening and understanding how others are communicating, as well as realizing how one can communicate in different ways, It is the ability to write, listen, express and use language properly. Effective communication gives a person access to collect information which will enable a person to improve his understanding and ability to make decision.


  1. Life skills help to solve problem such as HIV/AIDS pandemic and the related problems.
  2. Life skills lead to the development of social awareness among different people ranging from family to national level.
  3. Personal and interpersonal skills increase the ability to plan a head and choose effective solution to problems.
  4. Personal and interpersonal skills address the needs of people with varying strength and weaknesses. They help to interact with other people appropriately.
  5. Personal and interpersonal skills enhance working with a community holistically and with maximum cooperation.
  6. Personal and interpersonal skills are an integral part in preventing persisting problems such as drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies and suicide
  7. Through these lif skills people learn to cooperate manner, bargain collectively, struggle with peer pressure and solve problem.
  8. Personal and interpersonal skills empower the younger generation and assist them in facing the challenging situation in their lives


The ability of an individual or community to depend on one’s own ability and efforts and not depending on another for one’s survival or

Self reliance is the ability, commitment and effort to provide the necessities of a life for self reliance and family. A self reliant person must neither rely on others assistance nor on government assistance, because nobody cares more about helping you or your family or times of difficulties than yourself

Example; you were recently laid off from your job and you need to look for another job if you don’t secure it you cannot feed yourself or your family or pay installments for your home. In

such cases you don’t sit down and wait for the job to come to you. You go out and look for it. You do anything you can do in order to survive.

Entrepreneurship is the process of organizing, managing or assuming the risk of business for the sake of profit. The essence of entrepreneurship is the freedom to do what you want or like in order to make profit.

Entrepreneurship is an act of being entrepreneur.

Who is an entrepreneur?

An entrepreneur is the one who bring resources, labor and other assets into combinations that make their value greater than before.

Today, many young people express their motivations for becoming entrepreneurs in terms of satisfaction that entrepreneurship gives them as well as the sense of being in control of their own destinies

Examples of Entrepreneurs

-Nimrodi Mkono ─ Mkono company and advocates

-Reginald Mengi─ Ipp media(capital TV, ITV)

-Anthony Dialo─ Sahara communications(kiss FM, RFA)

-Yudkas Mremi─ Dar express company

-Billgates─ Microsoft cooperation

Generally both self reliant person and entrepreneurs take some initiations for personal and communication development


i.) Vision with judgment – ability to see opportunities plan for future and make sensible decision ii.) Risk taking/ taking calculated risk

iii.) Optimism – having hope that positive outcomes will be realized

iv.) Endurance – ability to continue performing activity for a long time without complaining v.) Courage – ability to face threats, challenges or new situations without fear

vi.) Uniqueness – ability to perform activities in a different way vii.) Effective communication

viii.) Determination – the ability that makes a person to continue performing activity in a difficult situation

ix.) Power of creating cooperation


i.) Where and how they are applied

ii.) How they affect the structure organization and success of small enterprises iii.) How nations further an entrepreneurship climate


i.) Through creativity risk taking and opportunity undertaking ii.) Through showing open ended opportunity and challenges iii.) Through making profit

iv.) Using the learned skills to make right skills v.) Becoming bosses of their own destiny

vi.) Applying supervision skill for their undertaking

*Entrepreneur can change their strategies so as to maximize profit, can work more hours and change even locality BUT a businessman always does the same thing regardless on profit or loss


i.) Lack of self reliance and entrepreneurship education ii.) Lack of appropriate identification system

iii.) Lack of initiatives to face risk in business due to the fear of getting loss

iv.) Strict or hard conditions put by loan giving institutions – Many youth/entrepreneurs lack security(collateral)

v.) The nature of innovative skills. Some are new business so it becomes more difficult to plan and understand it compared to a well established business

vi.) The reluctance of people to accept changes from ways of acting even if better alternative is available

vii.) Presence of bureaucracy in registration. Some of the projects need to be registered but it can take many months before securing registration or certificate of registration

viii.) Presence of bureaucracy in the process of requesting loans


i.) Provision of education and training to the youths and entrepreneurs

ii.) Government should introduce national identification system. This might be seen as an experience exercise, but extremely important in order to enable Tanzania’s to benefit not only from borrowing but also from other public services which they deserve

iii.) SME/Entrepreneurs should deliberately build their credibility with banks even when they do not need to borrow

iv.) Banks should use a more active approach dealing with SMEs/ entrepreneurs instead of waiting for SMEs to visit banks. They should go out identify potential clients and convince them to work with the banks.

v.) To improve/modify the school curricular as to accommodate self reliance and entrepreneurship.

vi.) Government should introduce entrepreneurial programs in vocational and technical school

vii.) Government should establish a regulatory framework which does not favor borrowers in order to give financial institutions the confidence they need to lend

viii.) Government should simplify tax system and introduce tax incentives to entrepreneurs or SME’s

ix.) Government should direct the financial institutions to avail financial capital to entrepreneurs with soft loan or less restrict conditions


  • Creates employment opportunity
  • Adds to government revenue
  • Assists in provision of social services
  • Poverty reduction
  • Individual and national development
  • Decrease the rate of crimes
  • Increase of goods and services production
  • They promote development of science and technology i.e use of ICT
  • Help the government of Tanzania to realize vision 2025, MDG 2015

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