Tuesday, August 23, 2022

GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM
Tuesday, August 23, 2022

GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

UNAWEZA JIPATIA NOTES ZETU KWA KUCHANGIA KIASI KIDOGO KABISA:PIGA SIMU:0787237719




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GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

Tourism can be regarded as the movement of people away from home to other places of interests for leisure, or pressure or studies etc. It involves visiting places of interest like wildlife conservation areas, historical sites, museums, beaches etc .

Scope of Tourism

Tourism can be regarded as socio cultural and economic activity.

1.   As social cultural enterprise: Tourism involves traveling for the purpose of resting and relaxation, pressure, curiosity or study tour. A person can travel far to the other place in order to study other cultural aspects which are different from his or her own country. Some people travel so as to view spectacular features like mountains, lakes, and wide variety of animals for pressure. Some travel far for adventures exercise like mountain climbing on the Mount Kilimanjaro. It also provides employment opportunities to the local people in the country.

2.     As an economic enterprise: Tourism leads to the earnings of foreign currency through the visitors who come. It also involves the expansion of the market for the local products. Some tourists travels far with their goods and some travel to look for the market areas for their goods.

The money obtained from the tourist industry can be invested in other economic projects for the development of the country concerned. For example tourism in Switzerland has boosted a lot of the economy of the country and it has contributed to the large scale industrial development of the country.

Hence tourism is an industry or enterprise which can be used to promote culture, widen the market for local goods, expanding education and creating employment as well as generating capital to be invested in other economic sectors whose performance has been dwindling.

Types of tourism;

1.Domestic tourism which involves people traveling to places within the country for example from Dar es salaam to Mikumi or from Tabora to Serengeti National Park.

2.International tourism which involves people moving from home countries to other countries for leisure or studies.

Factors that Encourages the development of Tourism in the country

I. Physical factors:

1.      Pleasant climatic conditions especially sunny conditions attract tourists from colder countries during winter.

2.      Attractive landscape (scenery) due to physical features like mountains, crates, lakes, coastal beaches, canyons and deserts

           II. Social – cultural factors:

3.      Presence of historical and architectural sites for example cities, churches, mosques, temples, palaces and pyramids.

4.      Presence of recreational resorts, swimming places etc.

5.      Good social services like shopping centers, medication, good food, water supply, and well trained staff etc.

6.      Presence of natural parks like Serengeti, Yellowstone, Yosemite etc

7.      Local skills like the Makonde carvings in Tanzania as well as the dressing style and traditional dances among the Maasai and the Sukuma.

    III. Economic Factors:

8.   Availability of capital to be invested in the tourist industry.

9.  Advancement in transport and communication e.g air transport, road, railway, and water as well as internet services. These facilitate accessibility of different places of interest in the community.

    IV. Political Factors

10.Peace in the country encourages the development in the country since the tourists like visiting the country where there is peace like Tanzania in East Africa. They normally avoid the areas with political problems like civil wars.

11.Also the government policy can encourage the development of the tourist industry by financing or giving favorable conditions, which are not restrictive.

Importance of Tourism

1.      It provides employment to the people in hotels, guiding section, game parks and traveling agents.

2.      It provides foreign currency to the country, which is being visited.

3.      It can facilitate rapid improvement in technology related to the tourist industry.

4.      It provides opportunity for recreation or enjoyment.

5.      It leads to the introduction of new culture.

6.      Strengthening the international relationship.

7.    It enables the marginal land to be used for economic development rather than staying idle. For example national parks occupy the areas which were unproductive.

8.  It promotes international respectability of a country. For instance today Switzerland is well known for flourishing tourist industry and it is known as “playground of Europe”



Why tourism has increased nowadays?

1.    People  have accumulated greater wealth and are of  higher standard of living such that they can afford traveling (Greater affluence in the societies).

2.      There has been a great need for studying other cultures in other  countries.

3.      The  start of long holidays with pay.

4.     Development  of better transport  facile is particularly in air words, it can be said that accessibility and mobility have improved including the increase in car ownership and affordable charter air flights at overseas.

5.      Cheaper transport services especially air transport.

6.      The  development of attractive national parks in different parts of the world.

7.      Increasing number of active people.

8.      Greater awareness of locations facilities and opportunities through education advertising and the media.

Trend of Tourism at a Global Level

The world tourism by an estimated 7.4 per cent in 2000 its highest growth rate in nearly a decade and almost double the increase of 1999 but Africa was left out the  boom, increasing its international  arrivals  by just 1.5 per cent the world Tourism Organization (WTO) said  units  preliminary estimate of global travel. While Kenya, Zambia, Mauritius, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria achieved strong growth. South Africa and Zimbabwe tow of the Africa biggest destination stagnated or suffered the WTO said. International tourist arrival in South Africa grew just by 1 per cent in 2000 to over six million tourists. The worst performance was Zimbabwe which saw a 60 per cent decline of tourist arrivals to just 840,000 visitors. The decline in South Africa has been due to the contribution of the reports of crimes against visitor and floods in Mozambique and in Zimbabwe has been due to the recent land conflict against the foreign farmers it the country.

German tourists continued to be the world second top travelers after the Americans and an estimated 48.4 million people (around 754 per cent of population) went on a holiday in 2000 and their spending rose to DM 96.0 billion. Spain retained her positing as the most favorite holiday destination abroad, followed by Italy, Australia, France, turkey and Greece.

Major problems which are currently scampering the smooth development of tourism in the world include:

1.   The world looming terrorism associated with bombardment of economically strategic centers like the world Trade Center in the USA that took place on 11th September in 2001. Terrorism has scared many international tourists leading to the desolation of tourism development in the world. Many people fear traveling with aeroplanes lest they encounter the problems of hijacking like what happened in the USA. Visa  procurement  procedures are also associated with a lot of restriction as a result of terrorism

2.    The ongoing crimes  against the visitors in different corners of the world have contributed to the decline in tourism in some countries.

3.      Environment problems or hazards like floods in Mozambique and stormy winds contribute to the dwindling trend of tourism in the world. In other places like Turkey, Indian Japan and California there are problem of earthquakes since there are located along the  zones of convergence.

4.     The current political conflicts in different countries coupled in what wars like it eh Democratic Republic of Congo, Middle east  ( Palestine and Israel) etc are a hitch or snag to tourist development.

5.     Poor transport and communication network in the third world countries is another hurdle in the tourist development. There are poor roads in many countries such that visitors do not get greater  chance of having a glimpse (view) of different attractive aspects in the interior of the countries like the southern circuit of Tanzania.

Negative Effects of Tourism

1.    Tourism leads to environment degradation like deforestation an erosion; pollution like water pollution  and  air pollution.

2.      It leads to the spread of diseases like AIDS etc.

3.    Tourism needs high capital and hence if there is low capital it cannot develop easily. This discourages the development  of other economic sectors.

4.      Tourism can accelerate terrorism in the tourist country. The  terrorist  can come  to the country as normal visitors

5.      It can also lead to the deterioration (destruction) of culture in the countries which are visited.

6.      It leads to the occurrence of conflicts in the country due to cultural destruction.

 Solution to the Problems;

1.    The visitors should be taught the culture of  the natives in the country where they are visiting so that they cannot interfere with the people cultural sects like dressing etc.

2.      Reducing  the number of visitors who visit the  country so as to conserve the environment.

3.      New areas should be opened up to reduce congestion in the existing tourist centers.

4.      The government  and international organization should be active enough in supporting  and governing the tourist activities in the  country concerned.

5.      There should be involvement  of the local community  in order  that the local people can benefit and  help I conserving the tourist centers (tourist attraction) like wildlife conservation  areas etc.

6.      There should be integration of tourist activities with the promotion of the environmental condition through the eco –tourism approach.

 ECO-TOURISM (GREEN TOURISM);

It is the terminology which demoted ecological (Eco) aspects combined with tourism activities. Eco-tourism or green tourism can be defined as an integrated approach that involved carrying out tourist activities with minimum negative impacts of the natural environment. This means that when tourist activities take place should involve the promotion of environmental conservation.

In Principal

1.      Eco-tourism is based on undisturbed natural environments and encourages undertaking of these activities in a non damaging manner.

2.      Eco-tourism enhances the conservation attitude among  the people.

3.    Eco-tourism should strive to improve local communities economically and socially, at the same time conserving the natural environment. It means that it should be geared towards poverty alleviation in the local communities.

4.   I should promote positive interaction between the tourist themselves the local community because the benefits of the conservation areas are for all people.

5.      It should promote awareness among the local people through education so that they can be able to know the importune and  strategies of conserving the natural environment for tourist activities.

6.      Eco-tourism should also emphasize the proper planning and monitoring of the tourist activities and conservation  aspects.

Hence Eco-tourism is a wider concept, which involves several insures like traveling business, economics, attitude and behaviors environmental  its management and other resources as well as other human activates.

Importance of Eco-tourism to the Local community;

1.    It leads to the empowerment of the local community since they themselves design, organize the control  activities on the conservation areas. Hence local people participation in the conservation of nature is promoted When people participate they get motivated an become more willing to take part in the conservation process.

2.      It promotes the living standard and respectability of the people. The living standards are promoted through income generation as some people are employed and wages from the conservation areas.

3.      The cultural aspect and the environment of the local community are preserved.

4.    The relationship between the local community, the visitors and the conservation is promoted and hence the community lives in peace.

5.   It helps In the control of diseases like AIDS  since  the participation of the local community leads to the strikes control of human behavior in the tourist area.

6.     Eco-tourism promotes environmental awareness among the local people. Through this people can know the potentials of their environment.

7.    The local community gets new technology through the visitors who came to  their conservation areas,  Same  special training centers on  where people can benefit through getting education and experience.

8.      It also helps in the reaction of water pollution as a result of the watershed management.

9.      The market for locally produced goods like the Makonde carving of Tanzania can be improved.

10. It stimulates the development of transport and communication system in the local community. In general eco tourism in Tanzania can help in fighting against poverty (poverty alleviation).

CASE STUDIES

TOURISM IN KENYA

Factor for fast development of tourism in Kenya

1.      It  is magnificently  endowed with a lot of fauna and  flora which are one of attractions in the country.

2.      It also has very attractive scenery, climate and beaches. There  are mountains like Mount Kenya and lakes, which attract the visitor.

3.      The  nearness to the coast has also facilitate easy movement of  visitors to the country.

4.      Kenya tourist industry in managed more efficiently than any other  east Africa country.

5.      There  is  strong government  support  on  tourism.

6.      Relative political stability that has  been prevailing in the country.

7.   Kenya has advertised its industries so widely in the world. There are promotion centers in England, Zambia Switzerland Germany  and USA

8.      Industrial  base and agricultural prosperity like tea plantation have encouraged the  development of tourism in Kenya

9.      The knowledge  of English speaking countries to come to the country since they can easily understand each other

10.  Development of transport  system like road and airways

Attractions (Honey pots) in Kenya

1.      There are several national parks like Tsavo, Meru , Nairobi Amboseli, Mountain Kenya Mount Elgon,  Lake Nakuru, Marine national parks (Malindi, Watamu and Kisite/Mpunguti) Historical and archeological national parks, sibiloi oldonyo sabuk and saiwa national Park.

2.      There are game reserves like shimba hills Maasai Mara, Marsabit, Buffalo spring etc



These are having a wide variety of animal, plant and birds, which attract visitors into the country

1.      Coastal attractions include fishing grounds, beaches, hotels, swimming areas, cliffs, caves, spits, bars etc.

2.      Attractive scenery made of Great Rift valley, Mount Kenya  lakes and rivers, etc.

3.     Development  schemes like Galole and Mwea- tebere irrigation schemes, large scale tea  plantations in Kericho and other areas

4.      Antiquities and historical  sites like the fort Jesus in Mombasa Gedi Ruins in Malindi and other  found at Kilaguni and voi

GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM


TOURISM IN TANZANIA

Tanzania with its unique features, is one of the famous countries in the world of tourism. Its tourist industry has a bright future because of the following reasons;

  • The government has shown a greater interest in promoting this industry for example the ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism has been so much active in promoting this economic sector. The departments into chemistry have their own policies.
  • There are promotion offices in different countries for advertising tourism in Tanzania. For example promotion offices are in Germany (Frankfurt), Sweden (Stockholm), North America, New York and England (London). There has been promotions campaigns going like the one launched at the  36th ) International Tourism exchange (ITB) in Berlin, March 2001 to make other nations know that Tanzania is among the attractive destination in the world.
  • It  created the tourist industry new promotion logo that is Tanzania  the land of Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar and about 50 tour operators, hoteliers, lodge keepers and the tourist Board presented the nation as an ideal holiday destination offering wide range of  possibilities for the discerning  visitors from abroad. A main thrust of the campaign was to attract more up market tourist by offering a wide variety of visual options. They promoted various soft adventure programmers such as white water rafting, trekking and canoeing as well as different opportunities for sport. Various possibilities for cultural tourism in Zanzibar and on the mainland, conference tourism and incentive travel were among the new offers presented at the five die ITB which concluded on March 7, 2001.

Then Tanzania’s minister for Natural Resources and tourism Mrs. Zakia Hamdani Menghji said “even though beach tourism and safari will continue to be  the backbone of Tanzania tourism industry, we are trying to develop more niche products and special interest in tourism”. “This is part of Tanzania’s ongoing efforts to develop an economy friendly and environmentally sustainable development of tourism which will preserve the country tourism resources and enhance the well being of the host population”.

1.There is a wide variety of tourist attraction (honey pots) this ranges from game reserves, national parks, coastal beaches historical sites coral reefs cultural aspects like language and dressings and the carving, spectacular features like the Kilimanjaro mountain lake Tanganyika.

2.     New areas are being established into the southern circuit lake region and coastal areas as well as in the islands of mafia and Zanzibar.

3.    The east African cooperation will act as a dynamo in the promotion of tourism like many other east African countries. The cooperation will intensify security measure will enhance  visitors mobility in the region and advertisement of tourism sector visa procurement procedures will be implied.

4.     The government stability that has made the country maintain some degree of peace will continue attracting the visitors into the country with conflicts like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, Tanzania is struggling to maintain security so as it can become a safer destination.

5.      It is trying to use information Technology in the tourist industry so that the activities should keep on running more effectively and monitoring the tourist activities in the country.

6.      Local people are being involved and this will promote the status of tourism. Since there will be more participation and peace in the conservation areas. For  example there  are various community Based wildlife conservation projects, which have been started in  different  parts of Tanzania like the Serengeti Regional  conservation strategy (SRCS) and the Amani Nature Reserve (ANR) in Tanga  that was established in 1997.

7.   Apart from attracting more tourists especially from Germany, the country is seeking more German investment in further developing of tourism infrastructure. Germany has been supporting management and conservation of some other national parks within the frame work of German Development and investment company (DEG) is actively involved in Tanzania hotel and tourism sector and help to build up several hotels, lodges and tourist facilities.

Hence, the number of tourists has been increasing year after for example in 1997 tourists visiting Tanzania increased from 326,188 in 1996 to 360,000. This earned more than USD 393.4 million. Also in 1999 the number of visitors increased to 627,325 earning 733.2 million USD. The increase was a result of efforts made by the government and private tour operators to advertise Tanzania tourist potentials in the recent past. (Source BOT journal 1997).

Tourist Attractions (Honey posts) in Tanzania;

1.  Attractive landscape characterized by the presence of mountains like Kilimanjaro which is snow capped, active volcanic mountain oldonyo lengai (the mountain of god where visitor struggle to the steep slopes of the mountain) large lakes like Tanganyika and Victoria the remarkable Rift valley and the Indian Ocean with its attractive beaches. Lake Tanganyika is the deepest rift valley lake in Africa and the longest natural fresh water in the world.

2.  The presence of two of the world largest game sanctuaries, the Serengeti & Ngorongoro ecosystem and the sellouts game reserve. The former supports the greatest concentration of wildlife of earth.  The shared plains support about one million wild beasts about 260,000 zebras and thousands of gazelles.

3.     Large attractive network of National parks and game reserves covering about 25% of the land area. There are National parks like Serengeti lake Manyara, Tarangire, Arusha, Kilimanjaro Mikumi, Ruaha, Katavi, Gombe, Mahale, Rubondo Island, udzungwa and saadani. Also there are game reserves eleven of which are selous, rungwe, Kizigo, Moyowosi / kigosi, Maswa, Ibanda, Biharamulo/ Bugiri, Gurumeti/ Ikorongo, Usangu, Pande close to Dar es Salaam ugalla, and Mkomazi.

4.      There are pre historic sites like olduvai (oldupai) George in the Serengeti Plain where visitors get important information of the past. This is a river canyon cut 100 meters deep through the volcanic soils of the Serengeti plains. There is a museum at the Olduvai Gorge where visitors get different information of the past.

5.    Archeological sites like Isimila, which is 21 km south of Iringa and 800m off the Iringa – Mbeya highway. At isimila there were discovered faunal remains, stone tools like knives, flake scrapers etc. But this site is not so attractive to tourists because it has not been promoted into an attractive destination. Hence the government has to make sure that the site is promoted.

6.      Shifting sand across the Ngorongoro plains is another tourism attraction.  The sand  shifts  at 17 meters per year.

7.      There are coastal attractions like Mangrove plants, fishing,  grounds coral  reefs, beaches, hotels, islands like mafia island and water for  swimming.

8.      Conducive climate into the mountains (cool) warm coastal climate good for swimming etc.

9.      The  national language Kiswahili and the  visitors and the local people.

10. Tanzanian attractive traditional rafts like Makonde wood carvings, the paintings at kondoa irangi and the cultural aspect like the Maasai dressing are magnets to tourists.

11.Improved accommodation in the hotels and restaurants as well as lodges.

12.Peaceful political atmosphere in the country  attract tourists.

13.Improvement  in Transport and communication like air, road and water transports.

ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

NATIONAL RESERVES AND GAME RESERVES IN TANZANIA

Tourist Zone in Tanzania can be categorized into the frequently visited and the less frequentlyvisited areas.



The most frequently visited areas include:

1.    The Northern Circuit which includes Serengeti with its lodges like Seronera and Lobo, Ngorongoro conservation area with the Ngorongoro wildlife lodge situated to the rim of the crater, Lake Manyara the Arusha or Momela National park. The  northern circuit is served by the Kilimanjaro international Airport (KIA) at  Sanya juu between Moshi and Arusha.

2.     The southern to eastern circuit which include coastal beaches with white sands, worm water, kunduchi beach, white sands and Bahari beach hotels. There are ancient towns mosques and the palaces of the coast especially Zanzibar. The Mikumi national Park fishing this circuit is served by the Dar es salaam international and Morogoro, Iringa  road like Ally Hassani Mwinyi road to Bagamoyo and Morogoro  – Iringa road.

3.   Other areas visited in the western zone include Lake Rukwa, Tanganyika, katavi, National Park, Gombe etc and in the lake zone include the Lake Victoria, Rubondo national park etc.

Advantages of Tourism in Tanzania and Kenya;

1.      It has led to the creation of employment opportunities. It has led to the creation of employment  opportunities

2.      It has contributed to the generation of the government revenue. For example in 1997 Tanzania earned more than USD 393.4 million from 36000 tourists and in 1999 it earned 733.2 million USD from 627, 325 visitors.

3.      It has promoted the living standard of the local people in the respective countries.

4.      It has facilitated the fast development  of science and technology as a result of the influence of the visitors who came to  East Africa.

5.      There has been promotion in the standard of hotels and lodges in the tourist centers.

6.      The  countries  have become well known worldwide  through the  visitors who come  and leave the country with information back home.

7.      The  market for the locally produced goods has been promoted.

8.      Tourism has  encourage positive  attitude towards environmental  conservation since people have realized the potential values of the natural environment.

9.      It has strengthened international relation with many other countries like Germany, France, Sweden, Finland, Canada, Japan, Norway Britain etc.

 THE WILDLIFE POLICY OF TANZANIA

The  Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism in its vision of the wildlife sector clearly stated as to involve all stake holders in wildlife conservation and sustainable utilization as well as in fair and equitable sharing of benefits among the challenges the sectors has to address are;

1.   To promote involvement of local communities participation in wildlife conservation in and outside protected areas network.

2.   To  integrate wildlife conservation with rural development. There are moves to create wildlife management Areas (WMAS) to be managed by rural communities. This has two objectives, which are;

  •   To promote conservation of wildlife and its habitats outside the areas (National parks, Game reserves and Ngorongoro conservation area) by establishing wildlife management  areas.
  •  To transfer the management of wildlife management areas and ensure that they get tangible benefits.

(a)  The  policy also outlines  strategies for integrating wildlife conservation and rural development especially sharing benefit.

The Policy for National Parks in Tanzania

1.      The policy states  the purpose of the National parks in Tanzania as to ensure optimum levels of revenue and benefits accrue to the  national economy, the parks, and communities without impairing park resources the issues pointed out in the policy pertaining to local communities are;

(a)  To facilitate coordination and shared  benefits with local communities.

(b)  To provide material, services, and facilities for public information and education needed by target groups, among them are selected groups from local communities.

 

2.      The policy also specifies that law enforcement staff should cooperate with local communities around the national parks and the public in general to win confidence and support the people in the fight against illegal activities within and without the park boundaries that may have impact on the park resources.

3.      Smoking: No one should smoke while on the game drive and  camp, the cigarettes should be disposed carefully to avoid wild that can damage animals and vegetation

4.    Feeding: Never feed animals at your hotel or in the wild. It can upset their diet and lead to unnecessary dependence on people.

5.    Liter one should take  the litter with him/her as animals can become ill or even die should they digest it.

6.    Hunting: No one is allowed to hunt in the national park without special permission to do so.

7.   People movements: All people should in their vehicle within 200 meters from any game animal. It is prohibited to get out of the car in the national parks except in the designated places.

8.     Camping  is permitted only at sites or authorized  by the conservator or staff.

9.      Maintaining Biodiversity: No one should pick out or destroy vegetation or remove any object of biological interest, including eggs, feathers, bones and trophies.

10.Fire control: No one should light or cause fire to be lit. After  camping be sure to extinguish you fire carefully

11.All visitors entering the national park must be accompanied by a licensed guide or an official guide



Limitations of Tourist Development in East Africa;

1.      Low capital availability especially Tanzania whose economy is very low.

2.      Problems of transport and communication which is still not well developed  in some areas where the roads are impassable in the wet season.

3.      Tourism is a seasonal activity in East Africa unlike Switzerland where it takes place all the year round.

4.      Population encroachment on the existing tourist potentials like national parks, game reserves and sanctuaries. This has been due to high population growth rates on the margins of these gazette areas.

5.      Low managerial or poor managerial skill cause problem in the general management of that tourist center.

6.    There is a problem of political instabilities especially in Uganda as well as terrorism that involved the bombing of American Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998. This scared American tourists from visiting east Africa. The wars accelerate the breakdown of the established infrastructure and discourage investment in the tourist industries.

7.      There has been low advertisement  because of low capital, poor  communication system  as  a result of low technology etc.

8.      Poor quality of services as compared to other country has been discouraging tourism.

9.      Poorly organized hunting in the game reserves affected tourism .

The Loliondo Care in Tanzania;

Loliondo is a good example of the Game Controlled Area where hunting has been taking place. This has been giving the hunting rights to some hunting companies.  In 1992, the Ngorongoro District council on behalf of six villages (ololosokwan, soitsambu, oloiperi, olorien/ magauduru, loosoito and Arash) signed with a hunting company In which the latter was given exclusive hunting rights in the loliondo game controlled areas. The local people have not been benefiting greatly from the hunting process in the area and this has led to the upsurge of a lot of complaints.

The  number  of animals has  decreased because of hunting making the area less attractive to tourists, It  is alleged that the villagers were even not informed or the terms of the contract such  that they cannot effectively and efficiently participate In the conservation if the area.  They still depend on the goodwill of the company for their development but the goodwill seems not to becoming forth since the new contract was signed into year 2000. Hence there is need for the hunting to be stopped in Loliondo & other Game controlled areas in order to conserve the animals and attract tourists who can bring in same foreign currency that can be benefit the local people especially the Masai.

What has to be done so as to improve tourism in East Africa?

1.      To re – equip or rehabilitate the existing lodges, and hotels so that they can be of  good standard.

2.      There should be more efforts in advertising the tourist industry of East Africa.

3.   There should be comprehensive training given to these who engage themselves in the tourist industry. For example the government  should  train game wardens who will be in position to defend the national parks and game reserves against the danger of poaching.

4.     More new areas should be opened like coastal areas and lakes already Tanzania has started developing the coastal areas and lakes to open up new areas under the ministry of tourism and natural resources. The efforts are also focusing on opening up the southern areas, the coastal areas and the interior of Tanzania.

5.     Massive campaigns  should be launched to local people so that they  can learn how to appreciate the importance of the gazette areas and even participate in the  conservation processes.

6.   The central government should encourage the development of private tour operators so as to assist in the promotion of the industry. They can be given loans to invest in transport at the minimal interest.

7.    There should be control of population so as to avoid people  encroachment into the conservation area.

8.    Anti poaching unit should be  established in East Africa so as to protect the animals.

9.    Peace and harmony has to be maintained in the east African countries and this scan be facilitate through close cooperation fetch east African countries.

The prospects of Tourism in East Africa

The future of tourism in East Africa is promising this is based on the following reasons;

1.  The revival of the African Community will promote the tourism industry in therein. There are efforts wages towards intensifying security, improving transport and communication etc in east Africa.

2.    Same news areas are being opened up especially in the interior and along the coast as well on the islands. These will attract more tourists.

3.      There are efforts done in re-equipping the rehabilitation of the existing lodges for example Mwea in Ruwenzori National park and Para in Kabalega National park, and building of  new hotels like the  Holiday inn and the  royal palm in Dar es salaam improvement of the old hotels and building of new ones will lead to the improvement of accommodation in these countries and attract more  visitors.

4.      These have been  launched  strong  campaigns to advertise tourism in  East Africa and as well as outside the region.

5.     The presence of many attract features in East Africa both natural and man made there are spectacular mountains, which are ice capped like the Kilimanjaro and the Kenya Mountains presence of beaches and the wildlife conservation areas with a variety of animals etc

6.     The east Africa  climate is attractive to the  outsiders especially those who came from cold countries in the temperate regions when the winters are severe in Europe or north America the people from those places decide to visited east Africa due to its warm climate.

7.The east Africa countries have  realized  that tourism is another economic sector that helps in solving the problem of unemployment  hence the government  are  strongly struggling to promote this sectors.

8.   There different programmers for environmental conservation which will also keep the region very attractive and healthy so that more and more visitors will be attracted.

9.      There has been development in transport and communication east Africa. For example there are airports, telecommunication services and of recent there has been fast development in the   use of cellular phones. This will also encourage tourism to a greater extent as a result of effective and efficient information flow

10.There is stronger involvement of the local people and the private sector. This will lead to the faster tourist development than the way it could be run by the government only.

Nonetheless, the achievement in the positive development  of tourism in east Africa will depend on fast development of transport and communication network, maintenance of peace, strong cooperation, improvement in accommodation, improvement  In Technology through training, environment  conservation and the continued vehement advertisement by the east African countries.

TOURISM IN NAMIBIA

Introduction

Namibia is a newly independent country but the tourist sectors have grown very fast within a short time. Incidentally, tourism is the third large contributor to the Gross Domestic Product after mining and agriculture. The number of visitors to Namibia has been increased year after year. For example in 1993 over 368,000 visitors came to Namibia 560,000 in 1996, 615,000 in 1997 and over 800,000 are projected for the year 2002. The overall growth of the tourism sector is target at 10 12 percent per year.

Factors that have contributed to the tourist Growth in Namibia;

1.  Strong policy on promoting tourist industry. The policy focuses on bringing a definite change by promoting culture based tourism. The policy emphasizes the adoption of eco tourism approach. The draft plan on tourism. Which was adopted in 1994, has made a lot of changes. The plant gives room for the private sector and the local community to participate In the tourism development.  The draft plant has established an action plan, which is aimed at enhancing the changes.

2.      Well – developed  infrastructure has facilitated easy accessibility different places in Namibia.

3.      Advertisement that has been done by the government and the private sector. There are promotion offices Johannesburg. Cape Town, German, Spain New Yuck, United Kingdom and other offices were planned to be opened in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam.

4.      There are  attractions which included:

(a)  Climate  endowed  with beautiful sunshine.

(b)  Abundant wildlife in the game reserves. Like the etosha and Mamili national parks, caprivi, daan and viljoen game parks.

(c)  The presence  of attractive grand canyon like the fish river  canyon with hot spring resort at Ai – Ais

(d)  The Namibia Desert landscape. It  also offers a high possibility for stargazing  for the astronomers.

(e)  There are beautiful rivers.

(f)  Diverse cultural attractions like the tradition crafts which include wood carving from the kavango and caprivi   owambo and Himba baskets as well as Bushman egg shell jeweler embroidery work, carpets woven from karakul wool beading, metal forging and a presence of many cultural groups with their respective traditional dances and music.

(g)  Variation in the geological and geomorphologic structures has been another attraction to be visitors in Namibia. The Dam viljoen Game Park has a gravel surface and rolling hills which facilitate accessibility and provide the ideal condition for game viewing especially at sunset.

(h)  There are sand dunes of spectacular nature in the desert these  also attract visitor.

(i)   The capital town of windsock is another attraction. This  is a business hub and has an international  conference venue.

 

5.     The influence of SADS in the promotion of tourism among the member’s countries. In attaining this goal it has created the Regional Tourism organization  of the southern countries  (RETOSA).

6.     The  establishment  of  Namibia  stock exchange  (NSX) that has attracted foreign investors has been another contributing  factor in the tourist development.

7.   The   hard work made  by both the public sector and private sector the private sector  has invested substantially in the development  of infrastructure.

8.      The  influence  of the  of  other  activities  has facilitation  the development  of tourism  in Namibia.

9.      The aim from European countries has also enhanced the tourist development process into the country.

10.  Namibia has a favorable investment potential created by Namibia free market economy and the government commitment to promoting free enterprise.



Importance of Tourism in Namibia;

1.      It  has stimulated the further  development  of infrastructure.

2.      It has  contributed  to the employment  creation  in the country.

3.      It has also contributed to Gross Domestic Product. It is the third contributor to GDP after mining and  agriculture.

4.      Social services have improved in the Country especially with the introduction of the community based tourism.

5.    It has promoted the move towards environmental conservation in the country with the aim of maintaining  the country beauty.

6.      It has helped in the preservation  and  boosting of the country  cultural values and norms.

7.      Tourism has earned Namibia an international repute.

8.      It has led to the promotion of the people life in general.

Problems Facing the Development of Tourism in Namibia

1.      Namibia is not yet well marketed since has just attained its independence. It got its   independence on 21st March, 1990 and the  head of state being president Sam Daniel shafiishuna Nujoma.

2.      At the beginning  more focus was put on mining agriculture and fishing than tourism.

3.      The costs of maintaining the quality of tourism are high.

4.      It is facing stiff challenge or competition from outside, Hence it has a long way to go.

5.      Lack of service culture and inability to gauge the strength of the  market.

6.      There has been slow implementation of the tourist policy since 1994.

7.      The country is young  hence its economy is still young. It  has not  let to the generation of enough capital to be  invested in high quality tourist enterprise.

8.  Economic crisis took place in the Far East and Europe in 1994 had negative effects on the tourist development. This I s because other sector that could generate capital like mining were  affected.

The efforts being done to Promote Tourism to Higher standards

1.    Maintaining peace in the country.

2.   Decentralization of the tourist operation in order to encourage more private investors and the local people to participate in the tourist development. It has formed the tourist board to deal with tourist affairs. The government has decided to reduce its involvement and remain just as policy makers.

3.  Educating the local people  so that they can get involved productively in the environmental conservation.

4.  It has formulated the legislation on waste management and  pollution control so as to promote the quality of the environmental which tourism will take place.

5.There are plans  to provide readily available labor, inexpensive electricity easily accessible markets in the  neighboring countries and well developed  and expanding road network.

6.  There are  plans to provide  readily  available labor, inexpensive electricity, easily accessible markets in the neighboring country and well developed  and expanding road network.

7.The future of tourism industry in Namibia depends on political stability and relative peace and tranquility in the country. Also the preservation of all natural attractions especially the skeleton coast is utmost important.

Tourist Resorts in Namibia

1.    Cape  cross seal Reserve, Is known  of  23 colonies of cape fur seals which breed along the coast of South Africa and Namibia.

2.     Caprivi Game Park, which is wedged between Angola and Botswana. It extends from the Okavango River in the west to the Kwando river in the east.

3.      Doan viljoen Park, which is a weekend retreat for wind hookers as well as relaxing stopover for tourism.

4.      Etosha National Park which is a shallow depression having various games.

5.      Etosha  National Park  which  is a shallow depression having various games.

6.      Fish River  canyon which has hot springs resort.

7.      Gross Barmen hot springs Resort  is  build on the site  of one of the earliest mission stations in Namibia.

8.      Hardap Recreation  Resort and Game reserve which is situated around  the  hard pan dam (the  largest  dam in Namibia).

9.      Khaudum Game Park which a wide variety of game  species.

10.  Mahango game reserve  which as a reverie forest,  a broad flood plain, magnificent baobabs,  large  herds of elephants and red lunch.

11.Mamili, mudumu  and namib- naukluft national parks.

12.Sandwich harbor, skeleton coast park, von bach dam recreation resorts.

TOURISM IN SWITZERLAND

Switzerland is the famous country in the world due to its tourist development. It is also referred to as the playground of the world since tourism takes place all the year round and may tourists visit Switzerland because of its attractions. There are also different games and sports that are of interest to the tourists.

Factors Influencing the Development of Swiss Tourist Industry physical Factors

1.     Ideal climate which allows the activities to take place both in winter and summer.

2.    Beautiful scenery made by the Alps. Mountains which have u-shaped valleys, pyramidal peaks and snow cover. There are also water bodies like lake Geneva which adds to the beauty of the scenery.

3.    Its central location in Europe has also led to high  accessibility  of the country from different directions in Europe and other countries  like  America etc.

Human Factor

1.      The transport system has been improved for example the railway network has been electrified. The transport cost is low and the movements are fast. Switzerland has modern tracks and modern locomotives and this has encouraged tourism.

2.      Availability of H.E.P due to the exploitation of numerous rivers  and hanging valley waterfalls.

3.      Good hotel  management  so as to meet tourist demand.

4.      Capital availability  that  was invested in the tourist  industry, Capital was  accumulated from the Swiss  foreign  trade

5.      Availability of skilled labor. This has led to the efficient running of the tourist industry.

6.      Hospitality  of the Swiss people  has been another  attraction  to the tourists.

7.      Its  policy of neutrality has made peace  dwell in the country and hence tourists have been encouraged to visit  the country

8.      It has international institutions like banks and conference centers used by different national because of its peace.



Importance of Tourism in Switzerland

1.      It is the major employer in the country. During the peak season it employs more than 120,000 people. This  is six or seven times as much as Tanzanian tourist employment.

2.      It has contributed to the earning of foreign currency in the country. Hence capital is accumulated from tourist industry in a great amount.

3.      It has stimulated the development  of  science and technology for  example electrification of the railway system.

4.      Steep slopes of the mountain have led to problems of transport to different parts of Switzerland.  The alps occupy about 60% of the  total area giving  small room for the diversification of the tourist industry.

5.      Environmental pollution due to the coming visitors.

Tourist Areas in Switzerland

Summer tourist centers where tourists view snow capped peaks, clear blue sky, lakes cascading waterfalls, sunbathing, and swimming. The centers include; The swiss plateau towns of Lausanne, Geneva, Berna and Zurich. Also around the lake shore of Lucerne and in Ticino where there are towns of Locarno and lugano. The visitors come from June to August. Winter areas, which are visited from November to March, offer the following aspects. Abundant snow on the slopes and glacial lakes for viewing and practicing ice skating and skiing (or tobogganing). The main resorts are confined to the slopes of Alps mountains and are called alpine centres which include; St Moritz, murren, Grindelwald, Kandersteg, Gstaad and Lauterbrunnen

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

Swiss resort centers

TOURISM IN THE USA

The USA has a very advanced tourist industry. There are several factor which  have let to the advancement of tourist industry in the USA.

These include:

1. The strong government  support on the development  of the industry the government  has formulated  the policy, which provides favorable conditions for investment.

2. The availability of capital due to the advanced economy of the country. The  USA  is the leading  country in terms of economic development in the  world hence it has been easy for the country to  invest in tourism.

3.Well – established transport and communication network in the country. Internet communications has made easy for arrangements to be done in advance. The roads are good and efficient.

4.   There are many tourist attractions (honey pot) like National parks  e.g. Yellowstone, Grand canyon and Yosemite Volcanic eruptions  like the old faithful geyser, good lake like great lakes and towns  like Los Angels, San Francisco etc.

5.      Strong political stability due to the advanced defuse  section in the country.

6.   Variable climatic conditions in USA such that  there are areas with warm conditions and  other  areas with cool conditions hence this makes people become eager to travel.

7.      Good  social services in the lodges, restaurants and hotels have stimulated the last  development of tourism in the USA

Tourist Attractions (Honey ports) in the USA

1.      There are  lakes, which are used for swimming, fishing and viewing like the great salt Lake and Crater Lake National park.

2.      There are spectacular gorges created in the desert areas of California like the grand canyon etc.

3.      There  are national parks with a variety of animals like the Yosemite Yellowstone, Red wood national park, Zion national park, e.t.c in  which the species like Bear, elk, and buffaloes exist.

4.     Spectacular volcanic features like old faithful geysers and hot spring as well as crater lakes.  There other impressive feature like the Grand Canyon, which was formed as result of water erosion in the desert. It attracts many people from different parts of the world.

5.   Various centers for sports and game like swimming centers, skiing centers, fishing centers and surfing centers. There is an excellent system of campsite picnic. Motoring facilities give effective access especially to  the huge parks and forest.

6.      There are monuments like the Dinosaur National Monument.

7.      The countries economy is another attraction to the tourist into  the country.

8.      American English language and other social aspects have been a great attraction to different tourist. Some go to America so as to learn the American way of living. Speaking dressing and general interaction

9.      There are attractive towns like San Francisco which is the most beautiful city having hills streets coastal setting colorful world  temple exotic shops and restaurant Los Angels which is  famous for movie industry located in Hollywood, Beverly hills’ at  Anaheim and Disney land.

10.There are good and attractive beaches like aquaria an circus beaches in Florida, Miami coca and palm beach etc maim Beach has attractive hates nightclubs private beaches and public  beaches an excellent golf courts. Palm Beach is the vocation and has the arty museum. Cocoa beach as an excellent outdoor exhibit of US air force space missiles. Daytona Beach with automobiles races. Florida is referred to as  a sunshine play ground  because of plenty of sunshine and many visitors from the north come when its winter in the north especially in Canada.

11.There are well made roads and air transport facilities, which facilitate accessibility in different parts of the tourist areas.

 

CASE STUDIES IN THE USA

Tourism in California

It’s developed because of good desert climate and forest. The climate allows outdoor sports like skiing and surfing there are beautiful towns allows outdoor sports like skiing and surfing there are beautiful towns like San Francisco and Los angels there are movie industries, Long beaches, the presence of the long British liner Green Mary (the ship which has became one of the attraction by having good hotels) good roads, good hotels and art museums, national parks like Yosemite etc.

Everglades National Park

Is a National Park, which is a swamp with a variety of plant and animal communities includes creatures like alligators, crocodiles, Manatees and aquatic birds rarely seen elsewhere. The park was established by the government in 1947 so as to protect these creatures. The problems of the park are drought, soil pollution, fires and conflicts with handcraft industry which leads to cutting of trees leading to deforestation.

Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)

It was the world first National park and probably the best known it was set up by the US government in 1872 so as to protect the area. It  is  rich in attraction slice geysers (e.g old faithful) host spring, canyons,  lava flows and wild life like bears, elk and buffalo today there are  comfortable lodges hates and tourist villages. There are well made roads that have promoted effective accessibility . The park has been facing problems like congestion due to pressure due to a big number of visitors pollution and depletion of vegetation and rising local house prices.



Problems facing Tourism in the USA

1.     Problem of water supply, which affect the arid areas of California and other parts. This has been due to the general change in climate.  But water conservation measures are being instituted so as to ensure proper use of water. For example people are being encouraged to construct toilets, which do not use a lot of water.

2.   Terrorism is another problem affecting tourism in USA. For  example the  destruction that took place o the 11th September the tourists who want to vitas USA I this incident the hijacked  planes crashed into the world trade center towers and the  pentagon building leading to loss of lives and destruction o properties.

3.     Population pressure in the tourist centers has led to land degradation. But strict rule and regulations are being put in place so as to ensure that the tourist centers are not greatly destroyed. Some  of the measures include restricting the tourists from getting into the national parks with their own  (privet) cars.

4.   Frequent fires, which affect the national parks, have been a problem. The fire can be as a result of natural causes like thunderstorms, volcanic eruption or by  a man.

5.      Tourism is getting a great challenge from other countries, which are actively involved, in the development of tourism in their own countries like South Africa, Tanzania, and Switzerland etc. This  means that  the number of tourists might decrease because  of the other caters in other  countries.

6.      Some  visitors are attacked by animals like buffaloes when they are viewing them.

7.      Other animals like Elk are shy and hence they attend to run away when the visitors are viewing them. So taking photographs becomes cumbersome.

8.      Noise pollution because of the cars causes distress to animals.

9.      Water pollution in the lakes and reviver in another problem faint tourism in USA.

10.  Air  pollution that causes the occurrence of smog and acid rains.

Some of solution at the problem;
1.      Limiting the number  of cars getting into the parks and establishing free shuttle bus system.
2.      Limiting the number of people  into the park.
3.      Strict  restriction on  smoking to avoid causing fire unnecessarily.
4.      Improvement  in the  communication system like introduction  of arrangements for the visit to the parks.

TOURISM IN MAURITIUS
Mauritius is an island located in the Indian Ocean 200S 570 E on the eastern part of Madagascar Island. It is a very small country with an area of 1865 sq km. The Island is predominantly volcanic but erosion has reduced it to more uplands. Most of the body uplands consist of well preserved craters aligned from the north east to the south east and forming the main water shed some 610 meters high. Lave flows from these uplands have weathers to form fertile soils now used for sugarcane cultivation.

Tourism is  one of the economic activities and it has growth recently Because of tourism Mauritius is also called most  of the foreigner as a  Beach of holiday destination or a place of exotic distant beach centers. The island is entirely a beach of holiday destination and about 90% of 95% of tourist accommodation is along the beach.

Trend of Tourism

Since 1984 tourism has been increasing as the number of visitors has been increasing and European tourists account for 60% of all tourists in the country Mau R. 3.9 million in foreign exchange. In 1993 the number of visitors rose to 375,000 bringing in Mau R. 5.3 million in foreign exchange. More and more tourist resorts are being created and the services are bringing improved. Accommodation has been improved and the average of night stays in bungalows, Gust houses and private rented rooms has been doubled. In general from 1992 to 1993 tourism increased by 10% and it has been increasing

Factors which have stimulated the Development of the tourist Industry in Mauritius

1.      The attractive climate especially to Europeans who come from cold areas and enjoy the warm conditions in the Island. It is warm  because of being  located within the tropical areas (20o S)  where it receives a lot of sunshine

2.      Heavy investment from different part of the country facilitated the development of tourism in Mauritius. For example most of the investors in tourism are Mauritian, South African, French, British and Germans.

3.    Rapid growth of transport and communication system has made tourism grow fast. For example currently the air line has been established between Tanzania, Mauritius and Comoro Islands. This has contributed to the boosting of tourism in Mauritius. More and more visitors are having access to the beautiful Island and its beaches. There are travel agencies who organize voyages to  Mauritius (Tour operator and Agent voyage )etc

4.      The government involvement in tourism has also stimulated the development of tourist industry. The government has created a   greater room for foreign investment n the hotel industry, leading to the increase in the number of hotels in the country. The rates are of low charges but still are profitable; the government has also been so instrumental in the formulation of policies on tourism. The  policies are aimed at maintaining he is land up to market profile  reducing the impacts caused by tourists through eco tourism approach emphasizing high spending tourism so as to craze the  income margin emphasizing the use of the vertical space by contracting high rise buildings emphasizing in building of hotels  with limited number  of rooms at least 200 rooms establishing efficient communication  system like the telephone, transport system like road network and electricity to capacity building more  new hotels and preparing well qualified  personnel who can run the industry very effectively and efficiently.

5.      The  presence of attraction (honey – posts) like

(a)  Beautiful beaches like the one found at le more and coral reefs

(b)  Interesting parks like the  casela Bird park the crocodile souillac Le val nature park etc which have different animals and birds.

(c)  Trading centers at port Louis which is a chief commerce center.

(d)  There are also excellent harbors and an airport at port Louis which  provide vital facilities and services for carriers between Africa Sri – lanka and Australia.

(e)  Sport center like Big game fishing at Grand bar Deer hunting and fishing in le domain du chasers south of the island in the heart of the deep forest, swimming sports like the seaside at Le more mountaineering or rocks climbing in the volcanic uplands and other sports like golf, deep sea fishing table tennis etc.

(f)   Museums like Naval museum Robert Edward Hart Museum, postal museum, eureka etc.

(g)  Interesting volcanic features like the trout – aux- Cerf crater. The  ancient volcano crater towering the town and the surrounding and the water falls like the orchestra falls as well as the gorges like Black River Gorges.

(h)  Attractive construction  old and modern ones like at port louse and the numerous colonial houses at cure pipe.

(i)    Factories like the tea factor of  about 850 hectares of cane land.

(j)    Factories like the tea factors of bois cheri and sugar mill at the domain le pailles.

(k)  Attractive  gardens like vanilla green houses and the Botanical garden of pamplemousses which is famous for its giant water lilies and numerous variety of trees and plans

6.      Advertisement of Mauritius tourism. Tourism in Mauritius is highly advertised and there are promotion center in Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa and Europe. The use of Internet in the promotion has affected a substantial positive influence in the development tourism in Mauritius. Mauritius Tourism Promotion Authority (MTPA) has played a great role in the advertisement of  tourism in Mauritius

7.      The country political stability has encouraged more and more visitors to come. There is a strong defense force

8.      It has strong amicable relationship with other countries like Britain, France, India and South Africa. These countries give Mauritius financial and technical assistance. More  assistance comes from the world Bank and  IMF

9.      There is a good banking system and other financial institution has also contributed greatly in the development of tourism in Mauritius.  Example of the Bank. Other financial institutions include Mauritius Housing corporation,  The  national currency of Mauritius is Rupee (Mau R)

10.Its location  makes it very accessible from different parts of the  world since there are not substantial physical barriers to air transport

11.Strong determination to develop a quality tourist industry rather than appealing to the mass market. The quality of tourism has  become one of the magnets attracting tourist into the country Tourists are sanative to the quality of the environment and services if they are not of good standard visitors  stop coming g leading to a great loss

12.Power availability has been another stimulant. There has been established hydroelectric power center called champagne, built in 1985. The country is also making use of waste products of sugar biogases, which is less damaging to the environment

Tourist Resorts in Mauritius

1.      Trou aux Biches – Renowned as the best beach resort in Mauritius for its safe bathing and miles of fine silver sand, Trout aux Biches offers the best in secure beach – from accommodation standards, availability of water sports activities and its proximity to all tourist attractions. Trout aux Biches is an also famous for its under water life and beautiful corals and divers believe it is the best coast to go diving owing to its fabulous beauty and colorful underwater life.

2.      Mont choisy – Stretching from Trout aux Birches village Hotel to Mont choosy beach, the longest and most popular public beach in Mauritius, is the residential beach hotel area commonly called Mont Choisy. Its white bad of powder sand, more than a mile long curves along its turquoise by and the inviting shade of the casuarinas trees.  Villas and apartments chosen stretch from Trout aux Birches the beginning of the public beach providing resident with access to several beach areas. These villas and bungalows are close enough to Grand Bay the popular tourist resort to the  accessible by car or public transport within 5 minutes but far enough to enjoy peace o mind and privacy south by most visitors.

3.      Pointe aux Canonniers – Stretching from the well known cheesy beach to Grand Bay is point aux canonries well known by regular visitors to Club Med. While sea bathing is not fabulous owing to shallow water beyond club med the inviting month cheesy by is only a few minutes’ walk away with its turquoise logon and gentle waves lapping the shore. The  club Med  allows non – resident tourists to take advantage of its  restaurants, bar and evening shows against modest fees (very useful for evening  entertainment) and if you prefer the bustle of Grand Bay and its  numerous  restaurants, duty free shops and its festive atmosphere it  is less than a  kilometer away

4.      Grand Bay & Pereybere – The hub of tourist activities in Mauritius Alive all day   and all night long with an incredible array of restaurants, bars and night – clubs as well a fashion and specialist shops stretching along its yacht studded turquoise bay. Grand bay is tourist show – case  where big game fishing outer islands  sailing this under – water  walking and other attraction are there  for your enjoyment , They have chosen a wide variety of  accommodation,  rot eh most luxurious A + properties to the  medium prices and further on after  pereybere public beach a few lower prices ones.

5.      Calodyne/Grand Gaube – In the north east not for from cap Malheureux, this small fishing village is a quiet resort with a couple of hotels and a few private bungalows. At  calodyne, some 2kms before reaching the village of grand Gauge, they have chased a comfortable bungalow/hotel complex and added a couple of  delightful beach bungalows in Grand Gaube a stone throw from the fish landing station where fresh fish and lobsters can be bought  beach complex of 6 duplex houses around a lovely swimming pool.

6.      Poste Lafayette/Roches Noires – Poste Lafayette is a lovely and peaceful resort the reveals the authentic and un spoilt Mauritius perfectly convenient for a peaceful stay and unforgettable souvenirs Being on the east coast, whilst the other popular resorts in the west and north west suffer from the heat during the summer months (November to March) poster Lafayette remains cool and enjoys a pleasant climate. Not heather hand, during the winter moths  it is  windier than t the west coast, They have chosen for visitors two sea windier than the west coast. They have chosen for visitors two seas from establishments which they believe offer the best all round amenities and comfort, namely La Colombiere and Coral Beach and recently added a beach villa to the portfolio. Roches Noires is the exclusive residential beach resort par excellence. Only a few kilometers form poste. Lafayette, it conceals several luxury beach houses sometimes behind high walls. They have chosen for visitors four of these lovely residences conveniently located around a tennis court and a well tended garden with tropical flowers

7.   Trou d’Eau Douce – We have included a small hotel on the beautiful beach practically opposite the well known “ile auc Cerfs” the most favorite excursion destination for everyone visiting Mauritius. Silver Beach Hotel provides excellent value next to 5 star hotels on this stretch of the coast.

8.   Point d’Esny/Blue Bay  – Righ opposite I’ile aux Aigrettes  is Pointe deny, a quiet resort between Mahebourg and Blue By Rather windy in winter, it is glorious during the  summer month when swimming into  helicon and lazing in the warm sun are at  dithery best. They have chosen for tourists a very comfortable bungalow sleeping 8 guests right not eh beach at point D espy while I Blue Bay they have chosen a small apartments and comfortable studies right not eh beach. To continue their drive for finding food value smaller hates around the coast to complement her catering villas they have recently added the Blue Lagoon Hotel to our portfolio. These two resort are the closest to the international air port.

9.     Souillac – On the southernmost tip of Mauritius, the awesome beauty of giant waves crashing on the souillac rugged coastline at Gris-Gris and its wild vegetation give a strange air of Brittany of this otherwise quiet and restful resort favored by those who seek refuge from the madding crowd. A modern bungalow  with  swimming pool  built on the  cliff edge at Gris – Gris is our highly recommend holiday home.

10.Le Morne – Going west how along the most beautiful part of the coast of Mauritius, through Baie du cap and spectacular Makonde we arrive at Le morne with its several famous hotels where we have chosen a small complex of 8 studios bordering on the Hotel Parades (5 star) golf course. Unfortunately, we understand that the current refurbishment of this little complex may be followed by change in ownership. Right at the entrance of the hotel and close to  all its amenities the complex is within a private zone enjoying 24 hour security.

11.Riviere Noire/Tamarine – Now going north along the west coast, some 15 minutes drive away, we reach Rivier Noire which is quite popular with those looking for exhilarating surfing emotions whilst holidaying at a slower pace. It is a peaceful resort famous for its big game fishing clubs, organizers of international fishing events. They have chosen a 4 bedroom bungalow on the beach as well as small complex of 6 apartment’s office the slope of the La Tourlle Mountain in Tamarin. That new complex should really appeal to those seeking restful atmosphere to enjoy tranquility whiles savoring the idealic view across the bay. A hotel renowned for its sports  activities has also been chosen to complete the picture.

12.Flic en Flac – Still on the west coast, south of port oust is the resort of flic en flac a seaside village quite popular with tourists close to all amenities such as bans restaurant bar and night clubs it is less than 1 km from casinos and beach hotels. Flic en fac beaches more than a mile long and most popular with swimmers the whole year rood it should also be noted that flic en flac is a diver’s paradise hewer under water caves and wrecks make their delight. Other than the usual sea from apartments and  of beach villas they have included accommodation offered by the  Klondike hotel, le pearled beach hotel and manias Hotel and  recent added four really luxury villas in the most beautiful setting of le tamer complex with its huge swimming pool as canter piece in the most idling garden imaginable, and this year have increased your choice to include several apartments next door to le Tammie at Le Dater, a sister complex to Le Tamer, built ant furnished to the same high standard.

13.Luxury beach houses – Frame canonries point to Cap Malheureux in the extreme north, are dozens of beach villas kept in printing condition for their own private use by third wealthy owners. These houses are very rarely rented out and except for a couple of properties practically never during the high seasons. Easter, the month of August and the Christmas/New Year period. They have succeeded in obtaining some of these houses for our clients and for obvious reasons they can only list brief details of each to wet visitors appetite, and they only send relevant complementary details upon request. However view this property Ref 4 epics a lovely mansion with 4 double bedrooms, all en suite and air  conditioned, to appreciate the high quality o these properties



Impacts of Tourism in Mauritius

Positive Impacts include:

1.Provision  of employment  to the people  of Mauritius and even  from outside,  Tourism employs more than 11,000 people.

2.  It has greatly encouraged  the development of  transport and  communication systems like roads, airways telephone and internet services.

3.   It has  led to the rise of individual  people and national income since the visitors bring foreign currency.

4.There has been promotion of educational, medical and power supply services. Some of the institution based on tourism have been established in the bid to improve the standard of tourism in the country.

5.Environmental  awareness has been promoted into  country and the government is struggling to improve the environment  so that it can  before beautiful and attract more  and more people.

6.   It  has  earned the country an international repute by being referred  to as Exotic Distant Beach or Beach of Holiday Destination.

7.   It has greatly contributed to the diversification of the economy of the country. The  country economy has been almost monoculture dominated by sugarcane production for over a century and a half

 

Negative Impacts of Tourism

Socially

1.      Tourism has led to the destruction of local culture since the tourists come with their own cultural behavior and impose them onto the local people. The local people can change the mode of dressing hairstyles life styles etc.

2.      Tourism has led to exploitation of the employees since they are paid low wages, which are not commensurate to a lot of activities they do.

3.      Tourism influences the language of the place by introducing new  and abusive works

4.      It facilitates the spread of diseases causing deaths. For example through sexual relationships HIV/AIDS spreads very fast during tourism. Hence Mauritius is now open to that danger since visitor who visit the countries  are not all safe, some are accelerated  drug trafficking to the Island by visitor from  other  countries especially south Africa

Environmentally

1.      With the fast development of tourist centers there is an increasing problem of water and beach pollution along the coast. For example  disposal of garbage, sewage etc

2.      The coral reefs are begin damaged due to water pollution and  breaking them for ornaments

3.      Pollution has led to the coast and coral rock. Now  the polluters are being fined and environmental education is being inseminated to the  people especially along the coast and around other honey pots

4.      Construction along the coast has led to the destruction of the forest since people have been clearing to establish tourist resorts and hotels. Deforestation has resulted in the loss o biodiversity like animals and birds due to the destruction of the habitat

Economically

1.      It will lead to the  decline of agriculture since most people will go to the tourist centers to seek jobs

2.      The   loans the country is getting from the world Bank, IMF and  other financial organizations will make the country run to debt crisis

   Problems Facing Tourism in Mauritius

1.     The  services in the hotels are not such much up to standard since the personnel were not well trained and the government has begun training people.

2. There are a lot of expenses in running the tourist activities and the  government insistence of lowering the prices in the  hotels has brought even bigger problems,

3.  Environmental degradation due to the development of tourist activities and denudation of the volcanic features by running water. This has been due to poor environmental concern. In response to this the government established the Ministry of environmental   protection Act, which requires an Environmental impact Assessment for new projects, which are to be established. The government has also encouraged the reduction in the use of coral sand to basaltic sand. Marine parks are being zoned to protect coral and marine life. The  sewerage master plan has been developed to prevent untreated sewage into the ocean.

4.      Too many tourists flooding into the country due to low costs and  hence the  number  of people becoming unmanageable

5.      Emergency of informal and Bungalows will lead to poor standards of services. The government has to control and formalize the establishment of these hotels so as to operate up to standard.

6.      There has been tension between France and Mauritius over Trammeling Island, which Mauritius wants to take from eh finch control. The island is 550 km NW of Mauritius and France has a meteorological observation station established there. Hence France is not ready to hand it to Mauritius. This tension can have adverse impacts on tourism once it culminates into a bigger conflict .

TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA

Tourism has become another important economic sector in the country it has been expanding s the number of visitors has been increasing time after time. In 1990 there  were 1,029,093 visitors while  in 1991 there  were 1, 709,554 visitors, The change was 66.12% In  1995 there were  4944,430 visitors and in 1999 there were 6,253,000 visitor  the change being 9.1% African were 4,18,8880 while visitors from overseas were 5,732,039 in 1999 the   Africa visitors were 4,734,000 while visitors from overseas

The government has a vehement plan to make south Africa one of the competitive tourist countries in the world. South African tourism is the national tourism agency responsible for the international marketing of South Africa as a preferred tourist destination. It has the aim of making tourism the leading economic sector and so promotes sustainable economic and social empowerment of all South Africa.

Factors that Led to the Development of Tourism in South Africa;

1.      Presence  of a variety of attraction.

2.     Museums like the Municipal museum (King George VI art Gallery in port Elizabeth which displays British, South African and Asia art, National Museum of Bloemfontein, South African National  Gallery Michael Collection in Cape Town and Museum Africa in Johannesburg which shown the lives of people under apartheid.

3.  There are libraries like Johannesburg public Library, southern African Library in cape Town, University libraries (the University of wit water  rand, Stellen bosch library and university of cape  Town) and the state Library in Pretoria.

4.   Good hotels and restaurants with charming personnel like wild Board Traditional restaurant that offers traditional South African food some restaurant have internet that offers traditional South African food. Some restaurant have internet cafes.

5.      Musical theaters like those at Grahams town and port Elizabeth that  present the contemporary dances.

6.  Sports center crickets yards golf yards outdoor sport centers like swimming pools sight viewing centers rugby tennis hunting and fishing centers.

7.   There are parks and game reserves. National parks are like the pilnesberg National parks, which is on the old extinct volcanic crater and well stocked with game and bird species pilnesberg is one of three extensive craters in the world Kwazulu Natal parks and the Kruger national park, which is one of the world’s largest game reserves. Game reserves like Borakalalalo Nature reserve (has a beautiful forest) Madinkwe game reserve (with a  variety of  vegetation an dame)  Mafeking game reserve (with Buffalo).

8.      Attractive  relief features like raters, Drakensberg and beaches.

9.   Historical sites like the archeological site at Taung Heirtage site where the Tang child skull was discovered by Professor Raymond Dart in 1924 and the Battle fields especially in the area of the Zulu Kingdom such as the Kwazulu Natal battle fields.

10.There are attractive towns like Pretoria and Johannesburg with museums, restaurants, hotels monuments and the African cultural village, which has an enormous informal sector of vendors artists traditional healers and craftsmen . In Soweto to visitors meet the  people who are the backbone of the nation, Music and arts festival occur all the year round, etc

11.Knowledgeable friendly and accredited local  guide that gives  a captivating  company to the visitors.

12.Different  activities  like fishing  mining and agriculture like sheep farming and viticulture  and hunting.

13.Attractive  environment in some place like Mafeking, which is free of Malaria.

14.Involvement of the local community  in the wild life conservation  management  of hunting  resource  protection  etc The  trial  authorities have been involve leading to smooth running of  the tourist  activities in the  country. For example the Ga Rasai Communities near Borakalalo are fully responsible for their  areas involvement of the communities has manifested  great success by increasing local people income. The Bakgatha tribe, for example receives 10% of the annual  gate  fees taken in Pilanesberge.

15.The  end of sanctions in 1994 made South  Africa get a wide market outside after participating in different exhibitions, which began in 1995 in Johannesburg.

16.Good coordination under the South Africa Tourism agency, which is governed by South Africa   Tourism Board. The board has integrated both tourist matters and environmental aspects so as to enhance eco tourism (sustainable tourism) The south Africa. Tourism Board is trying to ensure that tourism is marketed visitors  are dispersed to different areas of interest, there is environmental  awareness, researches are conducted, there is highly responsible leadership etc

17.The government involvement is another factor that has stimulated the development of tourism. For example President Thabo Mbeki has promoted tourism through his vision of Africa Renaissance. The theme of Africa Renaissance has been adopted and adapted to  a theme of Tourism Renaissance, This government has also established the  policy on tourism, which has been encouraging the development  of  quality tourism,  promoting the environmental  condition  involvement of the local community, etc

18.Advertisement:  South Africa Tourism is highly advertised. There are promotion offices in London Frankfurt, New Your, Amsterdam Paris, Zurich, Vienna, Harare, Tokyo and Sydney. South Africa participates in major travel show, campaigning and holding educational work sessions.

19.There are good health and medical services although they are paid for.

20.Advanced transport and communication is another stimulant factor South Africa has a denser transport network compared to other courtiers. These is an efficient system of electrified railway line competition in air lines has led to the reduction in fare.

21.The fall in the value of Rand  attracted more tourist to  come especially in 1996.




Contribution of Tourism in the Development of South Africa;

1.    It has led to the creation of employment opportunities for both local people and those from other countries. Employment opportunities have  been increasing year after year for example in 1994 here were 470,000 people  employed in the  tourist  sector in 1997 the number  rose to 665,000 employees, and this rose to 774,824 in 1999.In the year.

2.     It has also contributed to the generation of revenue. The revenue has been increasing, for example in 1944 the revenue from tourism was R7 billion, in 1995 was R9 billion. It rose to R20 billion in 1997. In 1998 the tourist revenue was R20 billion in 1997. In  1998 the tourist revenue was R24 billion  which rose to R31 billion  in 1999.

3.   The market for local commodities has expanded. The tourists are buying traditional food and other artistic goods in big number.

4.    It has also promoted environmental awareness among the people. The  local communities are so much  involved in the  nature  organized by the government and the local leaders.

5.      Transport and communication  systems have been promoted in the country.

6.    There has been fast advancement in science and technology as a result of the coming of the tourists. Mist of the tourists visit the country while having a good stock of knowledge and on leaving they live the country with a good stock of knowledge.

7.   It has enhanced the promotion of culture in the country especially the rational practices, which are taking place in Soweto. These have a captivating influence to the eyes of the visitors who visit Soweto. There are traditional dances, handicraft goods etc

Soweto: There are traditional dances, handcraft goods etc

Limiting Factors Facing Tourism in South Africa

1.    Some places have problems of Bilharzias especially in the Eastern and Northern regions; others are affected by Malaria etc. These pose problems to the visitors.

2.    There are problems of crimes, political unrest and other nasty activities. This has made the government to put precautions to the  visitors that even south Africa is basically safe, visitors should be cautious not to draw attention to themselves by flaunting expensive  things like cameras, jewelry and large amount of cash. Night stroll is also dangerous.

3.    Terrorism that has hit the whole world is another limitation. This  has made air transport to be  feared by many people because of the  experience of bomb beasts ad hijack.

4.   Water supply is another problem. This is because of the fact the  South Africa has little rainfall and the water available is competed for by different economic sectors like miming, industry and agriculture, and the water available is unclean.

5.    Air pollution due to open fires for cooking, heating and production of energy from coal fires power station, which provide most of South Africa electricity. Pollutions severe in Mpumalanga province where the atmosphere is stable.

6.   The western part of the country is not well accessible due to poor transport and communication. But the government has planned to open it up for economic development. The Orange River scheme has been established so as to develop the western part of the country. The schema has become one of the honey pot to the tourists visiting the country.

7.      Power is another problem due to the fluctuation of the volume of river and substantial absence of oil deposits. Much power is needed for  running the industry.

8.    The problem of AIDS has a great threat to the development of tourism. AIDS has become a great problem in South Africa and  this  has been contributed by the visitors.

9.   There high costs involved in educating people on the need to conserve the natural environment with a focus on promoting tourism in the country.

10. The coastal strip of South Africa is too narrow and this has been a greater limitation to the development tourist resorts along the coastal area.

11.There is a problem of over population in the Bantustans, which have led to intensive settlement, fuel cutting and overgrazing and bush encroachment. These problems are common in the Eastern Cape and were sun natal. Problems caused by tourism involve  environmental degradation especially deforestation, and pollution  spread of diseases like HIV/AIDS, the rural depopulation due to  rural – urban migration, increase  in social problems like crimes prostitution, or housing drug trafficking: Destruction  of some cultural values etc.

 

The Lessons to Learn from South African tourism

1.      Involving the local people leads to smooth running at the programmers like nature conservation which is very important for attracting tourists. Hence, Tanzania has to make sure that the local people are highly involved so that they can feel committed and benefit from the sector. Such efforts have begin in some parts like Tanga.

2.      The policies should be clear and encouraging different types of investors to invest in tourism including the local people. The local people should be given a greater priority so  as  to avoid the  problems like those involved in the Loliondo case of 1990

3.    Tourism needs strong and extensive advertisement so that people in other parts of the world can know where the country is located and what they can enjoy before they start traveling. Tanzania also has been advertising her tourist industry and has been participating in different exhibitions organized outside and within the country.

4.     The personnel involved in the running of the tourist industry should be well experienced, charming and conversant with many languages Is one the tourists came from different parts of the world and they speak different language. Tanzania  has already begun  training people and different language like French, Germany and English are being taught in many tourist institution

5.  Tourism is a good approach towards solving the problems of unemployment and one way of diversifying the country economy.

Despite that the East Africa is well endowed with various and interesting tourist potential is not well developed compared to that of such countries like Switzerland which have limited tourist potential.

1.      Population encroachment on the existing tourist potentials e.g. national Parks game reserves and sanctuaries.  This is  caused mainly by the presence of a high population growth  rate on the margins of these gazette areas.

2.    There is a sever lack of capital to invest in the industry. This is because the East African countries economies depend on agriculture and yet of recent there has been a problem of price fluctuations on international markets for their agricultural crops.

3.      Lack of proper managerial skills required in the managements of a tourist industry.  The tourist industry is very sensitive  to inefficient management.

4.     There is a problem of political instabilities especially in Uganda and of recent terrorism in Tanzania and Kenya that involved the bombing of the Embassies. Political instabilities and terrorism have a number of implication toward the tourist industry, e.g. scaring away foreign visitors, accelerating breakdown in the existing infrastructure e.g. roads hotels health facilities and morals among the youths. Directly everything becomes very expensive within an economy, e.g high transport network. Political instabilities also have a impact o scaring away skilled labor required and there is always  corruption  of the officials which facilities inefficiency in management  political instabilities also create a situation of unnecessary clearances, say at international airports along the highways all these  facilitate inconveniences to the visitor.

5.      There is low degree of advertisement of the tourism industry potentials to the outside world. This has been facilitate by lack of skilled labor force capital and the capacity to interact with outside world.

    GUIDING QUESTIONS

1.      Outline the factors that encourage the development of  tourist any country

2.      Tourism has grown fast now a day  give three reasons in short

3.      What is the importance of tourism in any country?

4.      Show the negative effects of tourism in Tanzania.

5.      Identify the actors which  have led to the great development  of  tourist industry in Switzerland.

6.      Mention three winter tourist centers and two summer tourist centers in Switzerland.

7.      Show  the importance of eco tourism to the local community in Tanzania

8.      Why should  the local people  be involved in the  tourist activities  (Give  four reasons).

9.      Outline the problems facing tourism in East  Africa.

10.Identify the negative  effects of population growth on the tourist industry.

11.How does tourism differ from other industries?

(a)  It is an invisible industry, It involves serves and not machines that can  be seen

(b)  It is a very sensitive industry to  unfavorable  political social and environmental change

(c)  It is largely a leisure industry

(d)  It is so seasons

12.How can Tanzania improve  tourist industry? (at least six points).

13.Why do we say that tourism in Tanzania has a bright future? (Give  three reasons).

14.Tourism in USA is very advanced, why? (give  six major reasons).

15.Outline five problems facing tourist industry in USA.

16.Show six rules and regulation (Guidelines) provided

17.Draw  the map of  Tanzania  to show the location of the  game  reserves and  national park in  Tanzania.

18.Mentionable  the tourist attractions (honey pots) in  USA.

19.How can the conflicts in the national parks be solved?

(a)  By demarcating the conservation areas and the residential areas.

(b)  By involving the local people in the nature conservation area and hence they can be responsible in helping on the conservation of the national parks.

(c)  The local people  should be approached as equal partners and not as people of low standard in the  community

(d)  The  benefits obtained  from the national parks should be shared with the local community.

(e)  New routes should be established  and  the national parks should be fenced if possible.

(f)   There should  be comprehensive training of the local people  so that they can learn to appreciate potentials of the national parked and their significance in the general economic progress of the country and the local people.

(g)  There should be  clearly stated policies on tourist  governing tourist activities.


GEOGRAPHY FOR FORM SIX-ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM
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Oleh

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