Tuesday, August 23, 2022



Tuesday, August 23, 2022




  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers



Geomorphologic processes refer to the natural activities (physical processes) which mould an area by resulting into the occurrence of landforms. Geomorphologic processes moulded the area from the topographical map, realized and suggested by taking into consideration of the following.


(a)      Land forms.

         The presence of volcanic land forms such as craters, caldera and volcanic hills and mountain reflects vulcanicity.

         Presence of block Mountains reflects crustal uplift by earth’s movement.

         The presence of escarpment reflects both faulting and denudation.

         Presence of sand dunes, delta, beach, flood plains and levees reflects deposition.


(b)      Drainage.

         Presence of rivers and lakes suggests erosion and deposition provided the formed related features observed on the map.

         Presence of oceans reflects marine erosion and deposition provided the related features such as cliff and beach respectively observed on the map.


Communication in most of areas is enhanced by the means of transport and telephone networks. Hence on topographical maps communication is recognized up on the presence of the means of transport, telephone lines and telephone towers.


The topographical maps may show one or more forms of transport with reflection to areas represented. These include the following.


1.      Land transport;-

This form of transport is by road, tracks, railway lines and foot path.

(a)       Roads:- These are of the varied nature and include the following:-

         All weather road bound surface. They are tarmac roads and normally used throughout the year including during the rainy season.

         All weather road loose surface; they are murram surface road and also used throughout the year.

         Dry weather road; These are also murram surface roads, but

(b)      Footpath:-

These are the ways through which people move from one area to another on foot.

(c)       Rail transport;

It is reflected by the presence of railways; and these may appear on the

topographical map provided the represented area is served by this particular means of transport, or the railway line pass through the area.

Railway lines as observed from the topographical maps with reflection to areas represented, are of two categories and include the following.

         Main railway lines; These on the topographical maps represented by the black shading which alternate with white ones.

         Light railway lines: These are normally present with in plantation and mining areas. These are represented by the thin black lines which may be pecked.



2. Air transport
Air transport about areas can be realized if the following observed on the topographical maps
(a)  Air port. This is a large area on the ground which is used by commercial airlines to land or to take off. It has facilities for passengers, goods and offices including of immigration.

(b)   Aerodrome. This is small airport that is mainly used by private air craft.
(c)   Airfield. This is area of open and level ground where aircraft may land or take off. These normally have offices for air craft operations. However; the offices are not as large those of air ports. Airfield runway can be bound , murram or grass


3. Water transport:-

Water transport on the topographical map with reflection to the area represented is revealed by the presence of ports, big lake, sea and ferry across the river, lake or part of the sea; wharf, berth, jetty and pier.

         Wharf is a wooden or stone structure that is constructed at the water front onto which boats or ships are tied when they are being loaded or off loaded.

         A berth is the space on the side of the wharf which is set aside for a ship to anchor.

         A jetty is a structure that is built out into the water for breaking the waves. This keeps the water calm on the side of the land. It may have also serve as a landing place.

         A pier is a structure which is made of wood, iron or stone. It is built out into the lake or sea for walking on and for ships to stop and load or unload. Pier is bigger than jet and may have restaurant on it.


It has to be noted that; types, layout and quality of the means of transport as observed on maps with reflection to the actual areas represented influenced by the following factors.


Relief being the physical appearance of an area influences both; layout and types of transport as follow.

         Roads and railways avoid to pass through areas of steep slope and are more liable to pass through areas of gentle slope. Thus; the layout of the overland transportation is observed in areas of gentle slope as such areas are less expensive for construction and also less hazardous.

         However, roads have more advantage than railway in this respect as motor vehicles can travel more easily uphill than trains.


2.   Drainage.

Roads and railways avoid to pass through areas with many rivers and very flat areas liable to floods. It is hazardous more expensive to establish means of transport through areas of this nature.


3. Economic activities.

Means of transport are made to pass through the areas where economic activities are carried out to facilitate the carriage of the economic goods.


4. Settlements

         The layout of roads and railways is observed in areas where human settlements exist to facilitate the movement of people as well as their goods.

         In urban areas; air transport observed and other means transport of high quality. It is unlike to rural areas.

Important transportation description hints.

To interpret communication, some one has to study carefully the map key to detect the convention signs representing means of transport and relate them to a map face and the following hints can be given.

         Give the statement in connection to what you are going to describe about the area from the map.

         Identify the main means of transport in the area as observed from the map. These may include; land transport, air transport and water transport.

         Give the characteristics of the identified means of transport like; layout, quality and others.


Qn. With reference to the relief and settlement pattern of the area, account for the type, lay out and quality of over land transportation. (NECTA 2006, the map extract of Mpanda sheet 153/3)

Qn. Describe the nature of transport as seen on the map (NECTA, 1997 – the map extract of MOSHI series Y742).

Qn. Explain the communication of the area and show they are influenced by physical features. Comment on how the communication might be developed to meet future needs. (NECTA 1980, the map of TANZANIA – MINGOYO Serial Y742 sheet 295/1 Edition 1 TSD 1967).

Qn. Relate settlement distribution and communication lines to relief and drainage. (NECTA 1985, the map extract part of Tanzania provided (sheet 55/3 series Y742).

Qn. Comment on the transportation system of the area 56/1.



Settlement is a layout of dwellings in the habitable area where people live and conduct their social and economic activities by interaction with the prevailing environment.

A good number of topographical maps show settlements so long they represent areas in which people dwell.

Settlements on the topographical maps are given by means of selected conventional symbols.
There are two type of settlements which commonly shown on the topographical maps and these include; rural and urban settlements.

Urban settlement.

Urban settlement is commonly found in areas of the following nature.

         District administrative centers.

         Regional administrative centers.

         Capital city of a country.

         Areas with transportation system junction.

A good number or people approximated to over 80% in urban areas engage in non-agricultural activities mostly trade.

On the most  topographical maps; urban settlements realized by the presence of the sign indicating the built up area.


Rural settlement


Rural settlement is in areas where the majority of people approximately to over 80% engage in agriculture shown by means of the black round dots. Thus; on topographical maps rural settlements realized by the presence of the black round dots.




The signs showing settlements on topographical maps are observed to have varied arrangement. With respect to this, settlements on topographical maps and up on the areas represented recognized be in varied patterns. The most common patterns include the following.


Dispersed pattern.

It is alternatively called scattered settlement pattern. The houses are widely spaced one to another. It is very common in areas of the following nature:-

         Scattered cultivation.

         In areas where the individuals farms are large enough and population is too sparse.

         Pastoral societies.

         Newly established settlement area where the houses are few and thus may lie far apart.

         Evenly distributed of water sources. This makes settlement put in any suitable place.




Nucleated settlement patterns:-

Houses and other related forms are compacted to one another. On the topographical maps, it is identified where the round black dots lie clustered or where black block lie in a specific area. This pattern is common in areas of the following nature.

         Urban areas where people more concentrated.

         Planned villages.

         Where there is a single supply of a certain economic resource and every is one is on need of it.

         The presence of economic factors like, industrial plants, mineral exploitation, plantation, and rich agricultural land.

         Presence of the social amenities like; health and education.

         Limited supply of water sources and this make people to stay very closely to it.

         Limited spacing for building due to natural and artificial restrictions. This makes people concentrate in available small space as a result settlement becomes clustered. e.g. Relief barrier which makes people to concentrate in a small area of more less hazardous areas.



Linear settlement pattern

It this pattern, the dwellings are concentrated along an elongated object of economic significance like; a road, a river, a railway line and others.




To realize and describe settlement, map user should be in position to observe the type of map symbols or sign that represent settlements.

On most of topographical maps as it has already been given; round black dots represent rural settlement; where as rectangular or square signs represent built up area like that of a town or a single building like market.

The way in which symbols and settlements are distributed on the map and up the area represented, is due to the many factors. Some have encouraged settlements and others discouraged.

Factors encouraging settlements.

         A reliable source of water supply. E.g. the presence of permanent rivers, lakes, dams, ponds, wells, or bore holes on the map. These are mainly used for domestic purposes as well as irrigation.

         Good soils for agriculture. This favours the cultivation of crops.

         Pleasant climatic conditions, which can be favouring kinds of crops cultivated and natural vegetation.

         Gentle slopes. People mostly prefer to establish settlements in less hazardous areas. Hence settlements are likely to be observed where the contours are reasonably wide apart, but not so wide apart. Gentle slopes provide a suitable gradient for the construction of means of communication and homes. More importantly soil erosion and mass wasting are less common.

         Transport and communication. Transport routes and especially roads, attract large settlements along side them. These largely ease the movement of people as well as their goods to else where of interests.

         Social amenities. Settlements tend to increase where amenities such as health and education exist. With respect to this, on maps there is high concentration of dots where the amenities exist.

Factors deterring settlement.

         Marshy or swampy areas. Usually symbols for seasonal or permanent swamps will be printed on such areas. More importantly the contours are very wide indicating flat lands liable to floods.

         Steep slopes. Steep slope give difficulties for road and railway construction. Erosion may be common and growing of crops is also difficult steep slopes on maps recognized if contours lie so closely to one another.

         Reserved area. These are the areas where a settlement is prohibited by law. These are known as government lands and reserved for national parks, games reserve or for future government plans. On the maps indicated in words.

         Unpleasant climatic condition. e.g. prolonged drought. This gives difficulties to cultivation of crops and water supply for domestic use and other purposes.

         Lack or shortage of water supply.

         Lack of the social amenities, transport and others.

Because of the factors, population distribution as observed on maps and up on the area represented is not even and makes varied forms related to is including the following.

Densely distributed settlements.

An area is described as being densely settle, where there is a high

concentration of settlements. On the topographical map, dense settlement are indicated by high concentration of dots or blocks of black squares. It is therefore where the concentration of dots appears very high, the population is described being very dense.

Moderately distributed settlements.

An area is described as being moderately settled, where the number of dots is moderate in quantity. i.e. Note very many and not very few.

Sparsely distributed settlement.

An area is sparsely settled where a few dots are spread over large area. It is therefore, where the dots are very few; the distribution of the settlement is described as being very sparse.


Important settlements description hints.

         Give the statement in connection to what are you need to describe from the map about settlements.

         Indentify the main types of settlements in the area as observed from the map whether rural, urban or both.

         In each type give the distribution, patterns and if possible the influencing factors.


For instance:

Qn. Describe the settlement of the area



Settlement of the area as observed from the given extract map is described as follow.

The area has both urban and rural settlements.

The urban settlement observed on the eastern part of the mapped area where the area is heavily built up and form nucleated pattern. The location of this is assessed to have been influenced by the gentle topographical reasonable, lay our of transportation systems and the presence of so many social amenities like health.

Rural settlements make mostly case in the area. These observed almost every where in the mapped in exception of the eastern side.

However, rural settlement observed to occupy two patterns of nucleated and scattered. Nucleated is much observed in the northern and southern parts due to availability of social amenities and the presence of gentle topography.

Sparse settlement pattern observed in the central part due to the presence of scattered cultivation.


Qn. Using the map extract given write short notes on:-

Settlements. (NECTA 2005 – the map extract of Musoma sheet 12/2).

Qn. Give account on population distribution of the area (NECTA, 2006 – the

map extract of Mpanda sheet 153/3).

Qn. Explain how the sites of some towns and villages and water south of 10 05

South are related to relief and water supply. (NECTA 1980, the map extra

part of TANZANIA MINGOYO.(Series Y742 sheet 295/1 Edition 1 – TSD



Human activities are of two categories and include:

         Social activities.

         Economic activities.


Social activities 

Social activities include the ones conducted to meet social motivation like; education, medical care, security, entrainment and others. etc. The identification of these activities from the topographical map is as follows.

         Education; Identified by the presence of schools, collages, education centre etc.

         Worship; It is identified by the presence of church, mosque, mission schools and others which reveal the same.

         Health care; Identified by the presence of hospitals and dispensaries.

         Entertainment; It is identified by the presence of clubs, res house, hotels, motels and others which also the same.

         Security; It is identified by the presence of police station or police post, military camps, prisons and others of related.


Economic activities.

Economic activities are the ones conducted by people for purpose of earning livelihood. These are for income earning to improve economic growth of an individual or society as a whole. Economic activities include; trade, tourism, mining, manufacturing industry Pastoralism, crop cultivation/agriculture and others.

Topographical maps have much that involves the development and exploitation of woods from green resources of forest. On the topographical maps,economic activivties can be identified by the presence of the following.

1. Lumbering

Lumbering is an economic activity that involves the development and exploitation of woods from green resources of forest. On the topographical maps, lumbering can be identified by the presence of the following:-

         Saw mills; these are for processing of woods.

         Forests, the natural resources from which wood exploited.

         Minor roads ending into the forestland, these established purposely to transport logs to saw mills.


2. Crop forming.

It involves the development and cultivation of crops. It is the one of the basic and most widely spread human activities in Tanzania, East Africa and else where in the world.

Crop forming in the area with reference to the topographical map provided. Can be identified by the presence of the following:-

         The directly shown large scale farms (Plantation), on the map e.g. sisal estates, cashew nuts plantation etc.

         Rural settlement in a basis that, over 80% of people dwelling in rural areas engage more directly in agriculture.

         If the area is assessed to experience suitable climate conditions for crops cultivation e.g. reliable rainfall.

         Presence of water bodies like, rivers, dams which can support irrigation agriculture.

         Presence of crops processing industries like; ginneries, decorticators and hulluries.


3. Livestock keeping.

Livestock keeping is among the human activities which based on domestication of animals of like; cattle, goats, sheep etc. on a topographical map, livestock keeping can be identified by the presence of the following:-

         Grassland with scattered settlement as people in grassland areas engage in animal keeping as their reliable source of earning livelihood.

         Presence of ranches and diary farms.

         Veterinary centers. These are the stations in which treatment and vaccination given to the domesticated animals. They are commonly established in areas where live stock keeping is conducted.

         Dams and bore holes. These have been constructed in many areas for domesticated animals.

         If the area is assessed to experience aridity condition and there is the presence of scattered settlement. In consideration on arid areas crop farming is of difficult and thus, people earn lively hood mostly by engaging in animals keeping.

         Cattle markets. These commonly established in areas where animal keeping is conducted.


4. Mining and quarrying

Mining involves the development and exploitation of minerals from the ground and other sources. The activities from the topographical map can be suggested by observation of the following.

  The presence of the conventional signs indicating mineral works. Usually signs for minerals works are interpreted in the map key.

   Sometimes, the presence of lakes in valley may guide you suggest the activity due to the fact that, such lakes are exploited for salts and soda.

   Presence of quarries.

5. Fishing.

Fishing activity involves the development and exploitation of fish from the water body systems of rivers, lakes and ocean.

From the topographic maps, finishing is suggested by the presence of the following.


From the topographical maps, fishing is suggested by the presence of the following.

         Small settlements along the coasts of sea, lake and large rivers. It is so as lakes, rivers and seas provide good basis for fisheries. Beside this, people living along the water courses are fishermen oriented.

         Presence of fish ponds, fishing cooperatives societies, fishing colleges, fishing villages etc.


6. Manufacturing industries.

These are the activities which involve the turning of organic, inorganic, refined raw materials by chemical and mechanical means into new products. On topographical maps manufacturing industries can be observed by the presence of the following.

         Factory special symbols which indicated on the map interpreted in the map key.

         Presence of township characterized by having high concentration of transport networks of road railways. It is so as manufacturing industries follow urban centers to have accessibility to markets, transports, and labour supply.

         Presence of industrial area as directly shown on the map.


7. Trade.

Trade is an exchange of goods and services. Trade can be identified by the presence of the following:-

         Township as the majority in towns engage in non agricultural activities including trade.

         Transport network of roads and railway together with settlement. These normally facilitate the movement of people for trade purposes, and also facilitate the exchange of goods and services.

         Presence of other economic activities.

8. Tourism.

Tourism is suggested by the presence of the following.

         Historical sites like museums indicated by some signs on the map.

         Attractive landform such as craters, mountain, beaches etc.

         Hotels, motels and rest house, recreation centes.

         Presence of national parks, game reserve and forest reserve.

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