Tuesday, August 23, 2022



Tuesday, August 23, 2022




  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers


Livestock or pastoral (husbandry) farming is the rearing of animals and birds (goats, cattle, sheep and poultry (birds).

It can be distinguished into traditional (subsistence) livestock farming and modern (commercial) livestock farming.


A. Nomadic Pastoralism

  •                    This is also called as nomadic herding.
  •                It is livestock farming in which pastoralist constantly move from place to place in search of pasture and water.  A person who moves from place to place in search of pasture and water if called a nomad.
  •                   The system is extensive and subsistence in nature as the farmer keeps animals for food and not for sale.
  •                  Examples of places where nomadic pastoralism takes place are West Africa by the Fulani tribe who move from Lake Chad down to the Jos plateau in Northern Nigeria.  In East Africa by the Maasai who move between Tanzania and Kenya.  In Ethiopia by the Nubia, in south Africa by the Hottentots and in the Sahara by the Tuareg.

Characteristics of Nomadic Pastoralism

1.      The cattle are kept for prestige, paying bride price and not for sale.

2.      The breeding process is uncontrolled.

3.      The herds of animals are large in size.

4.      The land is commonly owned.  This causes overgrazing and serious soil degradation.

5.      Diseases common because of poor care given to the animals.  For example farmers do not vaccinate their animals.

6.      Low technology is involved.

7.      The animals are of poor quality (poor health) and of low value.

8.      The system takes places where there is sparse population.

9.       It is not expensive.

10.There is no permanent settlement as farmers move constantly with their animals.

11.There is no crop cultivation and hence the animals are the sole base or support of the family life.

12.Many animals are grazed on the same field.

Advantages of Nomadic Pastoralism

1.      The system is cheap (not costly).  It does not need advanced technology or sophisticated tools.

2.       It assures the family the availability of food especially when the animals are so many.

3.      The traditional varieties of animals are resistant to diseases and other environmental hardships.

Disadvantages of Nomadic Pastoralism

1.      Animals give poor production and are of low value.

2.      Many animals die due to lack of disease and pests control, which attack the animals.

3.      A farmer wastes a lot of time moving from place to place.  He /she cannot settle and engage into other into other activities like crop production, etc.

4.      Movement from place to place and overgrazing lead to the large scale destruction of vegetation.  This in turn causes Desertification and soil erosion.

5.      It cannot take place where there is high population since the number of animals tends to be large and hence large open area is needed.

6.      There are poor storage facilities hence the farmer suffers a great loss.

7.      During the movement the pastoralists come into conflict with the wildlife conservation sector and agricultural cultivators and this can head to death.

What should be done?

1.    The farmers should be given proper education that can enable them to get new and advanced technology.

2.   The number of animals should be reduced (destocking) so that they can be managed well.

3.   Farmers should be encouraged to keep the animals good quality varieties like hybrid or improved breeds.  These give good yield compared to the traditional varieties.

4.    The government should help the pastoralist to improve the faming system.

5.     The farmers should stop moving from place to place.  They should settle in one place in order to be able to engage themselves in crop production and other activities.

6.   There should be disease control by dipping the animals in chemical solution and vaccination.

7.     The marketing system, transport and communication services should be improved so as to encourage the farmers to embark on the advanced livestock farming methods.

8.    Farmers should also grow grass through irrigation so as to ensure reliable supply of pasture.

B. Semi – nomadic (Semi – Sedentary) Pastoralism

1.  Semi – nomadic or semi – sedentary pastoralism is a system in which a farmer has started setting and begun growing crops like maize, millet and sorghum apart from keeping animals.

2.   A farmer can also use some cattle dung as manure to encourage plant growth.  Examples include the Sukuma of Tanzania and the Karamajong of northern Uganda.

Nomadism is increasingly decreasing due to:

1.      Improvement techniques such that pastoralists can improve production without shifting.

2.      The governments are encouraging the people to settle down and stop moving since it is wastage of time and energy as well as a danger to the environment.

3.      Rapid increase in population has forced people to engage into intensive livestock farming systems rather than extensive system.

C. Sedentary Livestock Farming

It is the system in which a farmer keeps animals while settled permanently in one place.  He does not move from place to place.

There are several factors that have led to the change from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism.  These include:

1.      The advancement of technology and the increase in the level of education, which have made farmers, find setting more economical than moving from place to place.

2.   The increase in the size of population has led to the decrease in the size of pastureland.  Hence, nomadism cannot take place where the population is high.

3.     The governments have been insisting on the farmers to settle instead of moving so that they can be assisted easily.  The farmers have been advised to reduce the number of animals and keep good varieties of animals.

4.     The reaction by the environmentalists. These have been encouraging farmers to settle so as to conserve the environment.

5.      Also, pastoralists themselves have begun to engage into other different activities like fishing, lumbering, and crop production.  These have force them to settle.

Characteristics of Sedentary Livestock Farming

1.      The method uses more advanced technology than in nomadic technology.

2.      The number of animals is not so high.

3.      The animals are kept in sheds.  Some can be fed using fodder as zero grazing.  Zero grazing is when the animals are given feeds where they are in the shed, without making them go into the field so as to obtain pasture.

4.     There is disease control.

5.     The system can take place where there is high population like in town and villages. E.g. on the slopes of Kilimanjaro among the Chagga.

Advantages of Sedentary Livestock Farming

1.   The animals are healthy and hence the yield is high. Settling on one area the risk of becoming sick is reduced both in animals and farmers.

2.      Since a limited number of animals is kept there is better care of animals in terms of diseases control and food supply than in nomadism.

3.      A pastoralist does not waste a lot of time moving from place to place.

4.      It is easy for the pastoralists to get assistance in terms of education, dipping the animals and loans.

5.   The population of animals in the country can be assessed easily when people are settled. That is it can be easy to country the animals in the country.

6.  It encourages the improvement of the environment and its resources (Environmental conservation).

7.   It enables a farmer to engage himself in other activities like crop cultivation, fishing and trade.  It contributes to the rise of the life standard of people.

8.      Manure can be used in the gardens and other crop farms.

9.      A farmer gets balanced diet since there is availability of both proteins and carbohydrates.


Transhumance is the farming system, which involves seasonal movement of people with their animals.  It differs from nomadism because of being characterized by permanent.Shifting the Fulani in West Africa practice this system.  The move from Lake Chad to Jos plateau in the Northern Nigeria and extend to southern Niger along the River Niger.

During the rainy season (May – October) they migrate northwards and graze the cattle up to December.  When it is dry season they move to the south in search of green pasture and water.  They graze in the south up to April when the rains begin. However, some Fulani today are involved in commercial livestock rearing. Tsetse fly infestation is the major problem that is encountered during this movement.

Identify the factors determining sedentary livestock agriculture in Africa:

1.    Climate:  Where the rainfall supports pasture growth sedentary agriculture takes place easily unlike where there is severe drought.

2.      Soil: Where the soil is poor pasture also is poor hence sedentary livestock farming cannot take place.  But where the soil is good and can support pasture growth the system can develop easily.

3.      Nature of pasture: If the pasture available is palatable sedentary agriculture can develop easily unlike where the pasture is of poor quality and inadequate.

4.    Political stability can encourage or discourage: For example where there are political conflicts people are not settled or feel insecure, hence they cannot develop sedentary livestock farming.  But where people live in peace they feel confident to develop sedentary livestock farming.

5.      Government policy on agriculture.  Some governments in some countries like Kenya are encouraging the development of sedentary livestock farming such that ranches have been launched.  Likewise in Tanzania there are cattle ranches, which have been started like Kongwa, Mkata in Morogoro and Kagera ranch in Kagera region.

6.      Technology also influences sedentary livestock farming in Africa: Where technology is low farmers do not settle and they don’t produce highly compared to the areas where people have high technology and are settled.

7.    Transport system.  Where the transport is well developed the farmers establish sedentary livestock farming but where transport is poor sedentary livestock is also poorly developed.

8.     Market availability can encourage sedentary livestock if it is good but where the marketing systems are poor sedentary farming also tends to be poor.

9.    Capital availability.  If the capital is available then sedentary farming tends to be more advanced due to the investment in technology while where the capital is poor the system tends to be poor also.

Mention the problems caused by sedentary livestock farming

1.     It causes land degradation due to overgrazing and clearing of the vegetation.

2.   It leads to environmental pollution.  For example the decomposition of dung leads to the emission of methane gas, which pollutes the air, and the use of chemicals pollutes the soil.

3.    It can lead to the decline of other sectors since a lot of capital can be directed to animal farming.

4.      Sedentary farming brings problems of conflicts especially when the animals stray in the crop farms.

5.   Some diseases affecting the animals like East coast fever, cancer and Foot and Mouth Disease can affect the people also it no keen care has been taken.

Outline the problems facing subsistence live stock farming in East Africa:

1.    Low capital to be invested in the animal keeping. E.g. buying of chemicals and good varieties of animals.

2.      There is high disease incidence affecting the health of animals and the farms.

3.      High rate of population growth, which force the farmers to produce for food only rather than for sale.

4.      Poor storage and processing facilities.

5.      Poor transport and communication.

6.      There is poor yield because of animal varieties.

7.      Low level of technology among the farmers.

8.      Religious beliefs such that some people like Moslems cannot keep animals like pigs.

9.      Attitude of pastoralists who believe that keeping of many animals is the sign of prestige.

10.  Poor climatic condition like inadequate rainfall, which can lead to shortage of pasture etc.

11.  Poor quality of pasture.  The grass in coarse (rough, not tender) and unpalatable.

12. Rural – urban migration has led to the problems of labor supply.

13. Rustling (cattle stealing) discouraged the pastoralists.

14. Land conflicts between the cultivators and the pastoralists because of struggle for land.  This problem has been accelerating by the lack of land tenure system due to poor agricultural policies.


This is a system of keeping the animals and birds for sale.  It can be intensive or extensive.

Examples of commercial livestock farming are beef farming on ranches, dairy farming etc.

(a) Extensive Commercial Livestock – Farming

This is the system that takes place on a large scale.  It involves keeping a large number of animals on a large stretch of land called ranch.  The animals kept in ranches involve:

1.   Cattle for beef (Beef farming) cattle for milk (Dairy farming).

2.   Sheep for wool and mutton.

3.   Goats for mohair and milk production.

4.   Pigs for pork.

Example of Ranches;

1.    Beef farming in the Pampas of Argentina, Kongwa in Dodoma (Tanzania), USA, and Kenya etc.

2.   Sheep ranching in Australia and South Africa. Ranches occupy very large areas about thousands of hectares. They are more developed in the temperature grasslands like the prairies of Canada, Pampas of Argentina and the downs of Australia.

The temperate regions are better due to:-

1.     The cool healthy climate.

2.     Palatable grass which is not coarse compared to the tropical grass.

3.      High fertility that encourages prosperous growth of pasture.

4.    Better supply of water due to a fairly distributed rainfall and absence of extreme evaporation.

5.    Lower disease incidence.

6.    Higher market availability.

Characteristics of Ranches

1.      It takes place on a large area.

2.     They are scientifically managed due to use of high technology.

3.There is little or no migration. This is due to permanent and reliable food supply supplemented by fodder.

4.      Improved breeds or hybrids are used.  These give high yield.

5.      The animals are kept in a large number.

6.      The production is for sale.

7.  There is continuous cover of green pasture because of the use of irrigation system. The farmers tend to grow well – selected pasture like Alfa, Lucern and cloves.

8.    It involves high capital investment in relation to labor required.  Capital is needed for fencing and buying farm machinery.

9.      Usually one type of animals is kept aimed at one type of production.  This is for controlling the quality of products.

Advantages (Merits) of Ranching

1.   There is high production and the products are of high quality because of the use of high science and technology.

2.      It stimulates the development of transport and communication systems.

3.      It encourages the development of towns.

4.      It creates employment for managers and other people who provide labor.

5.      It assures a constant supply of meat and milk to the consumers.

6.      They contribute to the generation of the government revenue.

Disadvantages (Demerits or Weakness)

1.      The ranches are costly since they need high capital to establish and maintain.

2.     The system needs of a large area with sparse population.  It can’t take place where there is high population.

3.      The system can lead to pollution of the environment because of the use of chemicals and the decomposition of the organic matter. When the animal dung decomposes methane gas also pollutes the air, water and the soil.

4.      Ranches can also accelerate deforestation because large areas are cleared for establishing the pastureland.  Deforestation can lead to desertification and soil erosion.



The USA is the greatest beef producer in the world but because of large local demand of beef it has little surplus for export.  Most of the beef is bought locally. Today there are over 100 million cattle in the USA most of which are reared for beef. There are large ranches for beef farming which have been established in the western part of the country especially the Great Plains, prairies and semi areas of California. Also, there are so many beef cattle, which are bred and fattened entirely in the Corn Belt leading to the emergence of mixed farming in the zone.

Factors which have led to the successful beef farming in USA are:-

1.      The use of advanced technology involving the machinery in the production Alfa Alfa.

2.      Reliable supply of water especially from the rivers and dams, which have been established in the California region.

3.      Reliable availability pasture some of which is being growing under the irrigation schemes.  The pasture produced under irrigation schemes includes alfa alfa or fodder as well as maize from the Corn Belt.

4.      Reliable transport and communication network like railway line; which is used for ferrying animals animal products.

5.      Good soils, which have encouraged the growth of pasture.

6.     Enough local market following high demand for beef by the local people in the country.  The local demand in USA is such high that little beef is exported to other countries.

7.   Availability of enough land especially in the western part of the country (California, the Great Plains etc) due to sparse population. Also, most of the land has an undulating surface.  Because of this it has been very easy for the individuals to establish large – scale mechanized beef farming (ranching).

8.     Climate characterized by slight rainfall that encourages the growth of grass and conducive temperature has stimulated the successful development of beef farming in those regions.

9.   The use of irrigation schemes to ensure consult supply of pasture has been another stimulating factor.

10.  The area has few diseases and also there is high disease control leading to the reduction of deaths of animals.

11. Availability of capital to be invested in beef farming has stimulated the successful development of beef cattle industry.

12. The presence of good animal varieties like Aberdeen Angus, Red Angus, Polled Hereford, Polled Shorthorn and the cross breed of Zebu..  Most of the breeds in the USA are European except the cross breeds with Zebu.

Fattening of Cattle

1.    Fattening is done either traditionally in the Corn Belt whereby the cattle are reared in the Western grassland areas for two years and then sent to the Corn Belt for fattening before being sold or slaughtered.

2.    Nowadays it is done locally in the feed yards such that many western cattle are no longer sent to the east in the Corn Belt. It has been possible because of developing of irrigation scheme where crops like sorghum and grass like alfa alfa are grown.  Many fattening concerns are still based in the Mid-west.

Hence, it can be summarized that fattening process has been shifting westward from the traditional Corn Belt because of availability of large amount of pasture due to irrigation and fertilization of soil of large dry areas in the west and the shift of the slaughter houses and meat packing factories to the west. Processing of animal products is done in towns like St. Louis, Omaha and Kansas City.


In Argentina beef farming is in the Pampas (The temperature grassland).  It lies between the subtropical latitudes 300S and 400S.  The ranches in Argentina are called estancias and can be up to 200mk2 in area.

Conditions favoring beef production in the pampas of Argentina

        Physical Conditions

1.Presence of the extensive low rising flat land which allows for large scale mechanized livestock farming to take place.

2.    Reliable supply of pasture which is good in quality.

3.   Fertile soils have given rise to good pasture.

4.  Well – distributed rainfall throughout the year with annual total of about 1000mm encourages good grown growth of pasture and regular supply of pasture.  This rainfall if reliable because of the oceanic influence.

5.   The temperatures are not very low (100C to 240C) and hence encourage the growth of pasture.

Human Factors

1.      Introduction of good quality cattle from Europe like the short horn and Herefords.

2.      Application of advanced technology like the use of refrigeration facilities etc.

3.      Availability of ready market in the European countries.

4.      Farmers plant grass like Alfalfa, which has lead to the increased supply of pasture and hence high production of beef.

5.    There is good organization in the ranches and they are mechanized.  Farmers use machines in the production process.

6.  A good railway network, which help in transporting cattle to the factories and markets areas.

7.   The government policy encourages the development of animal husbandry to take place at a large scale.

Advantages of Beef Farming in Argentina

1.     It has encouraged the development of towns and ports like Buenos Aires, La Planta and Bahia Blanca.

2.    It has facilitated the development of transport and communication system.

3.  The ranches provide employment to people. For example in the estancias (or ranches) the employed cowboys called Gauchos drive horses around the farms to look after the cattle.

4.    Argentina has provided a god example to other countries especially the developing countries like Tanzania, to copy and improve the livestock farming in the country.

Other products apart from beef are hides, fat, bone meat for fertilizer and glue made from horns and hoofs.  The major limitations that are facing Argentina involve political chaos caused by the economic slump.  There has been economic crisis leading to the devaluation of the local currency.  This is going to bring problems in terms of investment and hence the beef farming section is also going to be affected.


Sheep are kept for wool or for meat.  The sheep kept for wool require dry and cool conditions.  The sheep kept for meat need wet conditions, which encourage a great supply of pasture.  Sheep also provide the products like skin and milk.

Australia has a sheep population of over 135 million. Sheep farms are very large. A single farm can be having up to 50,000 sheep. Australia is the world’s leading wool producer and more than 90% of her production is exported. The areas where sheep farming takes place are in the rolling downs on the western side of the Great Divide Range.

 Factors that Led to the Development of Sheep Farming in Australia

1.   The use of advanced technology like the use of refrigerators. Skilled labor is highly used in the production process.

2.    Availability of pasture which can support large scale sheep farming.

3.    Good climate healthy to animals and which provides rainfall leading to regular water supply.

4.    Good soil that supports the growth of grass.

5.    Reliable water availability due to the precipitation especially in the south – eastern part.

6.   Ready market.

7.   Good quality products because of the use of good animal varieties like Merino.

8.   Good transport and communication.

In Africa sheep farming takes place at a large scale in South Africa. Tanzania also has sheep farming taking place especially in Iringa.

Map Diagram:-

sheep australia


Dairy farming is the keeping of animals for milk production. It is an intensive activity and the farmers are producing for sale. Apart from Netherlands dairy farming also takes place in Denmark and Kenya.  But it is more developed in European countries than Tropical African countries due to the extremely high temperatures, poor technology, and poor quality of animals and animal products, poor market, prevalence of disease and poor capital. In the Netherlands dairy farming is most intensive north of Amsterdam.

Factors that have led to the development of dairy farming in Netherlands

1.    Plentiful  availability of capital that is invested in mechanized methods.

2.   The government policy favoring scientific .and commercial agricultural farming.

3.  Good climate associated with mild winters. The climate is moderated by the warm ocean current and the wind that blow from the North Sea.

4.  The land is flat allowing for easy mechanization to take place; especially cultivating the land for growing pasture.

5.Good soil that was reclaimed from the sea encouraged the growth of pasture  leading to the reliable supply of food.

6.     Reliable water supply by the rainfall, from the North Sea and the Lake Yssel.  The rain fall is adequate and evenly distributed supporting Lush for pasture.

7.      Large nearby urban markets.

8.      Good animal breeds like Friesians, which dominate the dairy Farming in the Netherlands.

Chief Dairy Cattle Products

Milk, butter, cheese


Unlike other European countries, Denmark is not endowed with basic raw Material for the development of  heavy industries like iron and steel, or oil. Also, the country has been facing a great challenge from North America, which supplies the grains more cheaply than what are being  produced in the country. Hence, it has emphasized on dairy farming which has become the main agricultural activity in the country. The Country is the one of exporters of butter.


The farms have long been organized into cooperative and are very small in size   usually less than 20 hectares. The cooperatives are responsible for buying and selling .The cooperative system is very effective in quality control, advertising and marketing. There are cooperative creameries, which collect milk from the farms in order to produce and market butter, cream and cheese.  Cooperatives also provide farmers with processing facilities, credits, research service and advice. They also buy for them some machinery and farm input like fertilizer. Every dairy farmer is a registered to a member of a diary cooperative. Types of animals kept include Danish red (the traditional cow of Denmark),

Friesian that accounts for 75% of the dairy cattle in the country, Channel Island cows like Jersey (small), Guernsey and Alderney.

Factors for the successful Development of  Dairy Farming in Denmark;

1.    The use of mechanized   methods due to the advanced technology. This is not the case in East Africa. Denmark is highly mechanized compared to East Africa countries. There are good facilities for processing and preserving the dairy products in all the cooperative farms.

2.   Assured supply of pasture and the farmers grow fodder. They depend on fodder due to its high nutritional value and the nature of climate. The climate is too cold in most part of the year and hence discourages the growth of grass. From November to March the animals are fed in doors with fodder since it is very cold.

3.    There are both local and external markets  readily available for Denmark. This is due to the fact that the dairy products from Denmark area of high quality because of the use of advanced technology and nutritious food, that is fodder.

4.    Good breeds like Friesian are widely kept (75% of all types of cattle) and these give high yield to the country.

5.  There are good transport and communication systems, which facilitate the distribution and exportation of the dairy products. The use of internet service has facilitated advertising the sector in the other   countries.

6.  Good marketing system organized by the cooperatives encourages the farmers to keep on carrying out dairy farming activity.

7.  High capital investment in dairy farming and growing of pasture especially fodder has   encouraged the successful development of dairy farming in Denmark.

8.   High yield  throughout  the year has been achieved by keeping of Animals indoors during severe cold condition where they   are being Fed with fodder.

9.  Availability of cheap food stuffs from other countries like North America, which provides cereals for feeding the animals.

Importance of Dairy Farming in Denmark;

1.      It provides nutritious food that is milk.

2.      People get income because of dairy farming leading to the rise in the living standards.

3.   It has stimulated the development and expansion of the transport and communication systems and industries.

4.    It is a foreign currency earner .E.g. Denmark is the fifth leading exporter of cheese and the sixth leading world’s producer.

5.     It has earned Denmark an international repute and has given a good  lesson to other countries, which are undertaking dairy farming.

6.  It has attracted tourist who come to study dairy farming from the other countries whose economies are based on agriculture.


The system of keeping animals and growing of crops in the same farm Unit; USA in the Corn Belt (Maize Belt) is the best example of the Placer where mixed farming because of the factors like plentiful rain that Support plant growth, Fertile soils, the use of advanced technology, high capital available and conducive temperatures to   20oC. The maize produced in the Corn Belt is fed to the animals it is Used as the fattening area for beef cattle and pigs. Dairying in the Corn Belt takes place eastwards near the towns.

Problems facing live stock Farming in East Africa;

1.      Lacks of capital for investing in the livestock farming since most of the farmers are poor.

2.      Poor technology as a result of predominance of traditional methods. Livestock in many areas is not mechanized.

3.    Disease and pests, which attack both animals and farmers, bring adverse effect to the livestock farming. In central parts of   Tanzania like Tabora are infested with tsetse flies leading to the Decline in livestock farming in those areas .There are other disease like Foot and Mouth disease ,  Rinder  pest, Nagana  and anthrax that affect animals.

4.   Transport and communication are still poor. Hence, distributions of Animal products become very difficult. Some of the roads are impassable during the rainy season.

5.     Climate vagaries, which involve the occurrence of prolonged Droughts, lead to the problems of water and pasture supply.  In some Areas there are problems of frequent floods like in Kilosa. This discourage livestock husbandry. Also, sometimes the temperature area very high the condition which is not ideal for exotic breeds.

6.   Cattle rusting are another problem .This involves raiding of cattle and sometimes killing of people .This also discourages livestock farming.

7.    The marketing system in East Africa unlike in Denmark and Netherlands is very poor due to poor condition. Also the local market is poor because of low purchasing among the poor people in the rural areas.

8.   The breeds are of poor quality and improved breeds are very few and the local farmers are reluctant to keep them since they are used to traditional breeds, which are cheap to keep because of being more resistant to disease.

9.     Little government concern is another hindering factor in the development of livestock husbandry in East Africa.

10. There is poor coordination in many places such that the livestock farming is not well organized.

11. The pasture in East Africa is poor and unpalatable to animals. The grass in this region is very coarse or rough hence not preferred by animals.

12. Poor education among the farmers make farmer adamant to accept some new changes in the livestock farming activity.

13. Socio cultural factors: In some societies people keep so many animals for prestige. Religious background tends to restrict keeping of some animals. For example, among Muslims it is prohibited to eat pigs since they are regarded as unclean.

14. Expensive medical services are another problem. The farmers are poor and hence they cannot afford the services.

What should be done?

1.     There should be introduction of new breeds, which are of high Yield and quality

2.     Farmers should be given comprehensive education so that they can accept good changes in the methods of keeping animals.

3.     The government should be highly involved in livestock farming. I should be so instrumental in the formulation of good and practicable policies focusing on the promotion of livestock husbandry. It should finance some farmers and bringing to halt the problem of rustling.

4.   There is a great need for the farmers to organize themselves and settle rather than keep on shifting from place to place and waste time.

5.      The marketing system should be improved by setting good prices for the products.

6.    Destocking should also be encouraged so that the number of animals can correspond   to the carrying capacity of the land and its pasture.

7.    The transport and communication system should be improved to facilitate the distribution of animals and animal products to the market areas.

8.   Irrigation system should be developed to ensure constant supply of Good pasture, which is tender and palatable. Nutritious grass should be planted so as to promote production.

9.    There should be high disease control like combating the spread of Nagana, which is caused by tsetse flies. This can be done through Large-scale fumigation of the pastureland with chemicals. Also Animals should be dipped and inoculated frequently.

10.Water supply can be improved through the construction of boreholes and water reservoirs. Rivers should be dammed to impound large amount of water.

In point form, enumerate the factors that limit the development of ranches in East Africa.

1.   Water storage due to frequent drought that hit the region

2.  Remoteness of some place due to poor transport and Communication system.

3.   Pests and disease, which attack both animals and people, discourage this activity.

4. There is a great problem of lack of capital among small farmers.

5.  Climate vagaries leading to seasonality in the supply of pasture.

6.  People’s ignorance and lack of attention to livestock lead to poor development in livestock farming.

7.Ranches are expensive to run since they need big initial capital and the local peasants can’t afford.

8.  Poor marketing system is another hindering factor.

9.The processing and preservation systems are also poor hence they discourage the livestock farming.

10.  Social-cultural factors.

Problems Caused by agriculture

1.  Deforestation that lead to desertification because of cutting trees a result of poor methods of cultivation and livestock farming.

2.   Soil or land degradation as a result of the exposure of land after Cutting trees by farmers.

3.   Environmental, pollution like air pollution by methane gas from the farms, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide due to the burning of the bushes and grass. Also it has led to the   pollution of soil and water because of the use of chemicals.

4.  Depletion of soil fertility as a result of monoculture activities especially where there are plantation crops grown.

5.      Agriculture has also caused conflicts between pastoralists like the Kilosa case in 1999/2000 in Morogoro.

6.      The decline in agricultural, production because of problems like drought, disease and decline in fertility can cause food shortage .This is due to the fact that agriculture tends to be susceptible to these problems when there is no high care.

7.      Agricultural success in certain place can attract high population leading to pressure for land.

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