Thursday, August 25, 2022



Thursday, August 25, 2022




  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers



Water uses understood as the utilization of water resource to meet various needs. Water is our most precious resource. Water is vital to life. Humans, plants, and animals are made up of mostly water. All living things would die in the absence of water.

There many ways that we use our water these include:

-Water is used domestically for drinking, washing clothes, cleaning, bathing, cooking, and other domestic uses. It is estimated that 8% of worldwide water  use, is for house hold purposes.

-Power generation; water is used to generate power which supplied to the industries, commercial areas and residential areas. Of all the electricity in the world, about 20% is generated by H.E.P.

-Water is used the manufacturing industries. In manufacturing industries water is used to wash raw materials and for cooling the industrial machines. Moreover, water is heated and steam is used to run machines, in other industries water is used to cool metals. It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water use, is for industries purpose

-Water of larger bodies is used to serve communication. They  are used as important route  ways to transport people and goods from one area to  another. Many people use boats and ferries to  commute to  and  from every day. People  also enjoy going on cruise ships or just going sailing.

-Water is also  used  outdoors for washing cars, watering lawns, filling swimming pools.

-Every town and city, whether small or big, uses water,  cities use  water for fire fighting street cleaning, and watering public areas such as parks, grass, shrubs, and flowers.

-Recreation is another way that we use  and enjoy, Many people enjoy fishing, boating, sailing  canoeing, sailing, rafting, and swimming,  as well as many other recreational activities  that depend on water. However, recreational water use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use.

Generally as already pre described  water is a vital resource  to human life as well as the general ecological system. Thus there is a need for water to be properly conserved and managed.


Population growth together with changes in lifestyle and economic development in many countries has heightened the pressure on water resources that are already limited. Moreover, Environmental problems, especially climate change, add to those pressures. Furthermore, poor water management can be a source of conflict. Therefore, water being an essential resource for all life on the Earth planet, there is a need of making sure that, water resources used equitably, by making proper plans on how water can be retained and distributed to meet the numerous demands by people. This is what understood as water management.

Water management is the activity of planting, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In  an ideal world, water management  planning has regard to all the  competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on  an equitable  basis to satisfy  all uses and demands, In water management much effort is put on  optimizing  the use of water and in minimizing the ornamental impact of water use on the natural  environment.



i. Water  management ensures the supply of water to all people demanding with balance to the needs to industry and environment

ii. It makes restorage and monitoring the amount of water

iii. It ensures water quality and sanitation

iv. To ensure sustainable and fair access to clean water  suitable  for all purposes, which meets, in  particular, the basic needs of the most disadvantaged  population

v. To ensure fair  and appropriate distribution of water between users of different kinds

vi. To solve the   problem of water use conflict

vii. To prevent wastage and  pollution of water

viii. To protect the wetland areas

ix. To protect and conserve the water  resources areas



There are about four methods for water resources management, They include:-

1) Conservation

2) Allocation of water charges

3) Retrofit water conservation

4)   Behavioral practices

1.  Conservation

-Water can be conserved by harvesting rain water, ground water recharge and recycling waste water.

-Rain water harvesting system involves the collection   of water from the surface which directly receives rainfall. The water harvested is stored in tanks or diverged to artificial recharge system.

-Ground water recharge; It is by allowing percolation of water into the ground, this is achieved by planting trees and construction of lakes.

-Recycling of waste water, waste water can be recycled by being retreated with chemicals to become clean and safe for reusage.

2.   Allocation of water charges.

-This method is by two system of the following

(i)Ratio utility billing  system

Under this system water costs in residential areas like apartments distributed according to each resident based on allocation formula such as number of occupants, square footage, Number of water fixtures, number of bathroom, size of apartment (2bhk, 3bhk) or charge a fixed amount per apartment . However the system has significant disadvantage as residents or consumers won’t understand the true  cost or unit of water consumed by their family members

(ii) Sub-metering

A typical sub-metering system consists of a  meter  to measure usage of a specific utility for each unit and wireless system to transmit the data to a central computer to allow for remote reading. This  system enables residents or owners to pay for the  water they use rather than paying a fixed amount. For effective water management, this system is recommended as this automatically encourages people to conserve water.

3.  Retrofit water conservation

-Retrofitting involves the replacement of existing plumbing equipment with equipment that uses less water.

4.  Behavioral practices

-Behavioral practices involve modifying water  use habits to achieve more efficient use of water thus reducing overall water consumption. Changes in  water use behavior can be implemented  without  modifying existing equipment. Behavioral practices involve water conservation measures such as replacing or repairing leaky facets. Awareness  activities  to promote sustainable management of water resources etc.

Implementation approach to water management

Five activities have been identified and are required to achieve integrated management of water resource. They include the following.

1.   Awareness and participation. Users must   be aware of the importance of water as a resource and their responsibilities in relation to sound management of this precious resource.

2. Institution capacity building. The success of activities depends largely on the capacity, resources and expertise of the instructions concerned. Support must be provided for the institutions responsible for water management. The main institutions for water management include. Urban or municipal water authorities and river basin project institution

3. Demand based management, It is not enough to manage only water distribution; supply must also be managed. The challenge is to reduce demand while increasing output through initiatives as reuse of water, protecting water resources etc.

4. Expanding the knowledge base, the necessary knowledge and information are essential for drawing up effective policies.

5. Coordination among donors must be strengthened


Tanzania has great growing demand for water sources. Access to safe water is essential for addressing poverty and health problems. The poor, most of whom live in rural areas, have limited access to clean water for domestic use and crop production and adequate sanitation. Moreover One third of the Tanzania receives less than 800 mm of rainfall and embraced to semi arid areas. Only one third of the rest of the country has precipitation of above the rest of the country has precipitation of above 1,000mm. Also the long dry season normally extending from June to October, has an effect on low river flows and drying of water reservoirs.

In response to such prevalence, there is need for the water resource available in the country to be well managed to assure water supply to people for their varied needs.

Water resources available

-Tanzania has both surface and ground water sources. Surface water sources include;  lakes rivers, ponds wetland reservoirs and others

1. Lakes;

-The country has a number of fresh water lake, they include; Victoria, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Rukwa, Natron, Eyasi and Manyara.

2. River

-Tanzania also has a number of rivers which drain into ocean and lakes, They include; Pangani, Wami, Mkondoa, Ruvu, Rufiji, Ruaha, kilombero, Mbarangandu, Matand, Mbwamkulu, Lukuled and Ruvuma all of which drain into Indian Ocean, Others include Malagarasi drains into lake Tanganyika, Songwe and  Ruhuhu draining into lake Rukwa; Meri, Maru and Kagera draining into lake Victoria

3. Wetlands:

-Tanzania has 5,439,000 ha, of lakes and swamps which represent 5.8 percent of the total land surface but this number excludes seasonally inundated flood plains.E.g Rufiji,Ihefu,Jangwani in Dar es salaam.

4. Ground water Resources

-Ground water  a major source of water for many areas in Tanzania and actually the most viable alternative supplement in the central and northern parts of the country/ the  drier regions of Dodoma, Singida,  Shinyanga, Tabora, Mwanza, Mara, Arusha coast and Southern Kilimanjaro.

-Most of the water resources in Tanzania are managed by the water projects


-River development projects are the schemes which developed for different purposes. They are established to meet a number of goals such as floods control, water supply for domestic consumption, industries and irrigation schemes

River basin projects are implemented by doing the following:-

-Construction  of dams for retaining water

-Dredging of the river i.e Removal of silts or mud from the river

-Clearing of vegetation where economic activities are taking place

-Planting of trees on the sides of the river so as to prevent erosion  and to control the speed of water flow.

-Straightening  and widening of the river width so that it can hold more water

-Establishment  of canals and installing of  pipes to make distribution of water


Kilombero irrigation scheme is located  along river Kilombero in Southern Tanzania which is a tributary of Rufiji river. The scheme has large plantations of sugarcane owning to a size of about 2800 hectares, under the schemes other crops such as maize, rice, beans and vegetables are grown.

Objectives of the scheme

-To improve crops production of sugarcane as the chef crop and other crops of maize, rise, beans and vegetables

-To open up the remote and  potential lands  be used for crops production

-To control the floods of river Kilombero


Implementation of the scheme

The scheme has been implemented as the following were done

-Establishment  of the sugar cane estates

-Establishment of the sugarcane factories at Msolwa and Ruembe.

-Small scale farmers were allowed into the area to cultivate sugarcane and other crops

-Establishment of roads to enhance production of crops

-Supply of electricity to the factories and to the site machines which pump water to plantations.

-Establishment of the sugar cane production company to make overall management

-Construction of  dams for retaining water to be used all the year around

-Training of the local people on their economic activities like fishing, timber production and wild life conservation.

Achievements of the scheme

-It has increased the production of  sugarcane as it can be compared to the previous time

-Development of certain towns like Makambako, Mikumi and Kidatu which provide services to the people working into the scheme

-To some  extent, the schemes managed to control the  floods of the river as much of the water used to irrigate the farms

-It  has stimulated the development  of  the physical infrastructures like roads and railway of  TAZARA

-The scheme has opened up the remote areas like Ifakara and Msolwa.

Challenges against the scheme

-The problems of drought in same years. This creates low water supply to the scheme

-Transportation problem since the road and bridge have not been well constructed

-Poor labor supply due to the higher rate of rural to urban migration

-Prevalence of diseases mostly  malaria which  affect  the farmers


-Rufiji basin is one of the most potential areas in Tanzania. It has great river of Rufiji which steadily flows throughout the year, It has attractive features such as waterfalls, meanders, alluvial fans, delta and oxbow lakes, The valley of the river is very fertile for cultivation of crops. It has diversity of flora and fauna. By being so much potential efforts are taken to make the river basin well developed. To meet this, river basin development association of RUBADA, has been established.

Activities taking place in the basin

-Generation of hydro electricity  at kihansi

-Fishing activities under the local people

-The cultivation of the crops such as sugarcane, paddy, maize and vegetable

-Tourism is taking  place in the sellers game reserves

-Hunting of the  wild animals bye ht local people

-Lumbering  is taking place by the local people


Even if special organization has been established to develop the basin yet the Rufiji basin is not well developed due to the following problems

-Frequent floods which  affect the crops and people properties

-Poor market by the local people. A good number of the inhabitants are low income earners and thus do not provide steady markets for the goods that would be produced.

-Remoteness of the river. For instance the river is not utilized to supply water to the big city of Dar es salaam by being in a remote site.

-Poor capital outlay to be  invested to the basin

-Poor labor supply due to the higher rate of rural to urban migration

-Low level of technology.



-The project was established in 1977 by three countries of Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda, Uganda joined later in 1981. The project was established with found mental objective of establishing Hydro electric power station at Rusumo falls.

Achievement of the project

-Production of the hydroelectricity for the member countries and even he neigh boring countries.

-It has provided employment to people in the four countries.

-Development of transport infrastructures in the region.

-Development of tourist industry.


Problems incurred in the implementation of the project.

-Low level of technology in the region.

-Low capital outlay to finance the project effectively.

-Land alienation to give room for the expansion the project.

-Political conflicts in Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda.

-The researches and preliminary plans are taking too long.


-Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lake, river, oceans and ground water. Or is an environmental pollution problem of a water body being contaminated with hazardous solid, liquid and gaseous materials which affect its natural setting. i.e. a body of water  is adversely affected due  to the addition of large amount of materials to the water. In other words, Water pollution is considered when the body of water is unfit for its intended use.When the body of water is unfit for its intended use.

-Water pollution is among of the serious environmental problems and it is serious enough in developing countries. It affects organism that live in the water bodies.

-Water pollution occurs when pollutants discharged directly or indirectly into water body system without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents.

-Water pollution may occur naturally or culturally, naturally is by materials of dust which added to the water through the natural processes of wind erosion and deposition. Culturally by the households, industries, mining and others.

The materials which make water adversely affected are known as water pollutants.

Types of water pollution

Water pollution is of two varied forms including; Surface and ground water pollutions

Surface water pollution is pronounced if water contained over the earth surface of lakes, rivers and lakes contaminated with pollutants.

Ground water pollution Occurs when water contained into the ground contaminated with harmful materials which brought down by the process of leaching.

Source of water pollution

As it has been introduced, water pollution occurs culturally and naturally as harmful materials discharged into the water body systems by following sources

1. Agricultural activities

The agro chemicals such as fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and others, washed away in solution into water body systems by runoff. Also the agro chemicals cause the ground water polluted through leaching process.

2. Households sewage

Residential areas produce a lot of sewage that mostly cause water pollution. The sewage contain farces, urine, and laundry wastes all of which are organisms which live in the systems of water body

3. Damping of littler

If litters derived from varied, sources damped into seas, lakes as well as rivers, cause water pollution. The litters as damped into water bodies take long time to degrade, these include the following

·  Call board: They take 2 weeks to degrade

·  New papers: take 6 weeks to degrade

·  Foam: take 50 years to degrade

·  Aluminum: take 200 years to degrade

·  Plastic packaging take 400 years to degrade

·  Glass: Take long to degrade but the exact time not well known

4. Industries

Industries is a huge source of water pollution, Industries produce pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and environment and thus, cause pollution as  discharged into the water body systems  without adequate treatments. The common pollutants which cause water pollution include asbestos, leads, mercury, nitrates, phosphate, sulfur, oils, petro chemicals and others

5. Commercial activities

Commercial activities particularly in town centers produce a lot of solid and liquid wastes, Most of these wastes discharged into large water body systems and cause pollution

.6. Mining activities

Water used to wash the minerals usually discharged into water bodies’ e.g the Kiwira river (Mbeya Tanzania) is seriously polluted with the liquid wasted from Kiwira coal mines.

7. Oil spill

Ocean lakes and rivers are polluted with oil spills on a daily basis from motor vehicles, routine shipping, runoffs, dumping, oil underground storage linkages and others. Oils cannot dissolve in water and thus form a thick shade in the water, This suffocates fish and other aquatic life

8. Occurrence acid rains

In the atmosphere water droplet mix with pollutant gases of sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxides to form acidic rains. These as fall on the surface of water bodies’ causes pollution.

9. Global warming

This causes an increase in water temperature, it can results into health of many aquatic organisms.

`10 Radio activity element

These are the nuclear wastes produced from industries, medical, and scientific processes that use radio activity materials, these materials have detrimental effects on marine habitats.


Water pollution has great impact to people and environmental in general in number of ways

1.      Water  pollution affect  human health

Some health effects recognized immediately, while others take time to be recognized as may take months or years. People use to suffer from water borne diseases as parasites and other diseases causing organisms are transmitted via the contaminated water. The common diseases include typhoid, intestinal parasites, amoebas, cholera, and poor blood circulation, vomiting, diarrhoea nervous systems damages. Heart and kidney injury, skin irritation and tooth decay

2.      Water pollution affects the aquatic ecosystems.

Pollution caused by acidic rains, oils and others sources harm greatly the life in water body systems. It makes animals as well as plants adversely affected to the extent others parish completely.

3.      Water pollution affects the chain of food

The toxic contained in water travel to animals mostly fish, then travel to human as eat meet. The first international scare related to toxic chemical in the water occurred lake in the 1950 when large number of people in Minamata bay Japan, began to contract an usual disease. Research revealed that, they were buffering from mercury poisoning as a result of wastes that had been discharged into water ways and ingested by fish that had been discharged into water ways and ingested by fish that were eventually consumed by human beings.


Water pollution problem can be controlled by the following measures

(i)  Sewage’s and others wastes   should be treated before are discharged into water body systems.

(ii) People should be educated in such a way can be aware with the bad effect of water pollution and on how to control water pollution.

(iii)   Establishment of water control ordinance.

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