Monday, September 5, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND
Monday, September 5, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND

UNAWEZA JIPATIA NOTES ZETU KWA KUCHANGIA KIASI KIDOGO KABISA:PIGA SIMU: 07872327719




ALSO READ;

  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND

These are organ compounds with Carbonyl group  D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image001.gif as functional group

If the carbonyl compound is directly bonded to two alkyl  groups two aryl groups or one group and one aryl group, the resulting carbonyl compound known as KETONE.
I.e. General structure of kenton can be represented as ( D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D26.jpg )where R and R’ can be  alkyl or aryl group

If the carbonyl compound is directly bonded to at least one hydrogen atom, the resulting carbonyl compound is known as ALDEHYDE
I.e. General structure of aldehyde is D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image002.gif where R is alky group, aryl group or hydrogen atom

Both aldehyde and Ketone (carbonyl compound ) have general molecular formula 0f Cn,H2n 0, thus aldehyde and Ketone are isomeric ( exhibit position isomerism )
Most of properties of aldehyde are the same as those of ketone. But there is some differences in their properties due to differences in their structures.

NOMENCLATURE OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
The parent chain in must contain carbonyl group D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image005.gif

i.e.The parent chain is the longest continuous carbon chain with carbonyl group Numbering of carbons is done as follows

For aldelhyde the carbon in carbonyl group must be kept first position
For ketone numbering must state at the end closer in carbonyl
For ketone with more than four carbons, position of carbonyl must be indicated by using Arabic numerals

In naming aldehyde leave the suffix -e from the corresponding hydrocarbon and the end with suffix- al and naming ketone leave the suffix e from name of corresponding hydrocarbon and then end with suffix one
Other rules are the same as those of alkanes rule



Example.

Qn.Name the following organic compounds.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\EQ41.jpg       D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ERY2.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\EQN51.jpg


PREPARATION OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

a) REDUCTIVE OZONOLYSIS OF ALKENES

Alkene reacts with ozone followed by reductive hydrolysis done by D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image038.gif under presence of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image039.gif yielding carbonyl compound.

Generally:

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\EQN61.jpg

If there is at least one hydrogen atom at each carbon with double, bond aldehyde is formed

Example:
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\eqn72.jpg
If one carbon with double bond has at least one hydrogen atom and another carbon has no hydrogen atom , aldehyde and ketone are formed
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\eqn81.jpg

If there is no hydrogen atom which is directly bonded to carbon with double bond, ketone is formed
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\qn9.jpg

b) HEATING OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
When carboxylic acid is heated to temperature about 3000 C under presence of manganese (iv) Or (MnO2) carbonyl compound is formed heating of methanoic acid produce methanal (aldehyde)

I.e.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBON6.jpg

Memorizing
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBOXYLIC_2.jpg

·
Heating higher members of carboxylic acids produces

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBON81.jpg

Memorizing

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBON9.jpg

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\EXAMP1.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\EXAMPLE21.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CA6.jpg
Memorizing
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CA5.jpg

·         Heating methanoic acid and higher member of carboxylic acids produce aldehyde

I.e.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CA7.jpg
Memorizing
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ca8.jpg

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ca9.jpg

c) HEATING OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES

When calcium carboxylates are heated to temperature of about 400 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image085.gif ,carbonyl compounds are formed. Heating calcium methanoate produce methanal

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image086.gif D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image087.gif D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image088.gif D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image089.gif

Memorizing

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ca10.jpg

 

Heating higher members of calcium carboxylates produce Ketones

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CAR1.jpg

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CAR21.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CAR3.jpg

Heating calcium methanoate and higher member of calcium calylates produce aldehyde
i.e
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CAR4.jpg

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\to1.jpg


Note

Reactions used in preparations of carbonyl compounds in (b) and show an increase in number of carbon form n to 2n-1 in these which the same type of acid is applied so reactions are very weak which is dealing with  conversions problems which show that number of carbons has increased from n to 2n -1

Example:-
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\to2.jpg
ANS.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ans3.png
Alternative.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ALTERNATIVE1.png




(d) ACID AND MERCURY SULPHATES

Examples
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ACID_AND_MERCURY_1.png

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ACID_AND_MERCURY_2.png

 

(e) OXIDATION OF ALCOHOL

Primary alcohols give aldehyde (the oxidizing agent must be weak like D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image113.gif oxidation of aldehyde to carboxylic acid)

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\OXDATION_OF_ALCOHOL_1.png

The more appropriate method of preparing aldehyde which ensures higher yield percentage of formation of aldehyde rather than carboxylic acid is heating alcohol under the presence of copper pirates catalyst.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARB3.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\OXIDATION_OF_ALCOHOL_2.png

Oxidation of secondary  alcohol yield Ketones

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARB5.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARB6.jpg

f) REDUCTION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID

Carboxylic acids can be reduced to aldehyde
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\RCOOH.png

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARB81.jpg
In above reaction reducing agents (Li Al D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image124.gif ) must be limited amount so as to prevent further reduction of aldehyde alcohol.

Benzene reacts with acyl compounds yield aromatic ketone
i.e
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARB9.jpg

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\benzene_react_with.png

Analogously
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ANALOGOUSLY.png




 h) REDUCTION OF ACYL COMPOUNDS (ROSENMUND REACTION)

Acyl compounds react with hydrogen gas under the presence Palladium Catalyst poisoned with sulphur containing catalyst (mainly BaSO4) is used to form aldehyde
I.e.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\PD1.png

In above reaction the use of BaSO4 (Sulphur containing) is to poison palladium catalyst so as to preview reduction of aldehyde to alcohol

I.e.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\i.e_.png

Show how would you convert
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\show_how_cl.png
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\carbo6.jpg

ANS
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\sncl2.png                                                                                                                 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\Mno2.png

Alternatively
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\3_STEPS.png
Alternatively
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\2_STEPS.png

 

PHYSICIAL PROPERTIES OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

In comparison to alcohol carboxylic acids carbonyl and compound have lower boiling point due to limited hydrogen bonding present in them (There is weaker hydrogen binding existing between molecules of carbonyl compounds than that present in alcohol and carboxylic acid )

Among carbonyl compounds themselves boiling point increase with an increase in number of carbon atoms in the compounds Carbonyl compounds are slightly soluble in water due to their ability of forming hydrogen bonding with water molecules but are more soluble in organic solvents


CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

a)      a) NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS

i.  In Carbonyl group D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image166.gif , )Oxygen being more electronegative than carbon, Oxygen is negatively polarized and C is positively polarized is
Thus in carbonyl group is electrophilic and hence it becomes a good site for incoming nucleophile.

Yet there is π- bond in carbon of carbonyl group (functional) then carbonyl compounds are more likely to undergo addition reactions i.e. nucleophilic addition reactions.
Ability of carbonyl compound to undergo nucleophilic addition reactions depend on the amount of partial positive charge present in carbon if the carbon is more positively, polar than the compound will be more likely to undergo nucleophilic reaction and versa.
On another hand the amount of partial positive charge. Present in the carbon is determine by the strength of positive inductive effect which is exerted than the carbonyl will be less positively polarized and vice-versa

This explain why higher member of aldehyde are less reactive towards nucleophile than lower member because the strength positive inductive effect increase with an increase in length on chain of alkyl group.

The strength of positive inductive effect also explain why aldehydes are more reactive than keteones because while in positive inductive effect is exerted by one alkyl groups from two directions. In ketonepositive inductive effect s exerted by alkyl group from two direction, thus carbonyl group experience stronger positive inductive effect than in aldehyde.

Another reason of low reactivity of Ketone compaired to aldehyde is the fact that: (carbonyl group in ketone) experience large steric hindrance from the alkyl and aryl groups aldehyde there is only one alkyl group and this can also used to explain why carbonyl group with large alkyl group is less to explain why carbonyl group with large alky group is less reactive towards nuclephile ( in nuclephilic addition reaction) because steric hindrance with increase with increase in size of alkyl group.

Example

Qn. Arrange the following organic compounds according to ability of undergoing nucleophilic addition reactions.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\YAMWISHO.png

ANS
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\yaan.png

Generally carbonyl compounds follow the following mechanism in nucleophilic addition reaction

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBONYL5.jpg

Examples of Nucleophilic addition reaction

i)Reaction with hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Carbonyl compounds react with HCN under presence of sodium cyanide and strong acidic medium like HCl yielding cyanic hydrin

Generally:
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\dg4.png
Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CARBONYL6.jpg
But
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\but.png

1,2   —–phenyl-2-hydroxyethanone
ii)Formation of bisulphite
Carbonyl compound react with D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image181.gif   resulting to formation of bisulphite

Generally:-

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\NASO3.png

Examples
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D117.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D213.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d38.jpg

NOTE
Thus reaction involved an introduction (addition) of NaHSO3 is very large molecule so there is large  steric hinderancially in aromatic, ketones the reaction will not occur
e.g
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d44.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d54.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D64.jpg

iii)Reaction with alcohols
Aldehyde reacts with alcohol to form homo- acetal which is unstable but if alcohol present in excess a stable acetal is formed

Generally:-

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d73.jpg

Hemo-acetal Acetal

 

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d82.jpg

Thus overall reaction can be written as
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D91.jpg






b) NEUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION

When carbonyl compounds is heated with halogenating agents like D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image209.gif Oxygen in carbonyl group is replaced by halogens

Example.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\POCL3.png

In above example the reaction is similar to that in alcohol difference is that HCl is not evolved ( like in alcohol) there is no D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image215.gif group
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\K2CR2O2.png

·     Ketones resist oxidation but they can undergo oxidation under very vigorous condition
i.e

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\kerosene.png

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND

c)       FORMATION OF ALCOHOL (REDUCTION )

Carbonyl compound react with reducing agents like D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image221.gif and D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image222.gif to form alcohol

Generally:-
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\d132.jpg

Aldehyde form primary alcohol
i.e

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\RCHO.png

Example:-
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D152.jpg

Ketones from secondary alcohol

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\D161.jpg

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CH3_EXAMPLE.png

e) FURTHER EXAMPLES ON REDUCTION

·         Formation of alkane.

Carbonyl compound reacts with hydroiodic acid in presence of red phosphorus at temperature of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image228.gif to form alkane

BUT
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\r13.jpg

NOTE

Carbonyl compound with alkyl group directly bonding carbonyl compound can react with halogen in the presence of acidic medium.

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\NOTE_CARBON.png

 

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\hbr.png
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\a312.jpg

 

NOTE:

Similary

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\eqn142.jpg

c)     OXIDATION

Aldehyde are good reducing agents. Ie. They oxidised to carboxylic acid

Generally.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\a510.jpg

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\OXIDATION_FINALL._._.png

Generally

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\oyee.png

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A92.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\a83.jpg




2) REACTION WITH HYDRAZINE
Carbonyl compound reacts with hydrazine to form hydrazone
Generally

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A102.jpg

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A117.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A122.jpg

3)REACTION WITH PHENYL HYDRAZINE

Carbonyl compound reacts with phenyhydrazine to form hydrazone

Generally
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\nh.png

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A142.jpg

 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\a151.jpg

4) REACTION WITH 2,4 –dinitrophenylhydrazine (BRADDY’S REAGENT)

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A161.jpg

Carbonyl compound react with braddy’s reagent to form yellow crystalline product(appear as yellow ppt ) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone)
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\A171.jpg

The reaction is used as chemical test of presence of carbonyl group in the compound.

Example:

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\FH.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\o25.jpg




OTHER REACTION OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

i)Alde – condensation reaction
This is the reaction between carbonyl compound with hydrogen and alkane solution to form new compound both hydroxyl group and carbonyl group in the same compounds
Example:
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\Y8.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\HK2.jpg

 

When the product is passed through acidic medium like conc.  D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\R4.jpg   unsaturated carbonyl compound is formed.
i.e
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\fi3.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ju20.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\P40.jpg
b) Cannizaro reation
This is the disproportionation reaction which occur between hyde D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image289.gif – hydrogen and alkane solution to form carbonic acid and alcohol.
Example.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\CG.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\BH.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\YU4.jpg

CHEMICAL TESTS TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN ALDEHYDE AND KETONE
Aldehyde and Ketone may be distingushed using the fact that aldehyde is good reducing agent ie. it can be oxidised easily while ketone cannot be oxidised
There are two solutions which are commonly used to distinguish aldehyde and ketones

i)                    Fehlings/ Benedict solutions which consist of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image301.gif

ii)                  Tollen’s reagents which consist of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image302.gif (silver mirror test)




1)      BY USING FEHLINGS / BENEDICT SOLUTION

  •          With fehlings or Benedict solution aldehyde give brick red ppt of copper (I) oxide (copper II) is reduced to copper(I)
  •         Ketones being poor reducing agent give negative test i.e it does not reduce D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image301.gif ,to D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image303.gif and hence there is no formation of brick red ppt

 

Example:-
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\T34.jpg
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\m20.jpg

NOTE.
Benzaldehyde do not react with Benedict/ Fehlings solution

 

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\FD.jpg

2)  BY USING TOLLEN’S REACTION( silver mirror test)
With tollen’s reagents aldehyde being reducing agent reduce D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image313.gif to A D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image314.gif ie precipitate of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image315.gif which appear as silver mirror hence the name mirror test) Aldehyde react with tollen’s (Ammoniacal silver nitrate) form white ppt of silver which appear like mirror
Ketones being poor reducing Agent give negative mirror test

I.e

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\rt4.jpg

 

WHILE

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\bn3.jpg

 

OTHER CHEMICAL REACTION.

IODOFORM TEST
.

  •  This is the test for presence of terminal methyl group is directly bonded to carbonyl group by giving yellow ppt of iodoform  D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image319.gif
  •   For aldehyde only ethanal give iodoform test.

Example
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\JMILLION.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\NB.jpg

Generally

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ty3.jpg


NECTA 2000 PP QN 14 (a)
QN.  Compound A which has an unbranched carbon chain, react methyl magnesium bromide to give after hydrolysis compound B. chromic acid oxidation of B gives C (C5H10O) or which gives crystal product with 2, 4- dinitrophenylhydrazine and a positive iodoform test.

i)Give the formula of A, B, C and equation for all reaction mentioned.

ii) Give the formula of possible Isomer of A that would give the same result as A in the above transformation (5 marks)

ANSWER

Molecular formula C5H10O confirm general molecular formula of CnH2nO

This C is either aldehyde or Ketone.

Formation of crystalline product with 2,4 dinitrophenyl hydrazine confirm that there is a Group in C ( it either aldehyde or ketone)

Since C give positive lodoform test then there is terminal methyl group which is directly bonded to carbonyl group in C.

A compound which gives carbonyl compound on oxidation is alcohol D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image327.gif

This B is either primary (1°)or secondary

Carbonyl compound which give secondary D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image329.gif alcohol with griginard reagent ( in this case methyl magnesium bromide) are higher member of aldehyde rather than methanol which give primary D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image331.gif alcohol .

This A is either methanol or higher member of aldehyde .

Product formed after reaction between methyl magnesium  bromine followed by hydrolysis indicate that there are 4 carbon in A

so A must be aldehyde with A – carbons and B must be secondary D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image329.gif alcohol with 5 carbons

Since A is unbranched

Structure formula of A

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\Carbon Compound 2_files\image332.gif

Structure formula of B is
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\bg.jpg

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\TO31.jpg



CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -CARBONYL COMPOUND
4/ 5
Oleh

No comments: