Tuesday, September 6, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION
Tuesday, September 6, 2022

CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION

UNAWEZA JIPATIA NOTES ZETU KWA KUCHANGIA KIASI KIDOGO KABISA:PIGA SIMU: 07872327719




ALSO READ;

  1. O’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  2. A’ Level Study Notes All Subjects
  3. Pats Papers

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION

– Alkanes containing six or more carbon atoms when heated under pressure in the presence of suitable catalyst get cyclised to give aromatic compounds.

E.g.

n – hexane gives benzene

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O19.jpg

USES OF ALKANES

Alkanes are the simplest organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen. Some major uses of these compounds are;

(i)     Lower alkanes occurring as natural gas and lighter petroleum fractions are used as fuels.

(ii)    Low – boiling liquid alkanes e.g. hexane are uses as solvents.

(iii) Heavy petroleum fractions are used as lubricants (grease) and for obtaining waxes and vaseline

(iv) The products of cracking process are generally used for producing linearalkyl benzene (LAB) used as a raw material for manufacturing detergents.

ALKENES

These are hydrocarbons which are unsaturated. They contain double bond between two carbon atoms.

Functional group is C = C and share the same formula with cycloalkanes (cyclalkanes) are known as fractional isomer.

General formula: Cn H2n

Cycloalkanes:  Cn H2n

The type of hybridization is sp2 hybridization since it is trigonal pyramidal shape.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O24.jpg

Nomenclature:

The first member is Ethane since we can’t have double bond in a single carbon atom.

E.g. C2 H4 – Ethene

C3H6 -Propene



Isomerism:

 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_14.png

 

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\du_15.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\du_16.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\LL101.png

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\du_17.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\LL11.png

3 – methylbut -1- ene

Naming of different compounds:

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\LL9.png
3 – propylhex – 2 – ene

Functional isomers;- They have the same general formula but different functional group.  Alkenes and cyloalkanes both have general formula Cn H2n

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O101.jpg

3 – menthlyhex – 3 – ene

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\LL8.png
2, 3- dimethyl hex-2-ene

4.       D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j15.PNG

If more than 1 double bond, add a prefix (a) to hept

6 – methylhepta – 1, 3, 6 – triene



Types of Isomerism in alkenes:

Alkenes show 4 types of isomerism;

(i)     Chain isomerism

(ii)    Positional isomerism

(iii)   Geometrical isomerism

(iv)   Functional isomerism

Chain isomerism: (Skeletal isomerism)

This is due to the difference in the structure of carbon chain.

Example

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_6.png
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_7.png

Positional isomerism:

This arises from the difference in the position of the double bond.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_8.PNG

Geometrical isomerism:
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O91.jpg

Definition:

–    Is brought in the difference in the spatial arrangement of atoms or group of atoms about the double bond.



Functional isomers:

These compounds have the same general formula but difference functional group.

E.g. Alkene and cycloalkanes i.e Cn H2n
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ft1.jpg

Cyclobutane

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O111.jpg

Cyclobutene

Laboratory preparation of Alkenes:

(i)     Dehydrohalogenation of haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

–   There is elimination reaction.

–    The reaction is done in alcoholic basic medium.

Note:

General formula for alky halides is R – X, X = Cl, Br, F

–    When alky halide is heated with alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, hydrogen and halogen will be eliminated and alkene is formed.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\h73.png

This is known as Basic induced elimination reaction

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_9.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_10.png

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION

SAYTZEFF’S RULE

It states, “during elimination reaction, the electrophyl (H+) is removed from carbon atom with fewer number of hydrogen atom.

Example of reactions which apply Saytzeff’s rule;-
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\O122.jpg

(ii) (a)    Dehydration of alcohol

This is done using concentrated sulphuric acid by warming about 175 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image129.png – 180 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image027.png . You react alcohol with conc. sulphuric acid.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_111.png

Note:

Temperature is very important D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image130.png  this reaction is sensitive to temperature
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\HH11.png

NOTE:

H3PO4 (conc.) can be used as a dehydrating agent (373 – 383k)



(b)   Dehydration by passing the vapour of alcohol over aluminium oxide (alumina) at 350 D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image027.png

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\hh2.png

 

iii)          Dehalogenation of vicinal dihalides

Vicinal means the halogens are on the adjacent carbon of the same carbon.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_11.png

iv)                (a) Controlled hydrogenation of alkynes

It is done under palladium catalyst which is poisoned by calcium carbonate and quinoline and this reagent is known as Lindlers catalyst.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\hh3.png

Note:

Poisoned means that the palladium is not pure

(b) Sodium, Lithium and Ammonia

This is not complete hydrogenation.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_12.png

Chemical properties of Alkenes:

NOTE: Alkenes are more reactive than alkenes due to the presence of pi bond which is relatively weak. Hence, can react easily

1.      Addition of hydrogen halides (HX)

Alkenes undergo electrophilic addition reaction (electron loving/electron deficient).

Electrophilic addition reaction is the reaction in which electrophyl is added first followed by nucleophyl.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\DU_13.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\ds6.jpg

Addition reaction of D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image148.png  follows a rule known as Mark KovniKov’s rule



Mark KovniKov’s rule:

It states, ‘During the addition reaction the electrophyl (hydrogen) is added to carbon atom with more number of hydrogen atoms’.

Eg:      D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j_2.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\hh5.png

Why Mark Kovni Kov’s rule?

It is because of the formation of stable carbocation. Hence the rule is used so as to form a stable carbocation.
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\LL16.png

NOTE:

Stability of carbocation is due to the supply of electron from the alkyl group as shown above. The halogen is added to the stable carbon.

In long chains, a stable carbocation will be formed when the carbon is bounded by many alkyl groups (since the alkyl group will be supply electrons
D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\JANA1.PNG

Note:

Hydrogen is added to the more stable carbon.

2.     Hydration of alkenes:

Hydration means addition of water.

–          This is addition of water in the presence of mineral acids. The most preferred acid is conc H2SO4. The mixture should be heated in order to form alcohol.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\HH1.png
Carbocation will be formed in CH

Home Work:

Anti – markovnikov’s rule (organic peroxide HBr). In 1933 the American chemist M. S. Kharasch discovered that the addition of HBr to unsymmetrical alkenes in the presence of organic peroxide (R – O – O – R) takes a course opposite to that suggested by Markovnikovs rule.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j_31.png

NOTE:

It is strictly works using HBr with organic peroxide.

Mechanism:

1.     Peroxide dissociates to give alkoxy free radicals.

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j_4.PNG

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\hh6.png




Weekly Test:

1.   (b) N2(g)   + 3H2(g)     D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image044.png     2NH3(g)

Given ∆Hr = 92KJ

Since Hf you form 1mole

Hf  = D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image165.png

= D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\organic1_files\image166.png

D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j_6.PNG D:\..\..\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\j_5.PNG




CHEMISTRY FORM 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -AROMATIZATION
4/ 5
Oleh

No comments: