The term democracy comes from the two Greek words, demos which mean people, and kratos which means power. Therefore, in Greek, the word democracy means the rule of the people; it is the system where by the population of a given society controls the government. Abraham Lincoln, the 19th USA’s president, defined democracy as the government of the people, by the people for the people.
Of the people means that people are sovereignty and that the government derives its power and authority from them. For the people means that the government is there to serve the interest of the people and by the people means that people should have the power and right to choose leaders who are to govern on their behalf. These leaders are all representatives of the entire society.
Generally, democracy can be defined as the form of government in which people rule. Majority of people have supreme (highest) political power to make decisions in the country
Also,  democracy can be defined as a system of government in which all people in a country can vote to elect their representatives. In a democracy, the government receives its power from the mandate of its citizens. Citizens agree to be ruled by the government because this is a practical and convenient way of running the country for the benefit of all.

1. Citizen participation
Citizen participation means the involvement of citizens of the country in different affairs, including:
  • Voting in elections.
  • Being informed about community or civic meetings.
  • Being members of private voluntary organizations.
  • Paying taxes.
  • Be aware of public issues.
  • Discussing public issues.
  • Working in campaigns.
  • Contributing to political parties
  • Circulating and signing petitions.
2. Equality
Democracy values all individuals equally. This means people have equal opportunities and may not be discriminated against because of their race, religion, ethnic group or gender. Democracy allows an individual or groups the right to have different cultures, personalities, languages and beliefs.
3. Political tolerance
Democratic societies are politically tolerant. This means that while the minority of the people rules, the rights of the majority is protected. People who are not in power are allowed to organize themselves and speak out because they may have ideas which are different from those of the leaders. Individual citizens must also learn to tolerate each other.
4. Accountability
Democracy makes leaders accountable to the people. Leaders are responsible for their actions. They make decisions and work according to the will and wishes of the people.
5. Transparency
A transparent government holds meetings and allows citizens to attend, express their views and ask questions. In democracy, the press and the people are able to get information about what decisions are made, by whom and why. An accountable government makes people aware of what is happening in the country.
6. Regular free and fair elections
Electing officials to represent people in government regularly is a way of expressing the citizens’ will. Officials are chosen and removed from office in a free and fair manner. Corruption and threats to citizens during or before an election are against the principles of democracy.
7. Economic freedom
Democratic societies allow people to have economic freedom. The government allows private ownership of goods and services. People are allowed to engage in any legal work. They are also allowed to join labour unions. The government lets people debate national issues.
8. Control of the abuse of power
Democratic societies try to prevent any elected officials or groups of people from misusing or abusing their power. The power can be abused through corruption or use of public funds for their own benefit, e.g. accepting money or gifts so as to provide services in an illegal manner.

9. Bill of Rights
A Bill of Rights is a list of rights and freedoms guaranteed to all people in the country’s Constitution. The courts of law have the power to enforce these rights. Democracy emphasizes the value of every human being. Examples of rights include freedom of expression, freedom of association, freedom of assembly, the right to equality and the right to education.
10. Multiparty
Every democratic country allows the existence of more than one political party. The political parties must participate in elections and play a role in government. A multiparty system allows the party which wins the general election to form the government.
When multiparty politics prevail in a state, they make the government constantly concerned about serving the people. The opposition parties challenge and correct the government.
11. The Rule of Law
The rule of law is the situation where all members of society, including the leaders, accept and respect the authority of the law. No one is above the law.All people are equal before the law. Everyone must obey the laws and be accountable if they abuse it. The rule of law insists that the law be equally, fairly and consistently enforced.
12. Accepting the results of elections
Elections are one of the components of democracy. In any contest, there must be winners and losers. Sometimes, those who lose in an election think that their candidate is the best and refuse to accept the results. Refusing the results is against democratic principles. This may result in violence, which is also against democracy. To make people accept the results of elections, the elections must be free and fair.
There are two types of democracy; direct and indirect.
1. Direct democracy or participatory democracy
This is a political system where the people vote on government decisions. It is called ‘direct’ because the power of making decisions is exercised by the people directly, without representatives.
All adult citizens participate in decision-making on matters brought for discussion. Every important issue is put before an assembly of all citizens for a vote. Direct democracy can only be practiced in countries with a small population. Switzerland is the only country in the world which practices direct democracy. Every Swiss citizen votes on national matters and can challenge laws passed as well as propose amendments to laws. In many countries, it is impossible for every citizen to take part directly in all governmental decision-making because of very large populations. We can observe some of the elements of direct democracy in our country e.g. in local governments, small communities, tribes, clans or families. In these groups, every adult is allowed to come together and vote on certain issues. This is direct democracy at the local level.

Features of direct democracy
  • Societies have enough freedom to make their own decisions.
  • People directly contribute to government decisions.
  • All votes have equal weight.
  • All adult citizens have the fight to vote on all national issues.
2. Indirect or representative democracy
This is a political system whereby people elect representatives instead of voting directly on most government decisions. Citizens elect people to serve in parliament and executive positions. These representatives convey the interests and desires of their constituents by participating in governmental processes.
Representation can also be in different groups in the community. Members of the community elect persons to represent them and give them power to decide on their behalf.In representative democracy, citizens participate indirectly by electing village councilors, members of parliament and the President.
At the school level, students elect their representatives to the school government. For example, a class monitor may represent his or her class in the school government.
Features of indirect democracy
  • Elected leaders or representatives are removed through elections organized constitutionally and periodically. Tanzania conducts elections after every five years.
  • All adult citizens have the right to vote or be voted for in an election.
  • People have freedom of assembly, worship, press, opinion and association as long as they abide by the laws of the country.
  • The elected body governs according to the wishes of the majority.
  • There is competition among political parties.
Types of indirect democracy
(a) Parliamentary democracy
This is a type of indirect democracy whereby voters elect representatives to be members of parliament. Members of parliament in turn choose a person to head the Cabinet. That head of Cabinet is called a Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in parliament. He or she chooses Cabinet ministers from the Parliament.
The Prime Minister and the Cabinet remain in office as long as there is majority support in the parliament. The members of parliament have the power to force the Prime Minister to resign through a vote of no confidence. If they vote against the Prime Minister, then he or she must resign and a new Prime Minister is elected by Parliament. Ethiopia, India and the United Kingdom are examples of countries run by parliamentary democracy.

(b) Presidential democracy
This is a form of representative democracy whereby the parliament and Cabinet are independent organs. Voters elect representatives to a Parliament. They also elect the head of the Cabinet that is the president. The president holds office for a fixed item. In a presidential democracy, the president does not directly control the parliament so the two can check each other’s power. This is called a system of checks and balances.
In this type of democracy the President may come from one political party while the majority members of parliament come from another political party. Tanzania follows this system.

(c) Combined parliamentary and presidential democracy
This is the type of democracy whereby the president is elected by the people while the prime minister is elected by the members of parliament.
An example of a country which has combined parliamentary and presidential democracy is France. Tanzania is a parliamentary system which is described as, ‘hybrid’ between the America presidential system and the British system of parliamentary democracy. The advantages of this system are that the branches of the state checks and balance each other; hence there is clear separation of power.
Assessing whether Tanzania implements Democracy in accordance with the Principle of Democracy
Assess whether Tanzania implements in accordance with the principle of democracy
Tanzania is a country which implements democracy in various ways, including the following:
  1. Political freedom-Tanzanians who qualify to vote may stand for election. In addition, citizens attend community or civic meetings and are members of political parties.
  2. No discrimination-There is no discrimination of people due to their race, religion, ethnic group or gender. We are all equal.
  3. Tolerance-The opposition parties are tolerated and protected. Citizens are also required to be tolerant of each other.
  4. Free and fair elections-There are fair and free elections. Elections are held regularly, after every five years.
  5. Economic freedom-From 1985 to date, the government of Tanzania has allowed freedom of economy and private ownership. Individuals are allowed to own property and businesses. People are allowed to choose their own work and join labour unions.
  6. Multipartism- Multiparty politics was reintroduced in 1992. Since then, many political parties have been established which participate in different political affairs.
  7. Legal rights-In democratic elections, the losers respect the results. In case there is dissatisfaction, one may demand his or her rights through a court of law.
  8. Equality before the law-In Tanzania, no one is above the law. People are equal before the law. If there is violation of any law, people are allowed to demand justice through a court of law
  9. Rule of law-Tanzania controls abuse of power. The government has established organizations to facilitate the rule of law. Examples are the Human Rights and Good Governance Commission and the Prevention and Combating Corruption Bureau (PCCB). These organizations help to protect people against abuse of power. Therefore, the rights and freedoms of the people are guaranteed.
Weaknesses of democracy
Democracy has shortcomings to individuals and the society as well. The following are some of the weaknesses of democracy.
  1. Unfairness, This can come about through the implementation of the majority’s decision and leaving out the minority’s decision. Sometimes, the minority’s decisions are also good.
  2. Poor representation, Delegation and representation are elements of democracy. Sometimes, those elected to represent others are incapable of dealing with technical issues. The result will be poor representation.
  3. Need for literacy, Some members of society are illiterate;they do not bow their rights, especially those rights which are denied by their leaders. Illiterate people do not know the power limits of their leaders. Such people may elect rulers who are incapable under the umbrella of democracy. Those who are in power take advantage of the ignorance of these people to mistreat them.
  4. Time-consuming, In the democratic societies, much time is spent to reach decisions even though the matter in discussion may need a quick solution.

Non-democratic governments
These are forms of government which do not exercise democracy. The rulers exercise their power without limits. Dictatorship is the ruling system whereby all powers rest in the hands of a few people or one person. Dictatorship governments have similar characteristics but there are slight differences in the way they operate in different countries. The following are some of the forms of dictatorship:
  1. Autocracy is a type of dictatorship in which a single person has unlimited power. He or she can do whatever he or she wants. In this form of dictatorship, the judiciary is not allowed to function independently and the people do not enjoy civic liberties. Political power is monopolized by one person or a small group of people. The rule of the elite is justified only on the basis of traditions, force or a coup.
  2. Totalitarianism is a type of government in which all powers are in the hands of one political party which dominates every aspect of human life. Those who are in power believe that no citizen has any right to challenge their authority. Leaders control power and all administrative apparatus. The services of secret forces and intelligence police are used to find out those who try to raise their voice of dissent from official views. Examples of dictators of this type were Benito Mussolini of Italy and Adolf Hitler of Germany.
  3. Caesarism is a government that is controlled by military or imperial dictatorship.
  4. Fascism is a government with strict and severe rules. It suppresses the opposition through tenor and censorship.
Differences between democratic and non-democratic governments
Democratic government Non-democratic government
  1. Respects human rights.
  2. Decisions are made by the majority.
  3. There is political competition.
  4. Citizens delegate their power to their representatives willingly.
  5. The state is accountable to the citizens.
  6. Rulers remain in power for a specific period of time.
  1. Human rights are not respected.
  2. Decisions are made by the minority Or one person.
  3. There is no political competition.
  4. The citizens’ power is grabbed by the minority forcefully.
  5. The rulers are in power for their personal interests.
  6. Rulers remain in power for a longtime, even for life.
Common Features of Multiparty Democracy
Multiparty democracy is a political system in a country where many political parties are operating legally. Each political party has the aim of taking power through democratic election and forming the government.
A political party is a group of people legally organized and registered for the purposes of forming a government.
In order to have a multiparty democracy, more than one political party must participate in elections and play a role in government. A multiparty democracy allows an opposition party to win the election. The following are features of multiparty democracy.
  • Citizens express their political views openly. The national Constitution states the right to form opposition political parties and encourages the citizens to express their political views openly.
The opposition parties act as a watchdog over the ruling party.
  • Human rights are respected so citizens are free to express themselves. There is freedom of press, freedom of association, freedom of worship and the right to join political parties of one’s choice.
  • Public accountability and transparency is promoted. Multiparty democracy is one way of checking the abuse of power in government.
  • Multipartism is tolerant. It tolerates group’s and individuals’ views.
  • There is a high level of citizen participation in political affairs. They can vote and be voted for.
  • Citizens are allowed to form pressure groups or nongovernmental organizations(NGOs).
  • The actions of the state are kept constantly responsive to social and political needs.

Historical background of multiparty democracy in Tanzania
Our country reintroduced multiparty democracy in 1992. This is not first time our country is experiencing this system of politics.
At the time of resisting colonial rule, Tanganyika had multiparty democracy. The political parties that existed at that time were United Tanganyika Party (UTP), African National Congress (ANC), All Muslim National Union of Tanganyika (AMNUT) and Tanganyika African National Union (TANU).
It was the same in Zanzibar. Before her partial independence in 1963, the political parties in Zanzibar were Afro-Shiraz Party (ASP), Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP), Zanzibar and Pemba People’s Party (ZPPP) and the short-lived UMMA party.The parties were well-organized, strong and very active in both Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Every political party was doing what was expected by its members.
The 1965 constitutional changes created a one party state in both Tanganyika and Zanzibar. In Tanganyika, TANU was the only political party while ASP was the only party in Zanzibar. From 1965 to 1992, Tanzania did not have a multiparty system. Now, we have the following registered political parties in Tanzania:
  • Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM)
  • Civic United Front (CUF-Chama cha Wananchi)
  • Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA)
  • Tanzania Labour Party (TLP)
  • National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR-Mageuzi)
  • United Democratic Party (UDP)
  • Chama cha Halci na Ustawi (CHAUSTA)
  • Jahazi AsiliaProgressive Party of Tanzania (PPT-Maendeleo)
  • Democratic Party (DP)
  • Tanzania Democratic Alliance (TADEA)
  • Sauti ya Umma (SAU)
  • National League for Democracy Party (NLDP)
  • National Reconstruction Alliance (NRA)
  • Demokrasia MakiniForum for Restoration of Democracy (FORD)
  • Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD)
Activity 1
Visit the offices of different political parties which are near your school.1. Ask the officials when the parties were formed and what the parties’ goals are.2. Ask them to give you the organizational structure of their parties.3. Ask them the names of the current leaders of their parties.4. Ask them to explain what the symbols and colours of their flags represent.
How a Student can Participate in Democratic Activities in the Society
Explain how he/she can participate in democratic activities in the society
Participation in democratic activities is the fight and duty of everyone. Students’ participation can make a difference in how democracy works in their country.
Students’ participation in democracy may take many forms including
  • Standing for election, e.g. for school or club leadership positions.
  • Voting for leaders or issues in school or club elections. Students who qualify should also participate in civic and national elections.
  • Joining a political party, if one qualifies to do so.
  • Taking part in the work of a political party.
  • Staying informed about what is happening in Parliament.
  • Participating in youth organizations in the community.
  • Debating matters relating to democracy.
  • Helping to educate the community on their democratic rights, e.g. through skits and songs.
  • Attending community or civic meetings.
  • Expressing their opinions, e.g. in their peer groups or schools.

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