FORM FIVE ENGLISH NOTES:WORD FORMATION

Posted on

WORD FORMATION

This is the field or branch of morphology which studies different principles or processes which govern the conservation or formation of words in a particular language. I.e. it refers to the processes by which new words are formed or built in a particular language.

This process involves morphological processes (then formation of words through combinations of morphemes together with other different processes.

The process of word formation may involve the process whereby roots or stems received inflectional or derivational element (affixes) in order to form the new words.

NB: The roots, stems inflectional or derivational elements are all technique termed as morphemes

           MORPHOLOGY

This is a component of grammar (sub branch) of linguistics which deals with the study of morphemes and their difference forms (Allomorphs) and how these units combine together in the formation of words. It also studies the structure and arrangement of words in the dictionary i.e. Morphology is the study of word formation and dictionary use.

DEFINITIONS OF KEY  WORDS

1.      Morpheme

       This is the smallest grammatical or lexical unit in the structure of a language which may form a word or part of a word

        E.g. nation     national
International
Internationally
Nationalization
Kind –  kindness

                   Unkind
Unkindness
Take – takes

                   Taken
Taking

        Discuss –  discussion

              Discussions
A morpheme may represent the lexical meaning or grammatical function.

2.      Word
    This is the minimal or smallest unit in the structure of a sentence in any language which may constitute on utterance or sentence on its own.
The word is usually formed by either one or several morphemes out it is the smallest unit in the sentence structure.
E.g. Yesterday I met him at Tabata- 6 words

We can words in a sentence and morphemes in a word

       3.      Stem
Is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added. Or
Is that part of the word that inflectional affixes can be attached to.
For example:- “cat” can take inflectional morpheme-‘S’
– “Worker” can take inflectional morpheme-‘S’
– “Winne” can take inflectional morpheme-‘S’
– “Short” can take inflectional morpheme-‘er’
– “friendship” can take inflectional morpheme-‘S’
NB:

  • A stem is a root or roots of the word together with any derivation affixes to which inflectional affixes are added.
  • A stem consists minimally of a root but may be analyzable word into a root plus derivation morphemes

4. Base
Is any unit whatsoever to which affixes of any kind can be added.
For example; in the word “playful”
play‘ is a root and also a base
In the word ‘playfulness‘ the root is still “play” but the base is ‘playful

                            – “Instruct” is the base for forming instruction, instructor and re-instruct
NB: All roots can be bases but not all bases are roots.

TASK
1. Write ten words which you think are bases but they are not roots
2. Identify the inflectional affixes, derivational affixes, roots, base and stems in the following words faiths, faithfully, unfaithful, faithfulness, bookshops, window-cleaners, hardships

5.     Root

This is a basic part of a word which normally carries lexical meaning corresponding to the concept, object or idea and which cannot be split into further parts
Roots in many languages may also be joined to other roots or take affixes or combing forms
E.g. Man   manly,  house hold, big

      6.      Affix

This is a morpheme, usually grammatical which is attached to another morpheme (stem) in the formation of a new word which may change the meaning, grammatical category or grammatical form of the stem.

       E.g. Beautiful   mismanagement

            Disconnect

The affix maybe added either before, with or after the stem thus are three types of affixes.

i.    Prefix

This is the affix which is added before the stem

E.g.   Disconnect

          Illogical

          Unhappy

Empower

ii.   Infix

This is the affix that is added within the stem. Thus type of affix is rare to be found in English words

E.g. meno   –  meino

iii.  Suffix

This is the affix that is added after the stem.

                        E.g.  Mismanagement
Beautiful
Dismissal
Kingdom

                7.      Allomorph

 This refers to any of the difference forms of the same morpheme root they all represent the past participle (grammatical function)

        C:\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\L81.jpg

            CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES

The morphemes are classified into several categories basing on several factor such as:-

Occurrence, meaning and function

There are two major types of morphemes

(i)   Free morpheme

This is the morpheme that can stand or occur alone (on its own) as a separate word in the structure of a sentences in any language.

The free morpheme includes all parts of speech i.e. Nouns, Verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, articles

                              C:\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\L91.jpg

                        The free morpheme is further divided into two categories

(a) Lexical morpheme

This is the type of frees morpheme which occurs on its own and carries a content of the message being conveyed i.e. It is the free morpheme which represents the actual lexical meaning of the concept, idea, object or action.

The lexical morphemes include the major word classes such as Noun, verbs (main verb), adjective and adverb.

E.g.      House

             Attend

             Large

            Tomorrow

(b)  Functional morpheme / grammatical morpheme

This is the free morpheme which can stand alone as a separate word in a sentence but does not represent the actual lexical meaning of the concept, idea, object or action – it has little meaning when used alone and thus it usually occurs together with the lexical morpheme in order to give the lexical meaning

The functional morphemes includes the minor word classes such as pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections and articles, auxiliary verbs etc

                          C:\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\L10.jpg

(ii)   Bound morpheme

This is the morpheme which can not normally stand alone as a separate word in the sentence structure as it is attached to another morpheme (lexical) free morpheme in the formation of the new word.

The Bound morpheme represents grammatical function such as word category tense aspect, person, number, participle, comparison etc.

Example ment, ism represents a noun, aly represent.

Adverb

Tense – ed, d, voice, number

Person – es

Aspect – ing – progressive aspect

Comparison – er, est

 The Bound morpheme is farther divided in to two categories.

(a)   Derivation morpheme

This is the bound morpheme which is used to form or make new words with different meanings and grammatical categories or class from the stem i.e. It is the morpheme which when added to the stem it changes the meaning and / or the word class of grammatical category of stem/ base Example unhappy, illogical, impossible, empower

National – noun to adjective

Derivation morpheme may occur either before or after or both before and after the stem in the formation of the new words i.e. they may occur either as prefixes or affixes example management, mismanage, mismanagement.

The derivation morpheme may also change the sub classification of the same word class such as concrete noun into abstract noun e.g. Kingdom, friendship, leadership, membership

Deviation morphemes are also used as indicators of word category example simplicity, modernize dare indicators of verb by indicator of adverbs.

 

(b)  Inflectional morpheme

This is the type of bound morpheme which is not used to produce or form different words with different meaning but rather it is used to change grammatical form of the state i.e. Inflectional morpheme doesn’t change the meaning or word class but it only changes grammatical form of the sentence which represent grammatical function such as to mark the verb for tense aspect, participle voice etc

Example finished, Lorries, oxen

Past tense – finished

Past participle – proven

Number – Lorries, oxen, children

Inflectional morpheme also marks nouns and number.

They mark adverb and adjectives for comparison

E.g. smaller, smallest

The inflectional morpheme occur only after the stem (they are suffix)

FUNCTION OF MORPHEMES

The morphemes are analyzed as having three major functions that are directly linked with their types.

The following are the functions of morphemes:-

1.  The morpheme (free morphemes) are used to form the bases or roots of the words i.e. a single free morpheme, lexical or functional forms the base or root of a word. This function is therefore called Base – formfunction

E.g. Tree, after, along

2.   The morphemes (derivation bound morphemes) are used to change the lexical meaning and / or the grammatical category of the stem. This function is called derivation function

E.g. Disunity, illegal, beautiful, quickly, modernize

3.  The morphemes (inflectional morphemes) are used to change the grammatical form or function of the stem without changing the meaning or word class.

This function is known as inflectional function

E.g. goes, tallest

TASK

Read the following passage and answer the following question

A thick vegetation cover,  such as tropical forests ,   acts as protection  against physical weathering and also helps to slow the  removal   of the  weathered layer  in deserts and  high mountains the absence of the vegetation   accelerates the rate of weathering plants and animals, however,   play a significant part in rock destruction, notably  by  chemical decomposition through the action of  organic acidic solution the acids develop  from water percolation through party decayed vegetation and animal matter.

Question

            1.      Identify

                             I.   7 lexical  morphemes

                            II.   5 derivation  morphemes

                           III.  2 inflectional morphemes

PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE

   The formation of words in English language is archived in several processes or ways. These processes fall into two major categories

(i)   The major processes which includes affixation compounding, Conversion and reduplication.

(ii) The minor processes which includes clipping Blending, Acronym, Borrowing, Back formation, Onomatopoeia, Coining/ coinage

I)   The major processes of word formation

(a)    AFFIXATION

The process of word formation whereby new words are formed by attaching or adding the affixes (prefix, infix or suffix) to the stem.

E.g.      Shortly – suffix

            Unusual – prefix

            Belonging – suffix

            Inhuman – prefix

            Dismissal – suffix

(I)Prefixation
This is the process of forming new words by adding affixes before the stem/root. For example dislike , unhappy, amoral, decolonise, redo.


Classification of prefix

        Prefix are classified into several categories basing on the meaning they give when added to the stem

   i.  Negative prefixes

     These give the meaning of “NOT” “the opposite of” or “lack of”

             E.g  Informal – irrelevant

                  Impossible – illegal

                  Immobile – illogical

                  Irregular – disobey

                  Disadvantage – amoral

                  Apolitical

ii.     Restorative prefixes

    These give the meaning of “Reverse an action”

          E.g  Undress – deforest

                  Uncover – depopulate

                  Disconnect – devalue

                  Disorganized

                  Decolonize

              iii.   Pejorative prefixes

     These give the meaning of “unless. False, fake, unimportant. Wrong, badly or bad”

E.g.Malnutrition – pseudo name

      Malpractice – pseudo intellectual

      Misconduct – pseudo scientists

      Mismanage

      Misbehave

iv.   Prefixes of degree or size
These express degree or size in terms of quality or quantity.

           E.g. Arch (supreme or highest in rank)

      Super (above or better)

      Sir (over and above) e.g. Sir name

      Sub (lower or less than) e.g. Substandard, subconscious

Over (too much) e.g. Over doss, over it, over confident

Under (too little) e.g. under paid, under look, under cook

Hyper (extremely or beyond) e.g. Hyper actives, Hyper sensitive

Ultra (extremely or beyond) e.g. Ultra modern, ultrasound

Mini (small) e.g. Mini bus, mini skirt

      v.   Prefixes of altitude

These include “Co-“(with or joined)

E.g. Co-operate, co- education, co- exist. “Counter” (in opposition to”) e.g. Counter attack, counter- revolution, and counter act

“Anti” (against) e.g. Antivirus, anticlockwise, anti body

“Pro” (instead of or on the side of) e.g. Pronoun, pro capitalism,

        Pro multiparty.

vi. Locative prefixes

These indicate location

E.g. Super (over or above) superstructure, super building, super imposed

Inter (between or among) international, inter school

Trans (across) Trans Saharan, trans plant, Trans Atlantic

vii.   Prefixes of time and order

These include “fore” (before, front, first) e.g. Foreground, fore legs, fore knowledge, fore head

Pre – (before) e.g.  Pre-mature                per- independence

                               Pre- form one

                               Pre- National

                               Pre- judge

                               Pre- war

Post – (after) e.g.   Post- graduate

                              Post – independence
Post-election

                Ex – (former) e.g. Ex – president
Ex – wife
Ex – husband
Ex – soldier

                 Re – (again or back) e.g.Re – write

                                                         Re call

                                                         Re evaluate

  viii.   Number prefixes

      These show number

             Uni-/ Mono – (means one) e.g.Uni- cellular

                                                              Mono party

 Monolingual

 Monocotyledon

 Monosyllabic

      Bi -/ Bi – (means two, double or twice) e.g.Bilingua
Bicycle
Ditransitive
Dicotyledon
Bi- annual

                     Tri (three) e.g. Triangle
Tricycle
Trilateral

                     Multi/ poly (many) e.g
Polyandry
Polygamy
Multi lingua
Multiparty
Multi disciplinary

            ix.    Conversion prefixes

Prefixes used to change a word from noun/adjective to verb

En – (make or become) e.g.     Enslave

Enlarge

Ensure

Enforce

Enrich

                                                       Enlightened

Be – (make or become) e.g.     Befriend

Be calm

Be witch

                 -A- (be or become) e.g. a live

                                                              A sleep
A rise

x.  Other prefixes

   –   Auto (self) – Auto biography

 Autograph

 Autocracy

                  -Neo (new or revived) e.g. Neo- colonialism

                                                                Neo-man
Ne

                  -Pan (all or worldwide) e.g. Pan-africanism

                  -Proto (original) e.g. Proto Bantu

                                                    Proto language
Proto type

                -Semi (half) e.g. Semi-circle

                                           Semi- hemisphere
Semi- final
Semi-model
TASK

1. Provide the meaning of the following prefixes and provide three examples of words/roots/stem which can be use these prefixes.
i) Sur –
ii) Proto –
iii) Hyper –
iv) Dis –
v) Neo –

2. With examples differentiate between pejorative prefixes and locative prefixes.
3. Use appropriate prefix(es)in each of the following words
i) Charge
ii) Type
iii) possible
iv) Navigation
v) Ability

4. i) Give three examples of reversative prefixes
ii) Write three examples of the prefix poly_
iii) What is the difference of the prefix “Un” in unhappy, unkind and in uncover, untie

            (II) Suffixation
Is the process of adding morphemes after a system/root. So as to form new word. Unlike prefixation, suffixes frequently alter the word class of
a root/stem.

Classification of suffix

       The suffixes are classified according to the class of the new word formed after the addition of the suffixes.

       There are four major types of suffixes

    i)      Noun suffixes

   ii)      Adjective suffixes

  iii)    Adverb suffixes

  iv)    Verb suffixes

i)    Noun Suffixes

          Are the suffixes added to the stem or bases of different word classes in the formation of the new word that are noun by category.

          This falls into four categories;

       (a)    Noun to noun suffixes

-star (engaged in or belongs to)

       E.g. – Young –star

           Gang-star

       -eer (engaged in or belongs to)

      E.g. Engineer

             Profiteer

             Racketeer

-let (small)

      E.g. Booklet

             Leaflet

             Piglet

-ette (small)

      E.g. Kitchenette

             Cigarette

             Statuette

-ess (small) e.g. Lioness

                        Actress

                        Princess

-hood (in the state or status of) e.g. Brotherhood

                                                              Manhood

                                                              Neighborhood

                                                              Youth hood

                                                              Adulthood

-Ship (in the state or status of)

                  E.g. Friendship

                         Relationship

-Dom (in the condition)

                  E.g. Kingdom

                         Freedom

                         Boredom

                         Wisdom

-cracy (system of government)

      E.g. Bureaucracy

             Democracy

-ery (behavior of or place an ac

      E.g. Slavery

             Machinery

             Peasantry

             Carpentry

                                                         Concrete – Abstract

                       (b)Noun to Adjective suffixes are the suffixes added to

-ist (member of) e.g.  Socialist

                                 Idealist

                                 Capitalist

                                 Ratio list

-ism (attitude or political movement)

      E.g. Idealism

             Communism

-ness (quality) or state

      E.g. Happiness

             Cleverness

-ity (state or quality) e.g. Stupidity

                                      Ability

                                      Salinity

(c)Verb to Noun suffixes

-er (instrumental or a genitive) e.g. Player

                                                   Reader

                                                   Writer

                                                    Farmer

                                                    Leader

-or (“ ) e.g.    Actor

                     Investigator

                     Incubator

                     Insulator

-al (action of) e.g. Arrival

                           Dismissal

                           Withdrawal

                           Proposal

-age (an activity or)

                  E.g.     Drainage

                              Marriage

                              Passage

                              Leakage

-ment (state or action of)

                  E.g.   Government

                           Treatment

                            Achievement

                            Improvement

-ant (instrumental or adjective)

E.g.  Assistant

                  -ee (passive receiver) e.g. Employee
Payee
Trainee
Appointee
Interviewee

     – (a) tion (state or action)

           E.g. organization

                   Examination

                   Discussion

                   Globalization

                   Penetration

(ii)Adjective suffixes

                           They are used to change the bases of different word classes such as noun or verbs in order to form the new words that are Adjective by
class.

 (a)Verb to Adjective suffixes

-ive (which) e.g. Active

                         Respective

                         Comparative

                         Collective

-able /-ible

                  E.g.  Manageable

                          Sensible

                          Movable

                          Honorable

 

(b)   Noun to Adjective suffixes

-al (of or with)  e.g. National

                              Accidental

                              Criminal

                              Historical

– (ii) an (member of) e.g. Tanzanian

                                         Canadian

-ful (having or with)

      E.g.  Beautiful

              Wonderful

-less (without)

      E.g.      Childless

                  Speechless

                  Harmless

                  Hopeless

                  Useless

-ly (having a quality of)

      E.g.      Manly

                  Friendly

                  Cowardly

-ish (belong to or having the character of)

      E.g.      Selfish

                  Turkish

                  Irish

                  Swedish

-ous (with or worth) e.g. Dangerous

                                        Famous

-ese (a member or citizen of)

      E.g.      Chinese

                  Congolese

                  Japanese

-y (like, with or cover with)

      E.g.      Sandy

                  Muddy

                  Sugar

                  Healthy

                  Creamy

                  Hairy

-like (having a quality or behavior like)

      E.g.      Childlike

                  Fingerlike

      (iii)Verb suffixes

These are the suffixes added to the stems or roots of Noun or adjectives to from the new words which are verbs by class.

These are three types of verb suffixes

                        -ify (cause or make) e.g. Identify
Simplify
Notify
Classify
Purify

                        -en (cause or make) e.g. Widen   lengthen
Sharpen      strengthen
Weaken
Sadden
Threaten

                        -ize/ – ise ( “  ) e.g.   Apologize
Colonize
Socialize
Formalize

(iv)  Adverb suffixes

These are the suffixes which when added to the roots or stems they produce a new word which is an adverb by class

                      -ly (in the manner of) e.g. quickly
Slowly
Quietly
Happily
Gradually

                    -ward (in the manner of or in the direction of)

                                    E.g. Backward
Onwards
Inwards
Downwards
Upwards

-wise (as far as or in the manner of)

                                       E.g.   Education wise
Clockwise
Cultural wise
Political wise
TASK
1. Form verbs from the following words; family, type, popular, clear.
2. Form adjectives from the following words;expression, problem, progress, crime, courage.
3. With examples differentiate prefixes from suffixes

      b.  COMPOUNDING

     This is the process of words formation whereby two or more lexical morphemes are joined or combined together to form a new single word.

            E.g.   Classroom
Earth quake
Girlfriend
Tea spoon
Table mat
Easy-going
Washing-machine
NB:  The new words formed as a result of the process of compounding are technique known as compound words or compounds.

Classification of compound words

The compound words are classified basing on two aspects;

i)  The way they are written
ii) According to the meaning

i)  The way they are written

–   Solid/closed compound

These are the compound words that are written without leaving any space or gap between the bases.

            E.g.  Classroom
Teaspoon
Earthquake
Wallpaper
Textbook
Payphone

–    Hyphenated compounds

These are the compound words that the written with the hyphen separating the two bases.

            E.g. Fire-escape
High-grade
Colour-blind
Brother-in-law
Machine-gun

–   Open Compounds

These are the compound words that are written by leaving the space (gap) between the two bases.

            E.g.  Sewing machine
Town planning
Tape measure
Baking powder
Washing machine

      ii)   According to the meaning

  Transparent compounds

These are the compound whose meanings reflect the meaning of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are directly derived or related to the meaning of the separate bases which make them up.

            E.g.  Classroom
Girlfriend
Earthquake
Teaspoon
Washing machine

Opaque Compounds

These are the compounds whose meanings differ from the meanings of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are not derived or not directly related with the meanings of separate bases which make up

E.g. Honey moon                              wide spread
Daily word                                blue berry
Pass word                                  call right
Sweet heart                                cow boy
Hot cake
Home sick
Sugar mummy
Day dream

Bahrain

These are the compound words whose meanings reflect the physical features or appearance of a person or object being reflected to.

E.g.    Blackboard
White fluid
Block head
Feature weight
Red – eyed

Identification of the compound words

There are three ways of identifying the compound words

i.   Through the entry in the dictionary i.e. any compound word should occupy its own entry in the dictionary. It should be regarded as an independent word in the dictionary.

E.g. Bedroom

Classroom

National park

ii.  Through the word class or category i.e. Each compound word has its own class different from other word classes of the words constituting the compound

E.g. play boy – Noun

     Play -Verb

     Boy – noun

Madman – noun

Mad – adjective

Man – noun

Colour blind – adjective

Colour – noun

Blind – adjective

Well – known – adjective

Well – adverb

Known – verb

iii.   Through the meaning i.e. some words retain their original meaning after the combination but some of the words convey the meaning that are totally different from the meaning of the original word

E.g. Green fly, Sweet heart, Pass word

(c) CONVERSION

This is the process of word formation (derivation process) whereby a base is assigned a new word category (class) without an addition or reduction of any affix. I.e. it is the process whereby a new word is formed by the change of one class into another without the addition or reduction of affix or syllable such as noun into verb adjective – noun and vice – verse

E.g. Love (N) Love is blind.

                 Love (V) I love you.

Walk (N) The walk to Kilimanjaro was fantastic.

Walk (V) We usually walk on foot to school.

Drink (N) We didn’t get any drink at chalinze.

Drink (V) My parents drink beer daily.

Help (N) I need help.

Help (V) I used to help him.

Work (N) My brother has gone to work.

Work (V) They work day and night.

Doubt (N) I did not have any doubt on her.

Doubt (V) I doubt his ability.

Lower (V) May you please lower your voice?

Lower (Adj) He usually speaks in a lower voice.

Ship (N) She traveled by ship.

Ship (V) Slave traders ship travel to America every year.

Poor (N) we need to help the poor.

Poor (Adj) That poor person has been killed.

NB: There some words which change from noun into verb by either voice in the final consonant or by stress shift

(N) Use /just/

(V) Use /just/

Advice (N) I gave him advice.

Advice (V) I advised him.

Object – (N) give me that object.

Object – (V) why do you object?

Conduct – (N) he didn’t show as any good.

Conduct – (V) conduct discussion.

Protest (N) – The protest was between government and student of Dodoma University.

Protest (V) – The groups of women took to the streets to protest against the arrest.

Present (N) Adj – I was present.

      –   He has brought a nice present.

Present (V) – Present your work.

TASK
1. Construct two sentences in each of the following words showing how they can be used in a different word classes without any affixation process
i) Water
ii) Import
iii) Produce
iv) Class
v) Cleaning

 2. Write new sentences by changing each of the words in capital in to noun

      I.  What  you PRESENT  to day will automatically affect your future

     II.   We except to  PRODUCE enough crops this year because there is enough rain

    III.   The names of evils doers were BLACKLISTED

    IV.    For the language to develop, it must borrow some vocabularies from other language.

(d)       REDUPLICATION

This is the process of word formation where by new words are formed through the repetition of the same or almost the same sounds i.e. It is the process whereby the new word are formed by repeating sound which are either similar or slightly different

E.g.      Hush – hush

            Sing – song

            Tip – top

            Tick – tock

            Ding – dong

            Zig – zag

 Criss – cross

 Poor – poor

 Goody – goody

 See – saw

 Tom – tom

 Bow – Bo

NB: The new words that are formed as a result of reduplication process are known as reduplicative

The reduplication have the following basic uses

1.      To imitate sound

E.g. Ding – dong (sound of the bell)

Ha ha – (sound of laughter)

Bow – bow (dog barking)

Tick – tock (Clock sound)

2.      To make things took more intense than they are.

(To intensify adjectives)

E.g. Tip – top – (top most)

Goody – goody (very good)

3.      To suggest a state of disorder, instability, non-sense

E.g. Niggled – pigged (Un orderly/ mixed up)

Lodge – podge (disorganized)

Wishy – washy (weak)

Locus – pocus (Trickery)

Tick – tacky (cheap an of low quality)

Pool – pool (not working)

              4.      To suggest alternative movement of things

          C:\thlb\cr\tz\__i__images__i__\L111.jpg
II.    Minor processes of word information

(e)  CLIPPING

This process of word formation whereby one of the syllables are omitted or subtracted from a word and the remaining syllables are regarded as a new word

This occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form which is regarded as a new word.

NB: The removal or emotion of a syllable may take place either at the beginning at the end of the word or both.

 More examples: –
Omnibus – bus
Air plane – plane
Telephone – phone
Laboratory – lab
Photograph – photo
Memorandum – memo
Advertisement – advert
Mathematics – maths
Public – pub
Gasoline – gas
Influence – flu word
Refrigerator – fridge

            (f) BLENDING

This is the process of word formation whereby two or more parts, fragments or elements of two or more different words are put or joined together to form a new.

I.e. it is the process of talking only the beginning part of one word and joining it to (with) the beginning or the end of another word.

Example: – breakfast + lunch = Bruch

Motorist + hotel =motel

Cellular + telephone = cell phone

Mobile + telephone = mobile

Television + Broad cast = telecast

International + police = Interpol

Transfer + resister = transistor

Information + entertainment = infotainment

Gasoline + alcohol = gas

International + network = internet

Television + marathon = telethon

Motor + pedal = moped

Electronic + mail = email

Smoke + fog = smog

Helicopter + airport = heliport

Parachute + troops = paratroops

Travel + catalogue = travelogue

Binary + Digit = bit

            g. ACRONYM

This is the process of word formation whereby the initial or first letters of different words are put together as a new word.

The words that are formed from the initial letter are technique termed as acronyms.

There are two types of acronyms

      i.     Acronyms pronounced as a sequence of letter

E.g.      C.O.D – cash on delivery

            CID – Criminal Investigation Department

            FBI – Federal bureau

            UN – United Nations

            IPA – International Phonetic Alphabet

            CUF – Civil United Front

            CPU- central processing unit

       ii.   Acronyms pronounced as words

E.g.      NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization

TANESCO – Tanzania electricity Supply Company

UNO – United Nations Organization

UNESCO – United nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

                                    Organization

AIDS – Acquired immune Deficiency and Syndrome

CUF – Civil United Fronts

TANU – Tanganyika African National Union

TAMWA – Tanzania Media Women Association

(h)BACK FORMATION

This is the process of word formation whereby new words are created or formed by the removal of some parts (affixes) from an existing word.

I.e. it is the process whereby a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of different type (usually a verb)

E.g.    Option = opt

Examination = Examine

Donation = Donate

Worker = Work

Television = Televised

Emotion = Emote

Discussion = Discuss

Action = act

(i)  BORROWING

This is the process of taking over the words from one language and adopting or incorporating into another language. The borrowed words are termed as loan words.

English language has borrowed many words

E.g. alcohol – Arabic

Zebra – Bantu

Safari –  Swahili

Garage – French

Piano – Italian

Chemistry – Arabic

Opera – Italian

Umbrella – Italian

Mosquito – Spanish

Zero – Arabic

Wagon – Dutch

Golf – Dutch

Calvary – Italian

Magazine Arabic

Bazaar – Persia

Boss – Dutch

Tycoon – Japanese

Algebra – Arabic

However other language have borrowed some words from English

(Shirt) English – shati – Swahili

Super market – suupaa – maketto – Japanese

Radio – rajio – Japanese

           (j) COINING/ COINAGE

This is the process of word formation by which totally new words are incorporated into the language. This comes as a result of scientific discoveries in which new terms or words are introduced which name the product.

E.g. Aspirin

Website

Black berry

Toss

 Hitachi

Samsung

Internet

Globalization

You – tube

            (k) ONOMATOPOEIA

This is the process whereby words are formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animal. The word formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animals are termed as Onomatopoeic or Echo words

E.g. ding – dong (sound of a bell)

      Bomb (explosion)

      Bow bow (dog barking)

Bang (sudden loud noise of something)

Tick – tock – (clock sound)

Cuckoo – (sound of a bird)

 Hah aha –( laughter)

Revision Question

  1.  Mention the word formation processes involved in the formation of the following words.

i.       Exaggeration

ii.     Vodacom

iii.   Transistor

iv.     Safari

v.       Revlon

vi.     Farmer

vii.    Sugarcane

viii.  Leader ship

ix.     Book case

x.       Motel

xi.      Socialist

xii.    Bookcase

xiii.   Prof

xiv.    Samsung

xv.      Mini

xvi.    Motorcycle

xvii.  UNO

 2. Make two different sentences for each of the following words.  For each sentence the word has to belong to a different class.

i.  A conflict

(i)    ………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(ii)   …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

ii.    Abuse

(i)    …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii)   …………………………………………………………………………………………….

iii.  Insult

(i)      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

iv.  Narrow

(i)     ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)     ……………………………………………………………………………………………

v.    Reject

(i)   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)    …………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. Name the word formation processes involved in the formation of the words in brackets

       I.   Mwakifulefule had a  (jacket less)  book

       II.   Mayasa  (parties)  every Saturday night

      III.  Everybody must fight against (aids)

      IV.   Mufungwa  has just got a new (car phone)

      V.    Kagaruki wants  to be a (footballer)

 
NECTA  2012

1.      Read the following complex sentence and then answer the questions that follow.

Tanzania government has been using teacher in trying to transform education system which was inherited from the colonialism in order to match it with its own new goals, aspirations and concepts of development.

Identify the following from the above given sentence.

a.      Five stems

b.      From 5 stems in part (a) show the roots

c.      5 derivation morphemes

d.      5 inflectional morpheme

               2.  a Provide the adjectival forms the following words and write one

                        Sentence for all

i.      Break

ii.     Measure

iii.   Mentally

iv.    Memory

 v.     Medicine

            b.  explain the process involved in the formation of the following groups of words

                        i.     Alcohol, boos, piano, zebra

                        ii.    Loan word, waste basket, water – bird, finger print

                        iii.   Facsimile – fax, cabriolet – cab, advertisement – ad

                        iv.   Telecast, hotel, heliport, brunch

  vi.     Telecast – television, opt- option, enthuse – enthusiasm, emote – emotion

Answers for question 1 & 2 (necta 2012)

1a.       Government
Education
Colonialism
Aspiration
Development

b.     Govern
Educate
Colony
Spice
Develop

   c.      meant
ion
ism
ion
met

  d.       -ing
-en
-s
-ed

2 a. Breakable
My pen is breakable.
b.Measurable
Ojiki’s thing is measurable
c.   Mental
She visited the mental clinic
d.    Memorable
Her birthday was a memorable event
e.    Medical
She is a medical student
b.   (i)    Borrowing
(ii)   Compounding
(iii)  Clipping
(iv)   Blending
(v)    Back formation

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *