– By the end of this chapter you should be able to.

  1. Express your feelings, ideas, opinions, views and emotions comfortably. 2. Defend your position in an argument.


People feel differently because of various reasons. For example, if one has lost his/her parent, he will feel very grieved (sad); but if one has won a lottery, he will feel excited and happy.


  1. When you say: “I feel or I am ……………………………… (Followed by and adjective like: happy, said, embarrassed, overjoyed, etc) you are expressing a feeling.

For example:

  1. If “I feel” is substituted for “I think” then you are expressing a thought

E.g. I think you are right/ wrong (a thought)


If……… and Unless…………

The uses of If………

Listed below are examples, uses and formation about If……… Conditionals.

A Conditional is something that has to be fulfilled first before something else could happen.

Example: If you don’t pay school fees you cannot write English exam (It means you must pay school fees so that you can be allowed to write English exam)

Words used in conditional sentences are

  1. If: If the rain stops, we will be able to work hard.
  2. Unless: Unless you work hard, you will not pass your exam (Unless means if not)

iii. Provided that: You can come to the party provided that you bring with you your own drinks.

  1. Incase: Incase he comes don’t leave the door open i.e. (If he does not come, you can leave the door open)


(Using …………If)

Conditional sentences are usually divided into three basic types referred to as:-

TYPE 1 = Likely

TYPE 2 = Unlikely

TYPE 3 = Rejected


TYPE 1: If she finishes work early, she will go home

TYPE 2: If she finished work early, she would go home.

TYPE 3: If she had finished work early, she would have gone home

As it is seen above, the type one use simple present tense in the dependent clause and future simple in the main clause.

The use of type 1 Conditional Sentence implies that these is a BIG CHANCE for conditions to be fulfilled. TYPE1 is also called probable, likely or open.


The Verb in the dependent clause should be in the past tense and the main clause should be in the conditional tense.

Example: If I had some money I would lend it to you.

TYPE 2 is used where there is unlikelihood of something to happen.


We form type 3 conditionals this way: Tense in the dependent clause is normally used with had + verb in past participle and in the independent clause we normally use would have.

OR: If we had left at 8, we would have been there by now.

Type 3. Conditional is purely HYPOTHETICAL. If shows that all things are in the past and nothing can be done at the moment. Hence type 3 is called REJECTED. The possibility here is zero (o) since everything is in the past and already completed.

For example: If I had studied hard, I would have passed the exam.

i.e. I didn’t study hard and therefore I didn’t pass the exam.


Unless is used in negatives, unless means the same as if …….. not. Like if,it is followed by a present tense, a past tense or a past perfect.

– Unless is used in conditional sentences of all types.

– Unless is negative, so do not use another negative word in the sentence.

Examples of the uses of unless.

TYPE 1: (Unless + Present)

  1. You’ll be sick unless you stop smoking = (You will be sick of you don’t stop smoking)
  2. Unless you change your mind, I won’t be able to help you.

TYPE 2: (Unless + Past)

  1. Unless he was very tired, he would be driving
  2. I wouldn’t wash those clothes, Unless they were very dirty.

TYPE 3: (Unless + Past perfect)

  1. I wouldn’t have cooked Ugali, Unless you’d suggested it
  2. They would have killed him, Unless he’d given them the car.


Fill in the spaces provided with either if or unless

  1. Just let her go ………… you don’t want to be involved in any argument.
  2. ……………She moves to another country, it will probably be to India.

iii. Sign the document only …………… You read it carefully.

  1. …………… They do well in the interview; they won’t be accepted in the Bachelor Degree Programme.
  2. …………..We learn from our mistakes, we may repeat them.
  3. I’ll go to the beach with you ……… It rains this weekend.

vii. …………… You buy the tickets in advance; you won’t be able to see that concert.

viii. ……… You don’t understand the exercise, I’ll try to help you

  1. You won’t be able to describe the picture ……………you look it carefully.
  2. …………… You change your mind, I won’t be able to help you

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