Literature – is the artistic expression of people’s ideas which reflect social realities done through the use of language either in written or spoken.


Is a product of human imagination employing language creativity to reflect human realities.

The key terms in defining literature includes;

. Creativeness

. Imagination

. Language


. Oral literature

. Written literature


It is normally handled from one generation to the other through narrations, songs, poems, stories.


LEGEND (Stories of historical truth) -They deal with accounts of personally and events that are considered to be so memorable and deserved to be talked again and again.

MYTHS -These are viewed as religious stories because they explain the organ of people, customs and tradition example gods, GCD.

FABLES -These are short stories based on incurable lessons and main characters are animals. E.g.: hares, rat, elephant, bears etc.

RIDDLES -These puzzling questions, statements or description intended to make the audience use their brain/mind.They require two people or two groups to be operated.

PROVERBS -These are short well known saying that states a general truth or give advice.They are most widely respected genres of African oral literature.


Is a type of literature through writings.

Types of written literature

  1. Novels ii. Plays and short stories iii. Poetry


Is a book written under serious imagination of a certain issue reflecting social realities.The writer creates imagination through characters, themes, symbols etc.


Is the literary work which is written in form of conversation or dialogue.The play writer uses actors and actress to convey messages.


Poetry refers to the imaginative expression of strong feelings about a certain issue/ topic under The wonderful surgeon.


-To educate the society

-To entertain the society

-May improve the language



– Character

– Setting

– Plot

– Style/Technique

– Language

– Figures of speech


– Theme

– Message

– Conflicts

– Philosophy

– Relevance

  1. FORM

These are devices used in literary works in order to add creativity in the history by using language.

They are meant to entertain, educate and make good presentation of the work of literature.

Figures of speech includes;-

– Similes

– Metaphors

– Hyperbole

– Personification

– Proverbs

– Repetition


Is a device which compares two things using conjunctions like “as” or “like”

E.g. Like father like son, as black as coal, he is like a lion in battle.


Is a literary device which compares two things without using conjunctions.

E.g. She is a lioness, among her people he has a heart of stone,you are a lazy rat, she looked flower beautiful with a snow white dress.


This is a language device which is used to exaggerate facts beyond their realities.

E.g. He called you a thousand of times, she cried an ocean of tears


Literary device which gives ability to the inanimate.

E.g. Cats made a plan of taking over the world


Is a language device which uses the repetition of words or sentences for making emphasis on a particular point.

E.g. they attended a harsh meeting I took large gulps of water.

PROVERBS (Refer to types of literature)


Refers to geographical location of the story time period or daily lifestyle of the characters.

Types of settings

– Geographical

– Historical

– Social

Geographical setting

It can be in a specific country town place

Historical setting

Refers to time when the story was made includes background in a particular time about something the author wants to explain about e.g. century you etc

Social setting

Includes social activities or customs and traditions e.g. marriage

  1. PLOT

-This is the serial arrangement of events or ideas. It is the arrangement of all events in the story.

-Plot must have the beginning middle and end.

-Plot of dramas is divided into “acts” and “scenes”.


Includes the following;-

Point of view

This is when a writer tells a story

– First person pronoun point of view

This indicates that the main character is telling a story.

-Third personal pronoun point of view

This directs that the narrator is telling the story.



-This is the method of conveying information about characters.

-Character is a person or sometime animals who take part in the story.

Types of characters

-Main character is the person who plays a large part in the story.

-Minor character is the person who helps a main character to develop the story.

. Protagonist is the main character.

. Antagonist is the minor character that opposes the main character.


Is a style or technique which explains about what will happen later in the story. This encourages the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed.


Is a style which explains about what happened before in the story.

  2. THEME -A Theme refers to the central topic/topics which are meant to be known and taken as subjects of learning presented by the writer to the audience.

-Themes can reflect life, reality experience and society as a whole.


These are misunderstandings among characters in the story.

Types of conflicts

. Internal conflicts

. External conflicts

Internal conflicts

This is the conflict within a person (character).

External conflicts

Refers to misunderstanding between or among characters. Misunderstanding between characters can be;

-Between two characters

-Group against group

-Group against person



-These are lessons and teachings we get in the story.

-These lessons are mostly obtained from themes.






TIME: 2002, place of publications: Macmillan writers prize for Africa


“Unanswered cries” is a modern novel where by the author presenting a moving story of Olabisi who is under pressure to be, circumcised in order to realize the reality as a woman

As we reflect the message delivered to us by the author, substantial questions before us are:

  1. a) What exactly before us are?
  2. b) Is the process safe?
  3. c) What are the effects to those who undergo the experience of the knife?
  4. d) What are the struggles against the art?


Question: Is the cover relevant to the story?

Answer: Yes, the cover is relevant to the story. It portrays the cultural dressing of the women in Sierra Leone and Africa as whole. It also shows how the girl discussed in the book is feeling by showing a fare of oppression, sadness and loss of hope.


The title of the book is DIRECT

It makes a person want to know more about a story of the girl who is seen on the cover, why does she look so sad, oppressed and hopeless. These are questions that would be ringing in a person’s head and can only be answered by flipping open the cover and read what is within the book.


The style used by the author includes the following

  1. i) point of view

This is when a writer tells a story in the novel “ Unanswered cries’’ the writers used the third person point of view to narrate the story about characters.

Example: Chapter one (page 5)

” She caught hold of the hem of her films/ skirt”.

” she sat up listening like a dog sensing an intrudes”.

  1. ii) Flashback style

. Chapter 8, when Dr.Keroma explained about what happened when her daughter underwent circumcision (Pg 72)

. Chapter 9, the dialogue between Makalay and Oyah reminded Makalay about her past life (Pg 83,84)

. Chapter 1 Olabisi remembered about circumcision of the baby boy Durusemi,’’ (Pg 13)

iii) Foreshadowing

When Olabisi imagined about what will happen in the court

“It was as if she was trying to read the future” Chapter 7 (Pg 51 -52)

  1. iv) Conversation style

– Conversation between Oyah and Olabisi (Pg 35),Salaam Sesay and Olabisi (Pg 56),Salaam Sesay and Dr. Koroma (Pg 71) and the conversation between Oyah and Yah Posseh (Pg 76) etc

Arrangement of events

The writer arranged events into chapters 1 – 9 whereby each chapter contains a picture which gives information about what is in that chapter




– Is the main character in the novel.

– She is against bad cultural practices (circumcision)

– She is courageous

– She is Eddy’s girlfriend


– Mother of Olabisi

– She is conservative she wants Olabisi to be circumcised

– She is a primary school teacher

– She is Dauda’s wife

– She has negative attitudes to her husband

– She is humble and caring


– He is Olabisi’s father and Oyah’s husband

– He is against Female Genital Mutilation

– He loves Olabisi

– He is Caring


– Is the Digba Sowey the head of female circumcision

– She is a witch (she believes in superstitions) -She has two daughters

– Has two daughter (Salay and Rugiatu)

– Feared by people


– He is Olabisi’s boyfriend.

– He betrayed Olabisi.

– He taught Olabisi how to protect herself.

  1. DAUDA

– Makalay’s husband.

– Olabisi’s step father.

– He was strict in his house.

  1. Dr. Asiatu Koroma

– She is professionally a doctor

– She is against female genital mutilation

– She is responsible in her job


– Is a judge.

– Is a fair and courageous.

– Is responsible.

– Is strict in his job.


– Hunter

– A corrupt person


– Makalay’s lawyer

– Supports female genital mutilation

– Not civilized.



Female Genital Mutilation. This is the process of cutting a clitoris part of a woman due to tribal beliefs and for the reason of reducing sexual appetite of a woman.In the novel, Olabisi was under pressure of being circumcised by the Bondo women and Makalay (her mother) in order to prove that she becomes a woman but Olabisi was strong and courageous to go against bad practice because it is an illegal and unsafe activity. Other characters who undergone the process includes Oyah (the lawyer), Dr Asiatu Koroma, Makalay,Yah Posseh, Rugiatu and Salay.



This signifies the situation of being accountable in life. In the novel, the following characters was very accountable in the seminal delivering. Oyah (lawyer) was very responsible to help Olabisi not as her step daughter.

Also Lansana Karme (the judge) took full responsibility to judge the case. Apart from these two, also Dr Asiatu Koroma took full responsibility as a doctor to explain the effects of female genital mutilation.

  1. LOVE

Love is a strong feeling about somebody or anything in the reflection of respect, tolerance, trust and acceptance. In the novel, we see love emanating in different ways.We can see the love of daughter to mother (Olabisi and Makalay), the love of father and daughter (Olabisis and Ade), also the love of husband and wife (Oyah and Ade Jones).


This is the state of being unable to obtain basic needs or inability of someone to meet the basic demands like food, clothes and shelter. In the novel, Makalay’s kitchen in the village was made of rusty corrugated iron sheets which could almost fall by the blow of the wind.This can also be portrayed when Salay and Rugiatu were walking bare footed from the well.


This is the desolation of good morals and people in the society.In the novel, moral decay is shown when Olabisi involved herself in early sexual relationships while she was just fourteen years of age. Also when Olabisi replied back Makalay (her mother) as it was a peer.


This is the act of being disloyal to someone who trusts the novel, the situation is experienced by Makalay when she was betrayed by Pah Amadu and he did not being Olabisi back to Makalay, instead he helped Olabisi to reach the town. Also the betrayal of Edward Cole to Olabisi by disclosing the secret that he had sex with her.


Conflict means misunderstanding between two people. The following conflicts are found in novel :-

Conflict between Olabisi and Makalay. The source of the conflict was female genital mutilation that is when Makalay forced her daughters to be circumcised but the solution of this conflict was the court whereby Olabisi won the case and she was not circumcised.

Conflict between Olabisi and Eddy. The same of this conflict was the betrayal when Eddy betrayed Olabisi by disclosing the secret that he had sex with Olabisi the solution was when Olabisi decided to break up the relationship.

Conflict between Oyah and Ade Jones. The source of this conflict was unfaithfulness of Ade Jones and the solution was forgiveness and marriage

Conflict between Makalay and Ade. This conflict based on who is supposed to make decision to Olabisi about whether she is supposed to be circumcised or not. The solution to this conflict was the court whereby Olabisi was not circumcised.

Conflict between Olabisi, Rugiatu and Salay: The source of the conflict was when Olabisi called”agborka”The solution to this was Makalay and Yah Posseh decision to Olabisi that she was supposed to be circumcised.

Conflict between Bondo women Vs Olabisi, Oyah and Dr. Asiah

The source was female genital mutilation but the solution was court and Olabisi won the case.


In the novel, Yah posseh and most of the Bondo women were blind about the effects of women circumcision so as to become a real woman


This is the situation of being unwilling to work.Olabisi was very lazy,she has many dirty clothes like pants, jeans and a tops but she was just keeping them in her bag instead of washing them.


Yah posseh and all Bondo women believed in superstition on beliefs like goats and ancestors, that is why female circumcision to them is compulsory.Example, Yah posseh told Makalay that her daughter Olabisi offended the spirits of their ancestors and gods of their tradition and because of that she was supposed to be circumcised.Also when Yah Posseh told Makalay that if she will obey spirits will make things difficult for her during children (chapter 2 Pg 22).



– The wind her news of an approaching group of singer (Pg 5)

– Her hand disappeared into the bag up to the elbow fingers searching for camera (chapter 1 Pg 7)

– The mosquitoes were having a party on you and the noise woke me up (Pg 40).

The darkness became jumping, threatening to take over the room again if the lamp went out (Pg 32).

The moon came out with a smile, shading soft light around her (Pg 31).


– I……. I was just…… (Pg 28)

– Ye………. yes sir (Pg 56)

– “Gborika” – said by Makalay many times to Olabisi for the emphasis of circumcision (Pg 11)

– Confess was also repeated to show the emphasis that Ade wanted to know the truth that he was the father of Olabisi or not (Pg 49)

– She is your mother……….she will always be your mother.This emphasizing Olabisi that Makalay was her mother no matter what (Pg 47)


– Eddy the dog and he was making his way towards her (pg 63)

– The Bondo tradition is mama Africa (pg 74)

– “Death is the enemy who has no respect for people and this privacy” said Yah posseh (Pg 79)


-Each pot was big enough to boil a cow without breaking its legs (pg 43)

-The girls folded their arms across their chests and tried to cook as if they eat rocks everyday (pg 35)


-” let the traitor come close for this “(Pg 35) -” Never laugh with your enemy otherwise you might end up friends” (pg 75) -“Do as I say but learn from me” (pg 66)


– ” She sat up listening like dog sensing an intruder” (Pg 5)

– “She scramble across the bed on all fours like a giant crab” (pg 8)

– ” Students ran in panic, scattering from brutal police like cock roaches at the flash of the light” (pg 12).

-“The rift – ray boys will be after you for sexual fun like dodgers” (pg 12)

– “Salary was short and stocky like a well fed big while Rugiatu was tall, skinny and hungry looking like a shaved bird.

– “She was black as midnight, with flat eyes like a snake (pg 21)

– “Olabisi began to feel like a mouse watching a cat (pg 21)

– “The girl thrashed about like a snake caught in a farm trap (Pg 30)

– “Rugiatu attached like a mad dog (Pg 36)

– “From where she stood it locked as small as a handkerchief (Pg 54)

– “Large man, as huge as truck was sitting…. (pg 54)



Passed Like a Shadow (NOVEL)

Author; Bernard Mapangala

Setting: Uganda 2006

Summary and themes.

Chapter I

This chapter starts with the father who has appeared unexpectedly. He is drink. His children fear him. As soon as he cames in, Atwoki lost his appetite. He tried to avoid his father; unfortunately he bumped into Aboo’ki hence sending the matoke down. In this case Atwoki encountered a classic slap. It indicated that Adyeri did not love his children. This is poor parental care.

His children hated him, this hatred.

The position of women has been reflected. Amoti was seriously beaten by Adyeri. She was trying to defend Atwoki. She cried uwii, uwii. In this regard, Amoti represents women as the oppressed gender. However, she is brave because she spoke her mind.

Lastly we see that Adyeri did not sleep at home that evening. He had another woman. This is betrayal.

Chapter II

This chapter is centered on Vicky. It is portraying Vicky’s previous and current life. Poor customs are reflected in which we see that Vicky is sent or exiled Kaitangwenda as she was seen riding a bicycle (It is a taboo for a girl to ride a bicycle in Torro).

In this chapter, it is shown that Vicky is an orphan. Her mother died so she had to live with Adyeri’s Family. Conflict and hatred are reflected as Adyeri hates or dislike Vicky. She considers her, as an additional burden to their family.

On the other side we see Vicky coming with Akena. She introduced him as a man who wanted to marry her. Amoti protests because she is jealousy that Vicky will get married to a man who owns garage. Adyeri settles the matter and tell Akena to come on the other day for arrangement of bride price.

Chapter 3

This chapter is centered on Atwoki’s fame. He is good in football as well as academically. Atwoki is ambitious and social. He wants to be a soldier. Other boys are also prophesying their future.

Also we are shown the difference between Atwoki and Abooki was quiet and meditative. Atwoki was busy, ting and always came home exhausted.

Love and care are shown in this chapter. Amoti did mot beat her children when they came home late, she warned them.

Position of women is reflected through Abooki. After school hours Abooki was response to prepare evening meal at home. The narrator says the little girl Abooki was overworked. In this chapter we are also introduced to uncle Araali. He likes children and appreciates their skills. This is love and care.

Lastly we see that Adyeri is irresponsible. This irresponsibility comes about do to the fact that Adyeri did not leave any money. Yet he came home drink. This is also alcoholism which leads to irresponsibility. Fortunately uncle Araali had brought bunches of Matoke and fish. He also gave money to children purchase firewood.

Chapter 4

It is opened up with Tusiime, Vicky and Kunchira console for having missed a husband because of a greedy uncle. He fixed a high bride price. This is poor traditional customs.

It is also indicated that Vicky was to send Bondibugyo to work as a tea plucker. She did not get any money from her sweat. All her wages had been prepaid to Amoti so that, she could pay for her childrean’s school fees. This is oppression.

Also Tusiime and Kunchira inform Vicky that Adyeri has another woman. Tusiime says that there is too much cheating in marriage. This is dishonesty.

Prostitution is reflected through Tusiime who said that she could sleep with any man to make money.

Furthermore, the narrator reflects that Tusiime and Kinchira were not good girls both had been worst product of port Fortal secondary education. Tusiime had been a ring leader that led in the burning of the school’s matlesses at Maria Goret Secondary school. Kunchira was discontinued from Kyebambe Secondary School.

Influence of peer pressure is shown on Vicky. She was abused by Tusiime and Kunchira to find boyfriend the accepted and changed in her behavior.

Self limitation and poverty are reflected through Adyeri could not stop Vicky from her behavior because she brought his crates beer and cartons of hard drinks.

One day Adyeri aerated Vicky’s jugardaddy. This led to the conflict between Vicky and Adyeri. At the end Vicky left the house and never came back.

Chapter 5

This chapter starts with Adyeri in the Hall of Kinyanasika Primary School. It was a parent’s day and he was invited as a pioneer teacher of the school.

This chapter shows adyeri suffering. He gave out heavy cagh which sent all the eyes in his direction. His confidence was gone. His body had lost more than 20 pounds in less than a year. He had frequent fever and vomiting. His hair had become sparse and grey. His vibrant color gad gone. These are symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

Standard five pupils performed a song. It started that those who die without doing something important pass like a shadow.

This song hit Adyeri because he spent his life carelessly. On the other hand, the flash back on Adyers previous life is given. He was a headmaster of Sit. Led high school. He fell in love with his secretary Biringi. This is betrayal to his wife. We are also informed that he misused his position by squandering the school funds build a house for Biringi in Birungi and This is corruption.

Adyeri was sacked as the headmaster after the news leaked cot on his misconduct. He spent most of the time drinking. (This is alcoholism) Later on, he sold a half of his inherited land. (This indicated irresponsibility he moved completely to Biringi’s home and financed her new shop at Muguso trading center. This is betrayal to his family.

Oppression is reflected in this chapter Adyeri was rarely seen at home; when Amoti complained she encountered ritual beating.

Love, care and generosity are reflected through Uncle Araali. He helped to pay the children’s school fees.

Effects of poor parental care are reflected in this chapter. He built a house for her mother in Katamba.

Lastly we are shown the theme Betrayal. Birungi betrayed Adyeri first; she rejected him when he was admitted at the hospital. Then she chased him away when he went to her house asking for help, and insulted him as a poor miserdlems.
















Joe met the old woman (cucu) and Dr Ocheng introducd him to her that he saved her and brought her to hospital..

She was sitting on the bed. She woke up and hugged him. The old woman wants to be released but Doctor Ochieng says that they have to trace her home first. She agrees on the condition that Joe should insist her.

Joe left and went to see Gladwell at St Bernadette church choir in Umoja. Before Joe went to see Gladwell, we saw on Ochieng tells Joe that HIV/ ADS victim who killed himself was pester, he warned him that it can get anyone. He also told him that they only ways to avoid HIV/AIDS is to remain single until he gets married or use condom.

Then, Joe arrived at St Bernadette and saw Gladwell. Gladwell is surprised by the bond that has developed between Joe and old cucu, as he told her that he wants to find her home and her relatives . After the choir practice they left, and Gladwell told him that her sister Georgina also died of HIV/AIDS.


It starts with Joe and David.David is discouraging Joe when he said that he is going to trace cucu home. Because of David’s discouragement the next day he did not visit the old cucu. The day after he wentt to see her, she was disappointed when he did not show up the previous day. She thinks that Joe has come to collect her, But Dr Ochieng insists that she must be discharged first.As they are talking suddenly the old cucu mentions Kariobangi, but she forget immediately that has mentioned the place as home. When Dr. Ochieng is told, he says the old cucu is getting back the flashes of her memory. She is given another twenty four hours to recover for Amnesia.

The next morning Joe received Gladwell’s all that she got a Job at the city soap industries.

An hour later, he decided to persue the past newspaper and when he turned at the page of notices and death announcement, he saw the picture of old cucu, below it there was a caption which explained that she went missing and a reward of 100,000/= would be given to whoever helps in locating her. There was also eh telephone number of her son Johnson Njogu



Joe ran to the receptionist and gave mercy Mr Njogu’s telephone number to dial at Njogu’s house. He was given Njogu’s direct number by a girl, as Njogu was not at home.

He called Mrs Njogu and told him that he know where his missing mother was. Njogu did not believe him. He thinks that he was after money. He banged a phone down. Joe

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