GENERAL STUDIES (GS)-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS / COOPERATION
GENERAL STUDIES (GS)-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS / COOPERATION
This can be defined as a political, economic, diplomatic and culture relation among the nation.
- Political relation; Is the cooperation whereby the two or more independent state share ideas above political matters.
- Economic relation; Is the situation whereby two or more independent states share economic activities e.g. International trade. There are four forms of
economic relations. These are free trade area, customs union,common market and economic union.
- Diplomatic relation; Is the level of international relation whereby different embassies are involved in structuring political, economic, social and cultural matters within their home countries and the lost countries.
A diplomat is a person who officially represents his/her own country in a foreign country.
- Cultural relation; among the nations can be started in various form like the exchange of dances troops, theater groups, Musician and also sports and games.
e.g. through world cup, UEFA, Kagame Cup, FA Cup etc. different nations come together and compete. This situation develops strong culture relation.
THE FOREIGN POLICY
Foreign Policy is the system established or formulated by a country in order to maintain its regular political, social and economic interaction with other states in the world. The interaction is made by diplomatic who represents their representative country. The main task for diplomats or ambassadors is to make sure that social, culture and economic activities of their home countries are globally known and to prepare a tripe for the countries ruler.
THE FOREIGN POLICY IN TANZANIA
Like other countries in the world, Tanzania has formulated the system of foreign policy to maintain regular political, social and economic affairs.
- Tanzania foreign implemented and managed by the Ministry of foreign affairs and international relation.
- Tanzania foreign policy is a policy of Non Alignment.
TANZANIA FOREIGN POLICY PRINCIPLES
- Promotion of independence of all other African states.
- Maintenance of its freedom by determining domestic and foreign policy.
- Promotion of international cooperation and understanding through organization such as UNO, AU, and NAM.
- Promotion of world peace and order through UNO, AU, and others international organization.
- Promotion and maintenance of human rights and democracy in the world.
Reasons for Tanzania choosing the policy of Non Alignment
- To avoid unnecessary international conflicts.
- To maintain sovereignty on deciding international issues without being forced by bigger states.
- To choose friends regardless the influence of either of the block i.e. U.S.S.R and U.S.A.
- To strengthen international cooperation and understanding.
How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.
Tanzania foreign policy is implemented by the Ministry of foreign Affairs and international cooperation through the Embassies or high commissions.
The main task of diplomats or Ambassadors is to make sure that social, cultural and economic activities of their home countries are globally known.
These diplomats or Ambassadors are also responsible in making prior preparations to facilitate trips of national top leaders like president in their respective countries. These diplomats include the following;
A diplomat: Is a person who officially represents his/her country in a foreign country. The highest diplomats are known as ambassadors or ambassadresses, high commissioner and consul
An Ambassador/ambassadress – Is a government official representative living in a foreign country to conduct business with that most country on behalf of his/her home country. The office of an ambassador or ambassadress is known as an Embassy.
A high commissioner: In common health countries, Such representatives (ambassador/ambassadress) are known as high commissions. The offices are termed as high commission
A consul: A consul on the other hand is a representative of a town or city to help country men living or visiting there. The consul’s office is called consulate.
How Tanzania foreign policy is implemented.
The following ways show how Tanzania implements her foreign policy.
- Tanzania has established diplomatic relations with different countries and has officials and ambassador in those countries so as to popularize her social,
economic and cultural endowment as well as promote co-operation.
- Tanzania receives diplomatic official from different countries with their offices in Tanzania.
- Tanzania has established relations with international organizations eg. UNO, Commonwealth, Au etc.
- Tanzania is the member of the UN as it acknowledges the objectives and principle of the UN charter accord for the equality of all states and dignity of man.
- Tanzania has established regional and economic co-operation such as the EAC and SADC so as to secure genuine and equitable regional economic and infrastructural integration
Function of Ambassadors or high Commissioners:-
- To represent Tanzania abroad.
- To popularize Tanzania’s natural, social and cultural resources.
- To register and assist Tanzanians who lives abroad.
- To made preparations for facilitating trips of Tanzanians leader in foreign countries.
- This is a type of cooperation which involves the agreement between two states
E.g. Tanzania and Zambia in running TAZARA. In this co-operation there is no specific or common ideology governing the undertaking of the member countries
- Countries involve in this cooperation can agree to cooperate in various areas such as economic, cultural, scientific and technological researches, political, security and defense.
This is the types of Cooperation which involve group of many countries like regional inter grouping such as S.A.D.C, E.A.C, and COMESA, NAM, AUetc. Multilateral cooperation is sometimes known as regional multilateral integration.
Importance of multilateral co-operation.
- The country gets aid and loans from friend nations with minimum nationalities or restrictions.
- Promotion of both internal and external peace. The country is assured of security assistance from friendly nations and Tanzania participates in solving problems of other countries.
- Improvement of transport and communication. Tanzania is able to improve transport systems across the borders due to friendly relations with the neighboring countries. For example, though Tanzania
Mozambique Friendship Association (TAMOFA). Tanzania has been able to construct Mtwara Bridge in association with Mozambique.
(vi) Economic development has also been achieved through friendly relations with other countries. Investors from friendly states come and invest in Tanzania and thus contribute to the economic development of Tanzania
- International repute to Tanzania
- Industrial development in various sectors due to private investors from friendly nations and the presence of market in those friendly states.
A. EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
The new East African community was established in 2000 by the three head of states of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda to replace and refund former EAC which collapsed in 1977.
Reasons for the demise of former East African community:-
- Differences in ideologues and economic status among member states, whereby Tanzania adopted socialism, Kenya continued with capitalist while Uganda was between socialism and Capitalism.
- Over throw of the Obote regime by Idd Amin Dada, Obote was a close friendly of Nyerere so he decided not, for cooperate with Idd Amin.
The situation created misunderstanding between Tanzania and Uganda; therefore it was difficult for E.A.C leaders to meet.
- The outbreak of war between Tanzania and Uganda in 1978/79.
- Difference in currency in terms of value. Kenyan currency was higher than the other two countries of the two member states.
- Dis-satisfaction among the member state that Kenya was benefited than other states. Kenya was economically, powerful than other states. This made other two states to be market of Kenyan’s industrial goods.
- East African development bank (EAPB) failed to meet its founder expectation there were many demands but the banks income was unable to meet the demands.
Formation of New East Africa Community:- Objectives:-
- To attain sustainable growth and development of partner states by promotion of more balanced and harmonious development of member state.
- To strengthen and consolidate the cooperation in agreed fields that would lead to equitable economic development within the partner states which would intern lead to people’s standard of living.
- To promote good governance and accountability.
- To promote sustainable utilization of national resources and protect the environment.
- To enhance and strengthen participation of private in the region.
- Peaceful settlement of dispute
- To establish custom union with common market, monetary union and ultimately a political federation.
Achievement of the new E.A.C
Over ten (10) years since its re-establishment the new E.A.C made several achievements
- The community has promoted political relationship within the member. Example Member counties formed the East Africa community parliament which among other things discussed political issues, also each member state has a ministry responsible for the E.A.C affairs.
- Culturally the community has succeeded to enhance sports and Games – there are several regional competitions that have been introduced and are held on rotational basis.
- There are several projects initiated to improve communication and transportation example Road Networks.
- There is an increase in fall movement of people and labor among the members status example there are many Tanzania youths and pupils schooling in UGANDA also there are many Kenyans and Ugandans working in Tanzanians various sector such as Education, Hotel management, Banking, Tourism.
- The community has succeeded in making contribution to peace in the Great lakes region example; in DRC.
- There is flow of capital among the member state inform of investments. This has created employment opportunity hence improvements of people living standards.
PROBLEMS / CHALLENGES FACING THE NOW DAYS AFRICA:-
- Economic imbalance among member states, there is no effective and sustainable mechanism to address the imbalance.
- Insecurity and endless conflicts within and around the East Africa Region. Example, In Northern Uganda there are endless conflict between Government and Rebels.
SOUTHERN AFRICA DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY (SADC)
This is an economic grouping that brings together countries of Southern and central Africa. This Association consists of 14 Africa countries namely:- Botswana, Congo (DRC), Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Sey challes, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Switzerland, Lesotho.
This was formed in 30th September 1993 to replace the former Southern Africa, Development coordination conference (SADC) which was established in 1980 by Nine (9) countries such as Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
OBJECTIVES OF SADC
- To promote sustainable and equitable economic growth that will ensure poverty alleviation.
- To achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and programmed.
- To promote common political values that are transmitted through institution that is democratic, legitimate and effective.
- To achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources and effective protection of the environment.
- To combat HIV/AIDS and other deadly diseases or communicable diseases.
- To ensure gender mainstreaming in the process of community building.
- To develop and communicate system in order to stimulate agricultural and industrial development.
- To promote peace and security among the member states.
PRINCIPLES OF SADC:-
SADC and its member act in accordance with the full principles.
- Peace, solidarity and security.
- Sovereignty of all member states.
- Human rights, democracy and rule of law.
- Peaceful settlement of disputes.
- Equity, equality and mutual benefit.
- Promotion of economic welfare of the region.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF SADC:-
- Establishment of Regional Fund for HIV/AIDS. This is because approximately 15 million people in SADC region are HIV POSITIVE.
- Peace stability – Since the Angola peace award (Great) in April 2002, the region has enjoyed a certain degree of political stability between MPCA Vs UNITA under Jonas Savimbi from 1970’s – 1990’s
- Economic growth – the Growth Development Programs (GDP) in the SADC region has increased from 27% in 2002 to 32% in 2004.
- Women representation in political and decision making position is increasing very fast in the SADC member states, the target was to get 30% of women representation in political by 2005 some member states have already reached the target.
Example South Africa 31.3 % Mozambique 31. 3%
- Improvement in food security – The number of people who need food assistance is decreasing. Example In 2002 the number was 15.2 million people but in January 2004 the number drop out to 7%.
- It has managed to create political relationship among the member states; this has helped to create collective effort in solving political conflicts in different countries.
- SADC has been cooperating with other organization on such as the AU so as to build strong unity and solidarity among African countries.
CHALLENGES FACING SADC:-
- Nationalism – some member state, cater for national interests first before SADC this undermines regional interests.
- Different levels of development – this leads to inequality in the distribution of benefits derived from SADC under taking example SA is stronger economically than the other member states.
- Weak financial base. Member states rely on foreign assistance which hinders SADC to become self reliant.
- Conflicts and wars in some member states e.g. Conflicts in DRC.
- Multi membership among member states. Some member states are also members of other regional integrations such as EAC and COMESA.
- Refugee problems, there is high influx of refugees in SADC region because of political instability in some member states.
- Lack of economic diversity, SADC member states produce similar goods mostly agricultural products hence difficult to secure markets.
- Low price of agricultural products in the world market.
THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATE (ECOWAS)
ECOWAS is an economic integration of West African states formed in 1975.
Its members include:-
- Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Cote dI vore, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bisau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.
Objectives of ECOWAS:-
- To promote cooperation and integration in economic, social and cultural activities.
- To raise the living standard, or its people.
- To enhance economic stability among the member states.
- To enable free movement of people, capital and service.
- To coordinate industrial development in order to avoid duplication of resources and capital.
- To harmonize agricultural policies and projects among the member states.
- To achieve the common market, research and food processing.
Achievements of ECOWAS:-
- Abolition of custom duties and tariffs on goods originating from West Africa.
- It has managed to solve some political disputes within the member states.
E.g. it worked hard in restoring peace in Liberia after the outbreak of Civil wars. This was done through ECOWAS monitoring group known as ECOMOG.
- It has created free movement of principle within the region; this has enabled people to cross the boarders freely within the region.
- It has established different environmental conservation projects, in the region. E.g. In 1982 a ten years forestation projects were established.
- It has succeeded the peace keeping force known as ECOMOG.That force has been intervening to restore peace in West African countries such as:
- Liberia (1990).
- Siera Leone (1994).
- Guinea Bissau (1998).
- It has promoted relations among member states hence enhancing political and economic stability.
- It has established a mechanism for conflicts prevention management and resolution.
Challenges facing ECOWAS:-
- Political instability. This makes difficult for the respective member states to implement the set objectives. As a result ECOWAS concentrates much effort and time in solving political problems.
- Economic dependence – The member states still rely on external aid to finance development projects. External assistance is normally accompanied by tough conditionality.
- Low level of science and technology. The member states are technologically backward. As a result they fail to utilize the available resources effectively.
- Different level of economic development. Some ECOWAS member states are economically powerful than others, this small powerful states dominate or influence the affairs of the organization.
E.g. Nigeria has a dominant role in ruling ECOMOG and carried a big share of ECOMOG. This is because ECOMOG commanders have been predominantly Nigerian commander
- Nationalism:- Some members states cater for the national interest first before ECOWAS.
- Poor communication system, there is proper linkage of road and railway, most road are seasonal.
- Weak Financial base, most ECOWAS are poor economic base, this weak the organization to reach the state goals.
International peace and understanding
The background of the Africa Union (AU) THE AFRICAN UNION (AU)
The background of the Africa Union (AU)
On 9.9.1999 the Head of state and government of the OAU issued a declaration for the establishment of African union (AU) with a view of accelerating the process of integration in the continent.
So, the AU was established in order to replace the former OAU. Since then, the four summits have been held to the official launching of the AU, These include:-
- The site extraordinary session (1999), this decided to establish the AU.
- The home summit (2000) which accepted the constitutive Act of the union.
- The Lusaka summit (2001) which drew the road map for the implementation of the AU.
- The Durban summit (2002) which launched the AU and convened the first Assembly of the heads of state of the AU.
The Vision of AU
The Vision of the AU is to create united and strong Africa in building partnership and all Segments of civil society modern to strengthen solidarity amongst the peoples of Africa.
Quest for Unity:-
African countries in their quest for unity, economic and social development under the barriers of OAU, have taken various initiatives and made substantial progress in many areas that paved the way for the establishment of the AU.
Objectives of the AU:-
- To achieve a greater unity and solidarity among African countries and the people of Africa.
- To defend the sovereignty territories integrity and independence of its members states.
- To promote peace, security and stability on the continent.
- To promote democratic principles and institution, popular participation and good governance.
- To accelerate political and socio – economic integration of the continent.
- To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples.
- To promote international cooperation, taking due account of the UN charter and the universal Declaration of Human right.
- To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as integration of African.
- To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields particularly in science and technology i.e. research in malaria.
- To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable disease in order to promote good health and living standard.
Achievements of the AU
Since the Lusaka summit decisions on the transition from O.A.U to AU.
Progress has been made as follows:-
- It has promoted African unity and friendship for being a Forum where African leaders meet annually to discuss affairs of the continent.
- It has managed to solve internal conflicts and Civil wars in some states. E.g. in Comoro where the AU intervened back up the government of President Ali Abdullah Sambi from lebels led by colonel Bakary.
- It has managed to promote African regional economic integration e.g. promoting the African Development Bank (ADB).
- If has managed to make peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiations, mediation and conclusion e.g. Settlement of Kenyan disputes peacefully as well as settlement of dispute in Zimbabwe by establishing the coalition government President Robert Mugabe of ZANU – PF and Morgan Tsvangorai from MDC.
- AU through cultural activities like the African cup of nations has helped to promote closer understanding, cooperation and friendship among African states.
- It has maintained the no-interference into the internal affairs of the states.
Impelimentation of AU objectives
- There has been a renewed commitment to human right, good governance,social and economic reform and development.
- Intensification of efforts to fight against HIV/AIDS in the continent. There are more efforts made of fight the pandemic which is claiming the life of many young and energetic people
- Recognition of the importance of gender balance in the election of the Africa Union’s commissioners and in the election of a woman a parliament’s first president. For example,Getrude Mongella.
- It has established Neo partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) with the focus of the developing the Africa states. NEPAD is the latest scheme for boosting
economic development among the Africa states.
- It has managed to create the court of justice which interprets laws and protects them. Through this organ
there is an improvement on respect of human rights.
- There is a monetary institution such as the Africa Central Bank which provided loans to member states instead of depending much on foreign countries.
- There has been an establishment of the pan-Africa Parliament and the peace and Security Council. The later was launched in 26th May, 2004. Thus, it is hoped that the peace and security council will continue serving as an efficient tool in materializing the Africa agenda for conflict prevention, management and resolution.
- Promotion of democracy. Many Africa countries hold multiparty elections, Wide spread consultations o constitutional reforms are occurring in many Africa countries due to the efforts of AU
GENERAL STUDIES (GS)-INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS / COOPERATION
CHALLENGES FACING THE AU
- Different levels of development – some AU members are economically powerful than other so they tend to influence the affairs of the AU as well dominating others. example, South Africa also the North African countries (Arab countries) like Egypt are not ready to cooperate closely with poor countries and also Nigeria.
- Economic dependence – African countries retain a dependent economy inherited from colonialists and continue under Neo colonialism e.g. technological dependence, budgetary dependence, loan dependence and expatriates.
- Conflict and wars within the AU members Example. In DRC, Mali, Sudan.
- Terrorism and threats in some African countries. example, Kenya (West gate issue in 2013), Somalia, Uganda, Nigeria.
- Poor communication system and transport problems – there is inter territorial linkage were bordering states organically belonged to different colonial master.
- It is not autonomous organ – it is dependent and UN organs AU has no standing army of itself , this is because the AU cannot operate military or form a standing army without the consent of the UN security council . This delays its ability to settle situation that call for that immediately.
- Refugee problem in Africa – due to political instability led to high influence of refugees and political instability in some all member examples Tanzania from Rwanda, Burundi and DRC – Chad from Sudan, Kenya from Somalia.
International peace and understanding
- Causes of conflicts in Africa
A conflict is the term which includes the actions, propagandist, the diplomatic,commercial or military threats and punishments that the contending parties take towards each other.
Conflicts can either be involving four levels, namely, societal, communal,interstate, and interpersonal or conflicts are grouped into five levels:
(1) those among communities/ groups within the state: (2) those between communities across national borders: (3) those between communities and central governments: (4) those between communities and multinational corporations:and (5) those between governments. It needs to be pointed out from the outset that overlaps can occur in this categorization, but the division can assist in identifying some of the complex ramifications through which conflicts are expressed in Africa.
The escalating problems of conflicts in Africa can be attributed to be the following:
- Problems associated with land scarcity: difficulties arising from conflicting laws governing land tenure: boundary disputes and rival claims to specific portions of land: demands for a review of “landlord- tenant” arrangements over land ownership: the clash of spiritual considerations with political and economic realities: complaints over government’s land regulatory policies: complexities of massive human influx: and conflicts arising from land and labor relations.
- Self-interests of some individuals: As a factor for fueling conflicts,oil in Nigeria, oil and diamonds in Angola, rubber and timber in Liberia, diamonds in Sierra
Leone, and land in Zimbabwe, etc. have become one of the most controversial issues in Africa, especially through the increase in the number of armed groups exploiting such natural resources to advance their desire for self-determination or pursue other self-interest. For example, from Angola and Liberia to DRC and Sierra Leone, armed groups have exploited the natural resources inside their territories and have initiated constant wars against their respective governments.
- The desire to control regions endowed with natural resources: The desire to control region endowed with natural resources has always increased the determination with which warring sides instigate wars, resulting in an increase of casualty figures. In all major conflicts, the location of natural resources has always been a prime target for warring sides, and battles fought over these sites are often some of the fiercest. An example that quickly comes to mind here is the struggle for the control of the mineral-rich Kisangani in the DRC between the forces of Uganda and Rwanda. Another example can be seen in Angola, where the northeastern provinces of Luanda Norte and Luanda Sul, the location of the country’s diamond deposits, were among the most highly contested sections of the country during the civil war.
- Colonial boundaries and inter regional conflict. For example, in Kenya and Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Kenya and Uganda, Cameroon and Nigeria as well as Uganda and Tanzania.
- Corruption, nepotism and lack of transparency in public offices. These have led to embezzlement in public funds and uneven distribution of national resources. Some people are segregated from the the national cake and hence this makes them to fight against the domination.
- Tribalism, regionalism and religious differences. For example, Nigeria Muslims against Christians: in Uganda the central region against the northern part, in Burundi Tutsi against Hutu.
- Weak economic base or poverty. This has been the root cause of civil ears and instability in Africa. Many Africans have turned against their government accusing them to segregate them from sharing the national cake.
- Abuse of human rights like freedom of speech, orbiter arrest, extra judicial killing, etc
- Coup d’états in various countries or struggle for power.
- Ruling regimes unwilling to step down after elections. This has been due to either vote ringing or clinging to power and this has led to political chaos. For example, Laurent Gbagbo of Ivory Coast refused to step down despite being defeated by his political opponent Alasane Quwattara during the elections held in November 2010. This led to political chaos and death of people.
- Puppetism: Most of the leaders are used by economically powerful countries to foster in stabilities for their gain.
Strategies for conflict resolution
There are three basic procedures for arranging compromises:
- Negotiation among parties: This procedure involves bilateral or multilateral negotiations among the parties involved.Condition for success of any negotiation is a common interest on the part of the opponents to avoid violence. The bargaining process involves;
- The establishment of commitments to essential positions.
- Determination of areas where concessions can be made.
- Determination of areas where concessions can be made.
- Commissioning of credible threats and promises.
- Maintaining patience.
- Mediation: This strategy involves passing messages between the parties to active agreement in the bargaining and attempts to place pressure on the antagonists to accept peace proposals that the mediator has proposed. A mediator can be, fro instance, the Security Council. In this procedure, a third party with no direct interest in the issue intervenes in the bargaining processes. (iii)Adjudication and arbitration: It is strategy of conflict resolution in which the
parties involved in conflict agree to submit the issues under contention to an independent tribunal. The court is supposed to decide the case on the basis of international law and jurisdiction extends only of legal issues such as interpretation of treaty, any question of international law or the existence of breach of an international obligation. The prerequisites of successful adjudication and arbitration include:
- The existence of legal issues.
- Voluntary submission of the case by both parties involved in the conflict.
- Agreement that settlement
- Willingness to accept an award rather than bargain for compromise outcome.
THE NATURE, CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF TERRORISM
What is terrorism?
Is the use or threat of violence by groups of people to create fear for the aim of changing a certain behavior in the society. Terrorists kidnap people, hijack airplanes, set off bombs, set fires and commit Other serious crimes. The goals of terrorist differ from those of other ordinary criminals because most of Criminals want money for personal gains, to terrorist commit crimes to support political causes.
Nature of terrorism
The ‘nature’ of something is generally taken to mean ‘the typical qualities and characteristics of something’. Hence, there are a variety of tributes of terrorism such as:
- It is often symbolic in character
- It is often indiscriminate in nature
- It typically focuses on civilian and non-combatant targets of violence.
- It has sometimes provocative and sometimes retributive aims
- It causes the disruption of public order and putting in danger of public security.
- It leads to the creation of a climate of fear to influence audience wider than
the direct victims.
- It disregard the rules of war and the rules of punishment,and
vii. It has an asymmetric character (armed versus unarmed: weak versus strong).
If the nature of terrorism is to be derive from its components, thus, the nature of terrorism can be stated to be an intentional and rational act of violence to cause fear in the large audience or society for the purpose of changing behavior in the audience or society
Causes of terrorism:-
- Social and political injustice, people resort to terrorism when they are trying to right what they possessed to be socially and politically wrong. e.g. When they have been stripped off their land or rights.
- Ethnicity, nationalism / separation on aggrieved group may resort to violence for nationalist or separatists reasons. This is taken as a resistance against external oppression e.g. nationalists movements commonly turned to nationalism by being the resort of an extremist function.
- Social stratification inequalities in the distribution of scarcely resources are an important factor for terrorism when the goods are absolutely or relatively.
- Absence of democracy, use of draconian law which oppress population may tempt population of resort to harm the government leaders or government properties.
- Dehumanization, the simple minded population may resort to terrorism fighting for being heard, recognized or treated as equal human being seeking liberation from government in power.
- Religious jingoism, some religious groups have a strong belief that their religion is best than the other beliefs so the religious people may use force or violence to pressurize the dominance of that particular religion over the larger group of people in the society.
EFFECTS OF TERRORISM
- Death of people, e.g. on 11th Sept. 2001, three airplanes have hijacked by terrorists were by 3000 people died.
- Decline of tourism.
- Decline of investments due to increase of insecurity and fear, this leads to economic retardation.
- Terrorism has forced many governments in the World to set aside huge budgets for fighting terrorism.
- Destruction of infrastructure following the USA embassy in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi there was destruction of buildings difficult to attain federal level in EAC.
= Tanzania waited more public education objective of goals.
= Tanzania feared their land will be occupied by their counter backs (fellow).
= Feared to lose employment opportunity.
= Political instability in Kenya, Uganda.
= Power mongers, Museveni waits to get power as leader of EAC.
= Economic imbalance.
The role of big powers in maintaining peace and understanding
Big powers of the world especially the developed continue have the following roles in maintaining peace and understanding:
- Developing political relations of equal, mutual trust and seeking common ground while putting aside differences among them.
- Cooperating worldwide to cope with challenges. For example, fighting against terrorism, environmental pollution, etc.
- Forging deep command and candid disloyal for parties involved in conflicts.
- Advocating the peaceful use of outer space and oppose the intrusion of weapons and an arm race in outer space. For example, in February 2008, China and Russia jointly submitted to the Conference on Disarmament a draft treaty on the prevention of the placement weapons in outer space and the threat or use of military weapons against outer space objects.
- Take efforts to combat the illicit trade and Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) through the arms trade treaty.
- Big powers observe in good faith their obligation under the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and Chemical Weapons Convention 9CWC) and support the multilateral effects aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the convention. For example, China USA, Russia, etc. fulfill this.
- They oppose the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and they actively take part in international non proliferation efforts. For example, China hold that all states should resort to dialogue and negotiation to resolve difference in the field on none-proliferation
- Holding joint counter –terrorism military exercises. For example, In August 2007, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan and Uzbekistan held a joint counter terrorism military exercise in the
Xinjiang Uygur in the task of combating terrorism20
The historical background to the United Nations and its objectives.
The world experienced many tensions, conflicts and threats from big nations such as Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Australia, Hungary and Japan in 1900s. The tension among these nations led to First World War (1914-1918) and Second World War (1939-1945).
The peaceful atmosphere of the world War disrupted as battle and deaths prevailed. Period between the First World War was characterized by efforts of the concerned big state to look at the mean through which worldwide peace and can be maintained.
After the First World War, the League of Nations was formed in1919. Its major task was to supervise peace in the world by controlling the aggressive nations such as Germany and Italy. However, the League of Nations proved to be a toothless dog that could bark without biting since aggressive actions continue and rearmament progressed. These actions led to the outbreak of the
20Chine’s National Defense in 2008 : Information from Office of the State Council of the people’s Republic of China
Second World War. After the nations had proved failure and had to be changed or transformed to United Nations organization (UNO). Its major tasks, like the
predecessor was to make sure that there is no occurrence of another world war. The UNO thus came into existence on 24th Oct,1945 when five big powers ratified the charter. These were China, France, the Union of soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the United Kingdom and the USA.
The role of United Nations in maintaining peace and Understanding
- Since 1988, the UN has played an instrumental role in bringing about settlements to long running civil wars and foreign armed intervention. For example, UN in Afghanistan, Mozambique, Elsalvador, Namibia, Angola, etc.
- Influencing decolonization and writing constitutions organizing and monitoring election as well as establishing administrative and financial organs for the new states
- To handle armed conflicts
- To invoke sanctions against aggressive stste
- To settle some disputes in the world
- To control armament in the world
- To fight for human rights in the world
- To promote environmental conservation
- To fight against terrorism
Meaning of Globalization
- Globalization refers to the integration of different parts of the world into a global village. It involves integration of economy, politics, culture, science and technology among nations. Globalization is driven by international trade investment information and technology.
Origin of globalization
Historically, globalization is not new phenomenon. The interconnectedness and interdependence of the world between its different social, political and economic components started as far back as during the European mercantile period(1500- 17500 A.D) and has continued up to the present.
During the European mercantile period, European merchants crossed their borders and conducted trade in other parts of the world like Africa. Asia and Latin America. The event of slave trade and the exportation of Africans from their continent to other continents, notably the Americas linked Africa more and more
with outside world. All these activities were demonstrations of globalization at that time.
Furthermore, the event of the Second World War (1939-1945) also accelerated globalization in that after that war the world become more and more interlinked at the economic level. For example, USA assisted the war ruined economy of Western European nations from collapsing. In 1947 USA extended an economic recovery programme (Marshal Plan) to Western European countries. USA and European countries become closer allies not only economical but also politically since both of them were capitalists.
In the 198s there was a historical point of departure. The international politics not only posed economic and social transformation but also nation’s balance of power. Socialism and capitalism ideologies divided the world into two antagonistic camps, namely the capitalist bloc led by USA and the socialist bloc led by Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR). This was during Cold war period that lasted from 1945 to early 1990s. From early 1990s socialism fell in Russia (the first socialist nation in the world). This paved way to the rapid spread of capitalist ideologies among different countries of the world. Since the early 1990s globalization has quickly touched the entire World in terms of advancement of science and technology. All these changes have brought together people from all different nations of the world to operate and work together as one village.
Driving forces of Globalization:-
- Advancement in science and technology. This has contribute greatly to the development of global inter connectedness of ward society into a global village.
- Free market economic system, this is characterized by profit maximization to generate capital for invest.
- Advancement in Education, Education contribute to the development of science and technology and there is integrations of people from far distance i.e. University
- Movement of the people from one country to another, e.g. Tourist, business man, diplomats.
- Finance – there is a global flow of money driven by interconnected currency market, stock exchange and etc. the flow of money is facilitated by IMF and WB.
- Democratization in form of multi partism and good governance.
Feature /Aspects globalization
As an economic, political and social phenomenon globalization is associated with the following major aspects:
- Information and communication technology: Globalization is characterized advancement of information and communications technology. For example, computer screen, radio, newspapers, televisions and mobile phones.
- Movement of people: There have been increasing movements of people from one country to another. These people include tourists, immigrants, refugees, business travelers and diplomats. Hence, these movements, make the world to be interconnected.
- Spread of ideas and ideology: Spread of knowledge, ideas, information and ideologies have been integral aspect of globalization. Direct foreign investment brings both physical capital and technical skills on production methods managerial skills, marketing skills and global economic policies. Spread of technical know- how, goes hand in hand with diffusion of political ideologies. For example, multiparty democracy has become worldwide political ideology.
- Free market economy: Globalization has brought about the integration of international political economy through inter-financial institutional policies and international trade. The main emphasis is to minimize the direct involvement of government in economic production.
- Financial globalization:
There is a global flow of money driven by interconnected currency market stock exchanges and commodity market stock exchanges. The flow of money is also facilitated by international financial institutions such as international monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The Influence of globalization on social, political and Economic Reforms in Tanzania
The Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)
Structural Adjustment Programmes refer to the list of budgetary and policy changes given by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) as prior conditions to be met by developing countries to qualify for a loan, grant or aid. These conditional ties typically include: reducing barriers to trade, and capital flows and tax increase as well as reduction in government expenditure.
Objective of SAPs
- General poverty reduction by improving the living standards of the people in the Least Developed countries .
- Improve the public investment programmes.
- Agricultural sector reforms, market liberalization and institutional reforms.
- Improving sectoral resource allocation and mobilizing domestic resources and restoring growth to the economy.
- Devaluation of local currency for eliminating exchange rate distortions in order to raise the domestic currency price
- Tax reduction on imports and elimination of barriers or restrictions in trade sector.
- Rationalization of public sector to enhance employment opportunities.
Factors that led the emergence of Structural Adjustment Programmes
- Economic crisis: The worldwide oil shocks of 1973 led to the backsliding of the economies of developing countries as this was accelerated by poor economic policies. Per capital income and Gross Domdec Product (GDP) declined rapidly for most of sub-Sahar Africa countries. Hence, the SAPs emerged out of the western financiers’ tune to the poor countries as they requested for loan in order to revamp their dwindling economy.
- The increase of external dept within the region: The increase of external debt within the region made many Africa countries fail to improve their economic growth. For example, around 1980s the external debt reached U$D 129 billion. Hence, they were to fulfill these conditional ties in order to get loan.
- Poor delivery of services. Poor salaries and non-compliance with financial order plunged developing countries into the unkind Structural Adjustment Progammes. The governments were accused of being blotted with too many people doing very little work. Hence, failure of government to provide services to the citizens and overburdened structural systems led to introduction of SAPs by donor countries.
- Falling of Educational Standards of all leves. Most Africans failed to afford the cost of education due to poor economy.
Principles of structural Adjustment Programmes
- Redefining the roles of the Government: The governments had to embark on supervisory and regulatory roles. To do this the roles of the governments were to be putting favorable policies in place and provision of a conducive investment environment for local and foreign investment.
- Redundancy and reduction of workers
- The government had to transform the economy from centrally planned public owned economy into market driven sector led economy. The states were required to eliminate tariffs, reduce taxes and promote the role of private sector in the export trade and liberalization of domestic retail and whole sale trade.
- Reduction of public expenditures in social services by introducing cost sharing policies in all social services such as education, health, water, etc. Which were formerly provided freely by the government.
- The governments to withdraw from providing agricultural incentives like subsidies to farmers. The agricultural sector was to be under privatization to minimize the government expenditures.
- Privatization of public owned enterprises. The intention was to consolidate and ensure effective performance in the trade sales and joint ventures.
- Devaluation of currency Achievements of structural Adjustment Programme
Achievements of structural Adjustment Programmes
- The formation of adjustment programmes and policies with the intention of economic sustainability, efficiency and growth. Structural adjustment programmes have raised the standard of people in the respective countries through privatization policy.
- Investment performance improved mostly in strong reforms in the years between 1980-1984-1987.
- Average annual export growth rates rose by 5-6% in strong reforms from1980 to 1987.
- In countries where there were strong reforms, agricultural production, exports, investments and consumptions increased during 1985-1987.
- Exchange rates grew in some Africa countries for example, Nigeria witnessed increased prices and exchange rate in 1980 where regional output was 50% and increased to 86% in 1987.
Failures of Structural Adjustment Programmes
- Structural Adjustment Programmes failed to implant most of the predetermined objectives and principal to the developing countries and instead these have accelerated the rate of poverty in rural areas. This has mainly been due to the fall of agricultural sector which is the backbone of economy of most developing countries.
- Diversification of economy is still low due to unstable economy due to the fact that low capital earnings in the developing countries tend to be directed to different social-economic issues.
- Export capital and investment capital ratio is still low in developing countries especially in the sub-Sahara African countries. This is because the conditionalities issued by the IMF and World Bank to the developing countries affect the capacity of ivesting the imported capital.
- Agricultural and industrial products are still not satisfactory due to the improper investment and inadequate technology .
Privatization refers to the process of transferring assets and activities of public sector to be run by the private sectors or individuals. Privatization is one of the results of Structural Adjustment Programmes which has been emphasized by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB) and donors from abroad such as Britain, France, USA, Denmark and Germany.
The objectives of Privatization
- To create more market oriented economy where those privatized firms will participate in the stock market.
- To improve productivity of economy and efficiency of privatized parastatals.
- To secure and enhance access to foreign markets, capital and technology through attracting managerial and technological resources from the private sector.
- To broaden share and ownership through equal provision of public services to all levels.
- To reduce the overwhelming and challenging increase of public dept.
- To preserve the goal of self-reliance
Measures Taken to enhance Privatization
- To improve the operational efficiency of enterprises and their contribution to the national economy by selling them to private investors.
- To reduce the burden of parastatal enterprises to depend on the government budget.
- To sell parastatal enterprises to private investor so as to expand the role private sectors in the economy and permit the government to concentrate on core functions due to the relieved burden of dealing with production activities.
- To encourage wider participation in the ownership of private companies and management of business by selling and telling private investors engage in production.
Advantage of Privatization
- It has increased flexibility due to the reduction of bureaucratic complexity and procedures in order to improve the national economy.
- It has reduced costs resulting from inefficiency in production through competitive processes.
- Privatization has led to the improvement and rise of competition among the existing private organizations and in the public sectors.
- It has met demands beyond the current government capacity because the private sectors encourage competition which increase the level of productivity and efficiency.
- Privatization provides clients with more choice of options where they can satisfy in terms of contract, salaries and working conditions.
Disadvantage of privatization
- Increase of unemployment to the indigenous: Privatization has increased unemployment of indigenous people. This is because most of the people come from outside to work. When any public enterprise is privatized it is accompanied with massive redundancy of the previously employed people.
- Fall in agricultural sector. It has led to the fall in agricultural sector due to the withdrawal of the government from providing incentives.
- Reduction of quality of services. Privatization has increased temptation to reduce quality of services in order to reduce costs and maximize profit.
- Increase of the rate of moral erosion: Privatization increases the rate of moral erosion due to its policy of free trade. The private companies tend to import all goods without considering consumers. For example, pornographic pictures and other related films or VCD/DVD which affect the younger generation.
- Increase the rate of poverty: Privatization policy increases the rate of poverty to people living in Rural people depend on agriculture for the better quality of their life.
B. Trade liberalization (free trade)
Trade liberalization refers to the reduction of tariffs and trade barriers to permit more foreign competition and foreign investment in the economy. It is a term which describes complete of partial elimination of trade restrictions through elimination and reduction of trade barriers such as quotas and tariffs.
Free trade. Is the unhindered flow of goods and services between and/or among countries and is a name given to economic policies and parties supporting increases in such trade. E.g. Tanzania introduced trade liberalization as from mid- 1980’s following the IMF conditionalities to be fulfilled for a country to qualify to be given loan or grant.
C. Democratisation process
The democratisation process is looking at the following basic pr: cir les:
- Free and fair political competition: A free and fair election is the situation where by choosing of leaders is done democratically. In order to be free and fair elections there ought to be the following requirements:
- Competitive: Elections for holding different political positions such as presidential, Parliamentary, Councilor or Local Government political position must involve different political parties which compete to win such positions.
- Periodic: Elections need to be carried out in a specified period for all political leadership authorities. In Tanzania, General Elections are conducted after every five years. For example, a president, Member of parliament or Member of House of Representatives ( in Tanzania Isles) or a Councilor stays in power for a five year term. A president can be elected for tenure of two consecutive terms while other posts have no limit for one to contest for leadership.
- Inclusive: Elections must include or involve a large number of adult populations
who qualify to be registered as voters.
- Definitive: Elections must aim at getting rulers who must have legitimate power or authority to direct other people towards better national development.
- Elections must ensure that the electorates are not limited in selecting candidates’ or even in making decisions.
- Political tolerance: Political tolerance is the ability to accept different political points of view of other people. The majority group has a duty to respect convictions and ways of live of the minorities.
- Citizen participation: Citizens participation includes standing for elections, debating issues, voting on elections, gathering for community meeting s, Joining political parties and organization, protesting and paying taxes.
- Equality: This means that people are valued equally. They have equal
opportunities. No one is discriminated against.
- Accountability: Appointed and elected officials must make decisions and perform their duties according to the wishes of the people not for their own interests.
- Smooth transfer of power: There needs to be a well-established and transparent system of transferring power from one political party or regime to another.
- Economic Freedom: This means that the Government should allow people to own private property and businesses. People can choose work and join trade unions. There should be free markets. The state should not control the economy.
- Control of the power abuse: Elected and public officials should be prevented from misusing their power .e.g. There must be in place mechanisms to control corruption.
- Inclusion of a bill of rights in the constitution: A bill of rights is a list of rights and freedom guaranteed to all citizens in a country. The billof rights limits the power of government. It may also impose obligations on individuals and organizations.
- The rule of law: It means no one is above the law: not even an elected president. Everyone must obey the law and if one violates the law he/she must be held accountable. xi. Sovereignty: Sovereignty means the freedom to decide and execute domestic and foreign policies without interference from another country. Therefore a neo-colony can hardly exercise democracy.
- Sovereignty: Sovereignty means the freedom to decide and execute domestic and foreign policies without interference from another country. Therefore a neo – colony can hardly exercise democracy.
Comparison and difference between idealism and materialism:-
EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION IN TANZANIA
Impact of globalization in Tanzania can either be political, economy,social or
Globalization has positive and negative effects which can be analyzed economically, politically and socially as follow:
Social –economic effects
- Positive Effects:
- Stimulating utilization of natural resources: Through trade liberation and free market economy globalization has stimulated much utilization of natural resources. There are many companies which invest natural resources. For example, mining companies in Mwadui, Bulyanhulu, Geita, Nzega, etc enable Tanzania to utilize her resources for development of her people.
- Making production and transportation of goods easier and faster than before: Globalisation has made production and transportation of goods easier and faster than ever before. It enables Tanzania to get different to get different goods from any corner of the world. For example, getting goods such as computers, mobile phones, food stuffs, medicines, automobile, chemicals, etc.
- Creating employment opportunities: Globalization creates employment opportunities for many people. For example, telecommunication has contributed significantly to the employment creation of both direct and indirect jobs. The indirect jobs include Tanzanians selling cell-phone, airtime, cell phone battery charging services, providing call services, money transfer, ect while direct jobs include different people employed to provide services in telecommunication companies like Vodacom, TTCL Mobile, Airtel, Zantel Mobile, Sasatel, Tigo, ect
- Improvement of social services: Through liberalization of social services there is a wide spread of private schools, hospitals and dispensaries which provide servide services to people and hence improving their well-being
- Negative Effects:
- Decline and underdevelopment of industrial sector: For developing countries like Tanzania, free trade causes the decline and underdevelopment of industrial sectors and local technology. Decline of industrial sector and local technology is due to influx of goods from outside whose are low yet with higher quality than
- Exploitation of the poor countries: Presence of multinational companies in Tanzania if not well controlled may acquire super profit through exploiting citizens thus leaving them poor.
- Source of unemployment: Globalisation sometimes creates unemployment. With growth of technology, machines greatly replace human labour. Therefore, unemployment sometime increases. For example, the introduction of electronic devices like computer technology and its programmes have led to eviction of many Tanzanians from their jobs.
- Widening the gap between developed and developing countries: Though privatization and capital mobility, Northern countries (Europe, North America) undermine Southern Countries (Africa, Asia, South Amerca) through unequal exchange. Most of the potential natural resources in developing countries are owned by companies from developed countries. Thus undermining local communities.
- Environmental degradation: Advancement in technology causes environment degradation. Technological advancement in mining sector, agriculture, fishing, transport systems and industrial sectors threatens environmental quality of Tanzania.
Political effects of globalization I: Positive Effects
- Changes in the content of domestic law. For example, Tanzania makes laws which comply with international laws and therefore she abides by them in such a way that she can no longer mistreat her citizens the way she wishes.
- Integration of Tanzania into global politics: Under globalization Tanzania is integrated into world political systems through international agencies and
- Formation of strong political organization: Globalization has made it necessary for poor countries to form strong political organization as a way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of way of minimizing negative impact of Globalization. Formation of Africa Union (AU), EAC, ECT.
- Speeding up the democratization process in Tanzania: Globalization has speeded up the democratization process in Tanzania. Tanzania is adopting global democratic principles such of rule of law, transparency, and accountability and is trying to implement these aspects as a way of promoting democracy.
II: Negative Effects
- Centralization of political power in biggest capitalist powers: There has been centralization of political power. This situation reduces political sovereignty of poor countries like Tanzania.
- Increase of terrorist attacks: Tanzania has been affected by global political disorders and terrorism Bombing of USA embassy in Dar es salaam due to the conflict which involved USA and AL- Qaeda terrorists who are against USA imperialism.
- Undermining effort of poor countries to form strong political organization: Globalisation is pushing down effort by poor countries to form strong political organization such as Africa Union (AU) and East Africa Community. (EAC.
- Creating chaos in the country: In some cases globalization with its related political propandas such as multipartism, transparency, accountability, rule of law and others creat chaos in the country. Some politicians manipulate these agendas and lead to insecurity in the county.
Cultural effects of globalization I: Positive Effects
- Enabling diffusion of belief and values in different world societies . Globalization has made diffusion of beliefs and value in various societies of the world.
- Integration of all cultural practices in the world: Globalization has managed to integrate all culture practices in the world through the development of information and communication technology like internet, Fax machines, satellites and cable TV E.g. Those culture practices are such as sports and games, music, etc.
- Revealing out some bad cultural practices: Globalization has revealed out some bad culture practices which have been performed by some communities. For example, Female Genital mutilation is globally condemned with great emphasis.
- Expansion of the great world religious institutions: The expansion of the great world religious institutions particularly in Africa and Asia has transformed the social-cultural value of these countries into modern and acceptable ones. For example, the spread of churches and mosques in Tanzania has increased the work of fighting against bad cultural practices like Female Genital Mutilation, forced marriages, harassment of women, etc.
II. Negative Effect on culture
- Sweeping away cultural boundaries: Globalization has swept away cultural boundaries which existed. This is done by the use of advanced information and communication technology such as Televisions, radio, internets and magazines. This has made most Tanzanians to be influenced by western ways of life.
- Increase of violence and prostitution: Cultural-globalization ties have been responsible for violence , prostitution and other related behavior which increase as one more integrated into globalization.
- Undermining of Africa native languages: Africa native languages including Kiswahili have been undermined by English language. English has become a globalised language such that it is conceived by many Tanzanians that speaking English is a sign of civilization. By so doing, local languages including Kiswahili are
being abandoned or left to be used by less educated people.
- Replacing traditional songs with western ones: Some effects of globalization may be experienced in the assessment of pre-existing Africa traditional songs and ceremonies which are being replaced by western styles and contents like kitchen parties (for women) and beauty pageants
D: Impact of globalization on Environment
- Increase of pollution; Globalization has increased pollution due to constant emission of toxic gases from heavy industries. For example, there has been air pollution due heavy smoke from industries which has subsequent impact on human life and other living organism.
- Increase of deforestation: Globalization has increased deforestation due to permanent clearing of forests for mining activities, construction of road, railway, dams, industries and establishment of settlement areas.
- Global warming: Globalization has increased global warming due to gradual increase of temperature regime on the earth at a global level caused by emission of gases produced by heavy industries, cars. And moving ships. These gases prevent the escaping of heat from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere .
- Greenhouse effect: Greenhouse effect refers to the process of trapping of gases and heat at the atmosphere and in layer around the earth. This problem results from the on-going globalization. The major source of greenhouse effects is gases like chlorofluorocarbons 9CFCs) produced much by refrigerators, chlorine, nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Both are philosophical concept which explains about the existence of things in the world.
- Both are branches of metaphysics, which is the one of the branch of traditional philosophy.
- Both have tried to explain the reality, no any branch comes with conclusion in order to make people appreciate.
- Both tried to argue about education and the whole process of learning.
- Both originated from philosophy.