CONTEMPORARY / CROSS – CUTTING ISSUE
- Gender and Development
- Environmental issues
- Drug abuse
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
Gender refers to different social roles assigned to males and females by a society. It the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female and the relationship between men and women which these attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and learned through socialization processes. They are context/time-specific and changeable.
Gender is a development strategy as it helps to clarify fears and misconceptions, and brings to focus the different social relations among male and female, hence helps decision makers to construct the gender issues and places.
Sex refers to the biological characteristics / differences which define humans as female or male. People are born female or male, but learnt to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behavior makes up gender identity and determines gender roles. Therefore gender is different from sex, as sex shows biological differences, while gender shows relationships between male and female.
A gender relation is a concept which is used to explain the unequal power relations between men and women. Unequal gender relations also determine men’s and women’s status, opportunities and the value of their work and contributions in a society, where household work is not valued like paid work which is performed outside the household.
Gender discrimination refers to unequal treatment between male and female. This happens when a certain sex (male or female) is treated better or worse than the opposite sex.
It becomes an issue for it expresses gaps in development which are a result of institutionalized differential treatment between men/women, girls and boys. Discrimination starts from the family level through socialization e.g. a girl child helps with family choirs while a boy child goes out to play with friends.
Gender oppression refers to a situation whereby one sex is treated in a continually harsh way or made to feel anxious, uncomfortable or unhappy. It occurs from imbalance of power between men and women. Women are oppressed because of the power gap which arises from imbalance in resource command; usually women are placed in a subordinate position.
Gender stereotyping refers to people’ perceptions and attitudes created by the socialization process, which is perpetuated by gender division of labor, particularly in traditional institutions, for example initiations.
Gender analysis is a systematic way of looking at the different roles of women and men in any activity, institution, or policy, and at the different impacts of these on women and men. It is about who does what ,has access to and control over what ,benefits from what, for both sexes in different age groups, classes,religions,ethnic groups, races and castes.
Gender analysis also means that in every major demographic, socio-economic and cultural group, data are separated by sex and analyzed separately according to sex.
Gender division of labor (GDL) refers to the different work that women and men generally do within their home, community and in public, and includes tasks /activities that are mostly carried out by men and women.
Sex division of labor (SDL) refers to the biological division of labor. While GDL is the social division of labor that starts from the household, to communities and goes all the way to the workplaces. Pregnancy is a biological/sexual division of labor, while the rest that happens outside pregnancy is social division of labor, which can be performed by both men and women.
In GLD, women are normally given roles that have less value and little financial recognition. Most of the work load is given to women on assumption that they have plenty of time to perform unpaid community work.
Gender division of labor is set according to the culture, geographic location and socio- economic factors, including education, technology, economic crises and wars.
Refers to the numerical equality between women and men .Efforts to promote gender balance include achieving equal representation of women and men in councils, companies, utilities and committees.
Gender equality refers to the rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men, does not depend on whether they are born male or female. It also involves equal distribution of economic gains.
Gender equity refers to fairness of treatment for men and women according to their respective needs. Equity is the means to achieve gender equality through equal treatment (fairness), and which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of men and women through for example implementing the affirmative action /policy to create gender balance.
Therefore, gender equality is related to justice, while gender equity relates to fairness by giving equal opportunity to both men and women through for example provision of equal opportunities to employment and equal pay, access to property such as land, education and training, health facilities and to participate in planning developmental activities.
Empowerment is the process and end-result of improvement in autonomy through various means, such as access to knowledge, skills and training. It is the inner will and ability to change a given situation positively.
Gender sensitive refers to the ideas, initiatives or actions that take into account the particularities pertaining to the lives of both women and men, while aiming at eliminating inequalities and promoting an equal distribution of resources, benefits, burdens, rights and obligations to both men and women.
Meaning of Patriarchal and Matriarchal Systems
Matriarchy refers to a system whereby a woman has power in all aspects of life, for example the mobilization of resources.
In this system a woman is more superior to a man. It is a woman centered system since all the decisions are made by women.
Matriarchy is a complex subject which is difficult to define and often evokes strong reactions. The word matriarchy is used in several senses. It has often been used to denote a social- cultural organization in which women are the recognized leaders in the community. In other instances, it refers to a social organization in which the political status of a person depends on matrilineal descent, or to a cultural system in which the mother is the head of the family, or in which inheritance of family property is through the maternal line. It has also been used to define the social pattern of societies in which the deity is a goddess.
So far, there is no evidence of a complete matriarchy—a society in which women had the final say on every aspect of communal life. At the same time, there is no known society in which women had absolutely nothing to say about any aspect of communal or personal life. Evidence from African societies, though strongly suggesting that there are no purely matriarchal societies, nevertheless shows many traits of matriarchal practices in the sense that,
even in what appears to be all-male rule, one finds tendencies of mother-centeredness. With this understanding, what follows is an attempt to map a range of matriarchal possibilities.
In order to understand the problems of using terms such as matriarch, matriarchy, and matriarchal, it is important to look at the areas of power, the means of such power, and the mechanisms used to enforce decisions. A closer examination of female leadership often reveals that the relative position of women, in terms of freedom and control, depends largely on the size and nature of the group being discussed. It seems that women have always had the greatest possibility of governing at the level of the family, whether nuclear or extended. Women also appear to have more responsibility in relation to matters affecting other women, both in modern industrialized society and in peasant societies.
Only rarely have women governed entire nations. In addressing the sphere of women’s power, scholars point to the education of children, arrangements for marriages, types of work, the ownership of property, social status, and the spiritual welfare of the community.
Most writing on matriarchy is the work of anthropologists. Some theorize that matriarchal societies were earlier stages of societal development, or as primitive. The community of the Iroquois Indians has been singled out as one in which women had great influence. Iroquois women could take the role of sachems (chiefs) and, as such, constituted an important part of the governing segment of the society. Even here, however, the physical strength of men, their dominance in fighting, and their tendency to compete led to attitudes involving superiority and control. Among the Kuna Indians of Panama, women are described as being physically as strong as men, or even stronger. As a result, Kuna women control drunkenness and fighting at fiestas: if the men become too drunk and begin to fight, the women simply move in and separate them.
One important source of power for women in non-industrialized societies is food production and small business entrepreneurship. The areas where women are the food producers are also the areas in which women have the most say. When the pattern changes either in industry or in cash-crop farming, a shift of power also takes place. Similarly, in areas where women have a prominent position in business entrepreneurship, as do the so-called market women of West Africa, they have freedom of movement and more self-determination. These factors often bring out aspects of female leadership or female power that may be referred to as matriarchal.
In Africa, matriarchal features are evident among communities such as the Ibo of Nigeria, the Ashanti/Akan of Ghana (West Africa), the Kwaya of Tanzania (East Africa), and the Chewa of Malawi (Southern Africa). Sjöö and Mor (1976) report that many indigenous communities in Asia, the Pacific, and North and South America are “matriarchal.” What these groups have in common are strong female roles in food production and strong community adhesiveness. In many of these societies, the role of women is more important than that of women in typical western societies, but this does not mean that they are truly matriarchal, except in a very limited way.
The word matriarch is used to refer to a woman who has a prominent leadership role in her community or is publicly respected especially for her long and consistent impact on the society or the family. In Chinese and African societies, the oldest woman in the family— often a grandmother or the great-grandmother—is a matriarch, because she commands a great deal of respect and authority. She has to be consulted on all family decisions, and she has the veto power. The rest of the family respects her and gives her a place of honor in the home. Each family has its own matriarch, and her power is recognized in her own immediate and extended family setting to a greater extent than in the society as a whole, even though generally these matriarchs are respected by the entire communities. Age plays a very important role, because matriarch is not a title but a status. Younger women do not qualify to be called matriarchs even if they provide leadership in the family. Age in these societies is a positive and powerful sign of experience and wisdom.
In some polygamous societies, the oldest wife is a matriarch. She is expected to provide leadership to junior wives and has a special supervisory role over family matters. There is also considerable authority invested in her by society. She can stop the male members of the family from taking an action pertaining to family property or family members. She is immune from being beaten or ordered around by her husband, and in many cases she is the only wife allowed to sit in the council of men when important decisions regarding family matters are being discussed. If she is not present in person, she is the first to be told about the decisions made, and she is the one who tells other wives. She is also expected to be responsible and fair in her judgments and actions. This is what makes polygamy work and what makes communally structured societies appear to be matriarchal.
Some matriarchs gain this status by relationship to men considered to be patriarchs, such as presidents, chiefs, or bishops. In the Anglican churches in Africa, the wives of bishops act as patrons of churchwomen’s organizations, such as the Mothers’ Union, and are treated as matriarchs.
In the Bible, matriarchs are the wives of patriarchs, the key figures in the patriarchal history of Israel. In these narratives, Sarah seems to be the only one whom traditional biblical scholarship recognized as a matriarch. This may be due to the emphasis in the biblical text and subsequent tradition that Sarah, and not Hagar, bore the son promised by God, and thus became the mother of the people who inherit the promise given to Abraham. Jeansonne (1990) and Bellis (1994) include particularly good references to the biblical matriarchs.
Present-day biblical scholarship, such as that exemplified in the Oxford Companion to the Bible (Metzger and Coogan, 1993), recognizes the bias in the traditional interpretation of biblical stories, and in particular, the patriarchal history of Israel as told in the book of Genesis. In order to reclaim the inclusivity of history, rather than referring to patriarchs, the dictionary adopts the term ancestors of Israel. With the use of such an inclusive term, it becomes possible to name all the other women in the Genesis history who would warrant the recognition as matriarchs: Sarah, Hagar, Rebecca, Leah, Rachel, Bilha, and Zilpa. All these women were related to the patriarchs of Israel, and they, too, contributed to the history of Israel.
Matriarchs are also women who have been prominent and powerful and made great achievements in their own right. In Africa, women who have founded indigenous African churches are often considered matriarchs. Women such as Indira Gandhi and Golda Meir may eventually be seen by history as matriarchs for the prominent roles they played in world politics at a time when they had few female counterparts. Thus, the use of the term can be determined by context or group.
When linked to property inheritance, matriarchy is sometimes confused with matrilineage. Matrilineal descent exists in a societal structure in which inheritance and family descent pass through the female line. Men or children may have access to property only as a result of their relationship to the woman who is the legal owner. This means that the children are recruited into and given inheritance through the lineages of their mothers, hence mater-linear. In this system, it is the brother of the mother, the maternal uncle, and the birth mother who give the children their identity and inheritance. Marriage does not confer rights of inheritance or descent on the spouse. Identity and inheritance are therefore passed on to the children through a brother-sister relationship and not through a husband-wife relationship. Males in this system are the source of lineage, identity, and inheritance not for their direct progeny but rather for those of their female siblings.
Matrilineal descent does not always translate into matriarchy, but it paves the way for matriarchal possibilities. Logically, it seems that matrilineal practices have the potential to influence the status of women in society. The subleties of economic superiority deriving from ownership of land, a house, or other properties give these women a head start and greater bargaining power than their sisters who have no right to ownership of family property except through their male associates.
The Ashanti/Akan people of Ghana, for example, are definitely matrilineal, but one would not necessarily describe them as matriarchal. The ohemaa (queen mother) occupies a prominent role in the governance of community matters, but the public image of the ruler is the ohene (king). The queen mother presides over the team of kingmakers. Akan women are very powerful and control most family decisions. Local folklore has it they would have been even more powerful were they not prone to menstruation and pregnancy.
Nsugbe (1974) describes the Ohaffia Ibo leadership as having two headships of matrilineage, one generally male and the other always female. The male attends to secular duties such as the settling of disputes among the patrilineage, protection of the rights and properties of the clan, and the appointment of those who apportion matrilineal lands. In the absence of the male heads, the females act. But the main responsibility of the female heads is to attend to the sacred duties of society. The female head presides over the patrilineage for ritual events such as sacrifice to the sacred pots, each of which represents an ancestor. A male cannot be ritual head; the status is obtained matrilineally and by lineage seniority.
Among the indigenous Yoruba (Nigeria), although most political rulers are males, the women do have representation at the highest level, the king’s council, through their leader,
the iyalode (Bolanle Awe, 1977). Unless one were to argue that African patriarchies like the Yoruba make provision for women’s voices, it would be unthinkable to describe the Yoruba as matriarchal.
For the past three decades, the study of matriarchy by female scholars has taken on a new dimension by shifting its setting from the social-cultural realm into the religious. With the focus on worship of the female deity, the Goddess became the anchor of this search. Although the rewriting of women’s religious history may be one of the results, the main aim of these studies has been to establish whether the worship of a female deity had any effect on the status of women in cultures where one was worshiped.
Ancient Goddess-worshiping societies are sometimes referred to as “matriarchal.” Two views of these societies compete for recognition. One assumes that because these societies worshipped the Goddess, women must have had a high status. If this theory were true, it would support women who have argued that a society’s deity and symbols of worship, if cast in a particular gender, influence the way society shapes its views about gender and power. Hence, the male core symbols of Judeo-Christianity—evident in the male deity, God the Father, male meditating persons, and male-dominated language of the Scriptures repeated in prayers and worship rituals—impart a higher regard for men in these societies, at the expense of women. A potential conclusion of this argument is that matriarchy is good for women and bad for men, just as patriarchy is good for men and bad for women. Another issue for women is that in almost all instances in which there are female deities, there are complementary male deities. The female deities are usually assigned fertility roles, and therefore there is almost always a relationship between male deities and female deities. Women are presently challenging the interpretations that have tended to regard female deities merely as symbols of sexual relations.
The converse view says that in early matriarchal societies, women held high status; therefore, the Goddess was worshipped. This theory underscores the argument that whoever has the dominant power in society determines not only the secular, but also the religious agenda. In Greek society, where there was much emphasis on female deities, there were certain religious rites in which only women engaged. Then women were indeed in complete control and made all decisions, that excluded men. Some of these rites were not necessarily symbolic of women’s high status. The feminist investment in this view is meant to lay a foundation for the advocacy of shared leadership. Women have over time argued that many world religions are a result of the dominance of patriarchy, and the low status of women in society is a result of its religious practice as translated into sexism. The men rule and tame the world and all that is in it, and they have also determined how religion is to be organized in this world; even the male God is a result of men is determining who should be worshiped. This state of affairs is not good for the whole society, and it can change only if one group does not become hegemonic.
Some women scholars of matriarchy have been interested in the search for models of female leadership. This search has taken the form of archaeological documentation and revisiting
the interpretation of the religion of the Goddess (Sjöö and Mor, 1976; Stone, 1976). By exploring how the Goddess was worshiped, they have attempted to reconstruct what may have been the role of women in such a society. They have also posited theories that attempt to explain how and why change came about. They have speculated on the kind of leadership that matriarchy could have produced as a way of debating whether males and females differ in how they conduct the affairs of a society. For example, is matriarchy any more just and peaceful than patriarchy? Some scholars offer evidence which suggests that ancient matriarchal societies had more balanced and egalitarian communities. In order to avoid being snared in the trap of pitting matriarchy against patriarchy, they suggest that the study of matriarchy should use other terms, such as matrifocal or matristic societies, which help retrieve such special features of matriarchy as its communitarian orientation.
For feminists, patriarchy does not mean only the rule of the father—or the rule of males—but carries connotations of an unjust hierarchical and dualistic ordering of life that discriminates against women. Though some have argued that matriarchy should not be seen as the opposite of patriarchy, the popular mind will always see the two in opposition. The latter says that ancient matriarchal social systems and religions were organized on different premises from patriarchy. Matriarchy, on this view, indicates an entirely different orientation of consciousness around which entirely different patterns of personal, social, cultural, and spiritual relationships could and did occur. According to this understanding, some women conclude that the central characteristics of matriarchy are the gathering and binding of peoples, the care of the weak and vulnerable, and the conservation of what promotes the community.
The recent interest of woman scholars in the study of matriarchy focuses on the connections among power, control, property ownership, and the status of women. A further factor needing consideration is the source of power. This cannot be explained simply as a result of tradition in a society. The evidence points to the strength of individual personalities and their reputation for having been successful in previous social crises. Women who are thought to control supernatural powers also inevitably have a certain corresponding power within society.
Patriarchy refers to the system in which a man has power over the women and resources. Men are the ones who make decisions. This system is mostly common in developing countries like Tanzania .This system is heavily discouraged since it favors males over females, thus it perpetuates gender discrimination.
It also results to gender imbalance in all aspects of development, like education, employment, politics etc.
The traditional beliefs and practices of patriarchal societies in Tanzania:
Polygamy is a system whereby a man marries more than one wife for prestige and respect. In some societies a man is respected and valued more if he has many wives, so women are taken as a symbol of wealth and presitige. For example, Maasai (Tanzania).
Beating of women It involves an act of inflicting physical punishment on a woman body purportedly to have commited a mistake. This is mostly done by married men in order to exercise the power they have over their wives. This is also done to show that women are under control of the men. It is also done as a sign of love, especially by the Kuria tribe (Tanzania).
Widow inheritance It happens when a woman who lost her husband and she is taken by one of the relatives of her late husband as his wife. This is also done to stop the widow from inheriting the property of her late husband like a land or a house.
Early and forced marriage there are some tribes that prefer to marry young girls under 18 years, who do not even understand the impacts of that decision. Some parents also convince or force their daughters to be married due to economic reasons, or friendship, or for cultural reasons. For example a suitor may be coming from a tribe which is free from superstition. Sexual pleasure, most men take women as the instruments of fulfilling their sexual pleasure. This is seen when women are humiliated after sexual intercourse, once a man has met his sexual desires.
Source of income, girls are used as a means of generating wealth through the payment of bride price. Some parents demand high pride price from suitors in order to enrich themselves. This practice makes a girl to be like a property which is bought at the market. Therefore, the married woman cannot make any decision against her husband because of the high pride price paid to her marriage.
Patriarchal system is also observed in the education institutions where the number of males is greater than females. This is more serious at the higher learning institutions (colleges and universities).
This system is also seen in politics that involves government leaders and representatives in the parliament. The number of women is low compared to men.
Institutions that perpetuate gender discrimination in Tanzania’s society include the following;
Family institutions: It is believed that boys propagate lineage and support to the family, while girls leave their homes to get married. This marginalizes girls’ participation in many activities. Many families prefer to educate boys or spend more money on them at the expense of girls when a choice has to be made between the two:
• Traditional institutions; Initiation ceremonies play a major role in perpetuating bias. Girls who have undergone initiation ceremonies become passive in school. Traditional counselors and elders initiate girls with emphasis on submissiveness to men. Because of this, women do not take part in decision making at home.
• Religious institutions; Religious doctrines and leaders’ references to the Holy Bible or Koran on the submissive nature of women deny them opportunities to hold leadership positions and decision-making, for instance in churches and mosques, decisions made usually discriminate against women.
Constraints on Girls’ Education
• The school is sometimes seen as an alienating force that undermines cultural values.
• Traditional attitudes towards marriage view on investment in girls’ education as ‘watering another man’s garden attitudes’, whereby any benefits will go to another family.
• Socialization patterns assume that girls should be docile and passive, while boys are expected to be aggressive, adventurous and outgoing. This is to the advantage of girls when they have to share facilities and equipment with boys. Girls are also expected to suppress their brilliance or be subjected to ridicule.
• Women’s social status in a society and negative attitudes to women as subordinates
influence decision-making in girls’ education.
• Traditional practices, for example early marriage and initiation rites interfere more with girls’ education than that of boys.
• Education policies exclude pregnant school girls and adolescent mothers.
• Policies are gender blind in selection and posting teachers.
• Policies for monitoring gender equity in education are inadequate.
• School management practices in many cases discriminate against girls.
The traditional beliefs and practices of matriarchal societies in Tanzania:
Matriarchal system is a cultural system whereby a woman has power in all aspects of life including property ownership and decision making. It doesn’t mean that a man is not having power completely, but its position is not much valued like that of a woman, though his influence is recognized.
Matrilineal is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors. The mother is highly respected and valued, because she is the head of the family.
The contrast between matriarchal and matrilineal systems:
In matriarchal, the power is centered on a woman while in matrilineal, the lineage is traced from the woman.
Matriarchal societies are witnessed in Southern Zone of Tanzania; in Yao, Makua and Makonde tribes whereby a woman has power in all spheres of life. But still there is no convincing literature which really describes in detail how this system is practiced.
Matrilineal system is also found in royal clans and Kurichiyas of Kerala, India and Hopi Navajo and Gitksan of North America.
Although, till now patrilineal system is dominating in many parts of Tanzania and the world at large.
How patriarchal system in Tanzania influences the development of gender relations in our society.
Gender relations is a concept which is used to explain the unequal power relations between men and women
Gender relations also determine men’s and women’s status, opportunities and the value of their work and contributions in a society, where household work is not valued like paid work performed outside the household.
Gender relations have resulted to bad cultural systems like patriarchy (the dominating system) and matriarchy where power is placed on a certain sex (male or female).
Both of these patriarchy and matriarchy have acted as obstacles towards achieving development, since development needs an atmosphere where there is equal value, respect, rights and equal decision making between a man and woman so that everyone would participate fully at all levels of development.
Patriarchy has influenced the development of gender relations in various ways:
In patriarchal system only males are allowed to inherit properties like a land or a house from the parents, not females. Therefore this perpetuates gender descrimination since women will continue to be poor and submissive to men, who have power over resources.
Also in patriarchal system, females are not given an access to education, because they can’t develop the lineage of their family. That is why the number of illiteracy in Tanzania is higher in females than in males.
Moreover in patriarchal system, women are given heavy load especially household activities like taking care of the children, preparation of food, and other family cores are unpaid, while men engage in paid work.
In addition, in patriarchal system, women are producers and men are consumers. This can be seen in the rural areas where women engage in farming and harvesting, but they don’t benefit much out of all their work. Instead the men decide whether the crops should be sold or consumed. This perpetuates male supremacy.
In patriarchal system, women are perceived as weak and narrow minded, therefore they do not make critical and logical decisions as men do. This negative perception has made women to be disrespected and have lost trust in the society.
In patriarchy system, men are highly accepted to become leaders since they are believed to be strong and capable to reason critically, they can make sensible decisions compared to women. This bad belief is seen in representation between men and women in the governing system in Tanzania, where most of government leaders and members of the parliament are men.
Impact of gender discrimination on social and economic development:
Gender discrimination refers to unequal treatment between male and female. This happens when a certain sex (male or female) is regarded to be better or worse than another.
Impact of gender discrimination on social development;
In family institutions;
At home, girls are assigned to do family chores, like washing and cooking while most of the time boys are just free and wait for food, watching televisions or doing other things that please them. In most of the families girls have little time to restorsocialize.
Male children are more respected and loved than the female children; this can be witnessed during birth, when a husband is very pleased when his wife gives birth to a male child compared to a female child. Also some women are even divorced because of not having a male baby. Most parents believe that a woman does not develop the family lineage that is why women are not allowed to inherit properties, because they don’t develop the family lineage.
Girls are not given the opportunity to make decisions in matters that concern the family; even others are not consulted in matters that directly affect their welfare, like marriage. Also in some families a girl or a woman is restricted to urge before a man or to interupt while a man is talking.
Some parents are reluctant to invest much on their daughters, on the belief that they will not benefit anything. It is as if they are developing another family, a family which the girl is married to.
Women are restricted to eat certain kinds of food on the belief that, it will cause complications while giving birth. In some tribes pregnant women are not allowed to eat eggs because the expected child could be abnormal mentally or physically. All these bad beliefs are imposed in order to favor men and perpetuate subordination of women.
Also in other tribes like Maasai, when food is prepared, men must be served first before women. This means that it is better for a woman to miss food than a man. Therefore men should eat first after they are satisfied, then women follow. In other tribes women are not allowed to look at men while they are eating.
In education institutions;
Girls are given lower expectations in academic performance than boys, although they are as capable as boys. This may discourage some girls and drop out of school. Some are even laughed or mocked by boys for going to school when they are supposed to get married.
Girls are encouraged to study home economics, due to the negative attitude that they are not good at science subjects. Home economics is a study to help girls to be expert in house keeping and budgeting.
Girls are not supported to go for further studies. Most of the girls get married after completing elementary studies or even before. Also illiteracy is higher in girls than in boys.
In health services;
Most girls/women are affected by reproductive health, spread of diseases; and are not knowledgeable enough on the reproductive health because they are marginalized. Sometimes women are restricted to seek for health services insteady they stay at home to care for their husbands and children. Such a situation is more pronounced in the rural areas.
Impact of gender discrimination on economic development:
Increase of economic gap between men and women, most women are low income earners because usually they engage in unpaid works at homes compared to men who do paid works, usually done away from homes.
In some tribes women are not allowed to work, they are supposed to take care of the children and her husband. Also women have few opportunities of getting jobs due to negative attitude towards them. They are ergarded to be less productive. This is a common assumption.
In some tribes women are not allowed to inherit properties like land, or a house. These are essential factors in production. Most women work harder but they don’t benefit much out of their work.
Indicators of gender discrimination in Tanzania
Female genital mutilation (F.G.M). This is a practice of removing a part of a female reproductive organ, like a clitoris, labia or both for the purpose of reducing the sexual desires. This impairs the physical, biological and psychological well being of the individual. This practice is characterized by excessive bleeding, sharing of razor blades, scissors, and knives; therefore there is high susceptibility for transmission of HIV/AIDS. It also results to a lot of complications during giving birth.
Early and forced marriage; This happens when a young girl is married at a tender age before reaching 18 years. This practice is mostly done by pastoral societies like Maasai, whereby parents receive the pride price of a baby girl. This due to the desire of the parents to get more wealth accrued from dowary. Furthermore, it is a prestige to marry a very young girl.
Food taboos. There are some tribal restrictions that are imposed on women regarding type of foods not to be eaten by them. This is done in order to deny them the foods that are associated to men because of taste or mere prestige.
Polygamy means a custom of having more than one spouse at one time. This is most evidenced in societies where there is unequal treatment on both sexes.
Beating of women. This is an act of inflicting corporal punishment to a woman. This is caused by a negative perception that if a husband does not beat his wife, he will not be respected. It is also done as a sign of subordination that a woman is under a man or disrespectful to women. Although in other tribes like Kurya in Mara, if a wife is not beaten by her husband, she assumes that she is not loved. For them, to be beaten is a sign of love.
Widow inheritance is a habit of marrying a wife of a deceased husband of your relative like a wife of your brother who was a close relative. This shows how women are devalued, disrespected and not even given a chance to choose whom prefer to marry.
Lacks of decision making In most cases women are not involved directly in process of making decisions even an issues that directly affect their life. This is caused by the traditions and customs that restrict women from deliberating with them. It is also caused by the negative perceptions of the community that women are weak and they can not make sound decisions. This is also created by the inferiority complex of the women themselves.
Ignoring women education due to the assumptions that women are not potential to the society so there is no need of giving them education. This is also done purposely to make women a subordinate class.
Forbidding women to inherit properties. In most cases women are not allowed to inherit anything in the family because of the traditions and customs which treat a woman as a servant to a man. For this reason she is not allowed to own family property. Only men are entitled.
1. What is the difference between gender and sex?
2. Discuss the difference between patrilineal and matrilineal systems.
3. How gender becomes an issue, select any of gender issues in your society.
4. Define the following terms
(a) Gender role
(b) Gender discrimination
(c) Gender oppression
5. With concrete examples suggest ways of overcoming gender gaps.
6. Account for the constraints hampering the movement against subordination of women in Tanzanian.
a) Meaning and Components of the environment.
i. Definition of the environment.
ii. Components of the environment.
iii. Importance of environmental components and how they are inter-related.
iv. Environmental problems.
v. Solutions to environmental problems.
b) Natural Hazards, Catastrophes and Epidemics
i. Definition of natural hazards, catastrophes and epidemics.
i Examples of natural hazards, catastrophes and epidemics including earthquakes, floods, volcanic, eruptions, drought and famine,
ii Precautionary measures against hazards catastrophes and epidemics.
Environmental issues are issues or matters that are very sensitive and related to the environment. The question of environmental problems needs discussions or debates so as to find out ways to solve or reduce or cope with them, depending on the nature of their occurrence.
Meaning of the environment
Environment refers to the surrounding, conditions and influences affecting the growth or development of the living things. It implies everything that makes up our surroundings and affects our ability to live on the earth. The air we breathe, the water that covers most of the earth’s surface, the plants and animals around us, and much more.
In recent years, scientists have been carefully examining the ways that man affects the environment. They have found that man causes air pollution, deforestation, acid rain and other problems that are dangerous both to the earth and to man. These days, when people talk about “the environment”, they are often referring to the overall conditions of our planet, or how healthy it is. The unhealthy condition of the earth is due to pollution.
Components of the environment
The environment is composed of the earth, which means, land and water and the atmosphere that is air. In brief, the basic components of the environment are land, water and air.
Land consists 30% of the earth’s surface. The most important natural resource of land is soil. Soil is formed by weathering processes where natural forces wear away rock and break it into tiny particles.
Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth, containing mineral matter, air, water and micro- organism. All agricultural practices and most human activities take place on land surfaces. Added to land surfaces are flora and fauna. Flora refers to plants including forests. Fauna refers to animals. Flora and fauna contribute greatly to an environmental ecosystem of mutual support between plant and animal life patterns.
Support agricultural practices – All plants grow on the surface layer of the earth, most plant roots are found in this layer. That is why all agricultural practices and most human activities take place on land.
a. Preservation of under-ground water. Water-table is found under the land ground and from there the wells are drilled to get water for various human activities.
b. Keeps homes for various minute living organisms eg. Bacteria, such organisms help in breaking down dead or dying matter into nutrients that can be used again to feed the plants.
Water is a transparent fluid consisting of hydrogen and oxygen. It is a basic necessity of life.
Water is one of the most abundant substances on earth. Most of the earth surface is made up of water; it covers 70% of the earth’s surface.
For economic use, water can be used to generate electricity power, irrigation, and navigation, cooling of machines and making a variety of drinks.
For domestic use, water can be used for drinking, bathing, cooking, washing and in toilets.
The earth’s atmosphere is composed of air. Air is a thin layer of a mixture of gasses that surrounds the earth surface. It is made up of 75% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 4% other gases.
Air is very important resource as it supports life of all living things. It protects life on earth from the damaging radiation and temperature extremes. It helps the plants to make food through the process known as “photosynthesis”, with carbon dioxide. It also helps in combustion (oxygen) that enables vehicles and machines to operate
Major Environmental Problems
The question of environmental problems is now becoming so crucial because the earth’s natural system is being destroyed at an alarming rate by human activities.
The major problems facing the environment today are pollution, global warming, soil degradation, depletion of ozone layer, desertification and destruction of flora and fauna.
That has its origin in a Latin word ‘Polluere’ which means contamination of any feature of the environment. Any definition of pollution should take account of the fact that:
• It is not merely the addition of a substance to the environment, but its addition
at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate. There are natural levels of chemicals, such as arsenic and mercury in the environment, but only if these levels exceed certain critical values, they can be considered pollutants.
• Pollutants are not only chemicals; forms of energy like heat, sound, alpha- particles, beta-particles and X-rays may also be pollutants.
• To be a pollutant, a material has to be potentially harmful to life. In other words, some harmful effects must be recognized.
• Using the above criteria, it is arguable that there is such a thing as natural pollution.
• We know for example that sculpture dioxide, one product of the combustion of fossil fuels, is a pollutant, and yet 70% of the world’s sculpture dioxide is the
result of volcanic activity. To avoid ‘natural pollution’, some scientists have come to the conclusion that pollution is the result of human activities. It occurs in each of the three main types of habitat: air, land and water.
Air pollution refers to the contamination of air by such substances as fuel exhaust and smoke. When the concentration of gases other than oxygen and /or the solid particles increases, the air is said to be polluted. The layer of air, which supports life, extends about 8 km above the earth’s surface and is known as the troposphere. While there may be small localized variations in the levels of gases in air, its composition overall remains remarkably constant. All most all air pollutants are gases added to this mixture. Air pollution has existed since humans first used fire, but it is only since the industrial revolution in the 19th century that its effects have become significant. Almost all air pollution is the result of burning fossil fuels, either in the home, by industry or in the internal combustion engine.
Air pollution is a serious problem for those living in big, congested, industrialized cities with heavy traffic. The concentration of pollution can vary in different countries and within the country as mixing and natural and artificial barriers hamper dilution of pollutants. Some pollutants do not rise above 600 meters above the earth’s surface.
The causes of air pollution can be categorized in the following types:-
(a) Natural Causes:
(i) Volcanic eruptions that emit sumptuous gases and harmful dust
(ii) Natural air pollutants, such as pollens, spores, cells of fungi etc.
(b) Man-made causes:
Domestic fires, coal-fire power stations- they emit carbon dioxide (Co2), sculpture dioxide (So2) and hydrocarbons
Automobiles or motor vehicles – They release large amount of Carbon dioxide (Co2) [13.7], Carbon monoxide (Co) [77%], Oxides of nitrogen (Nox) [7.7%].
Industries/Factories – release large amount of carbon dioxide (Co2), sulphur dioxides (So2), smoke and many other compounds.
Agricultural activities – pollute air through the use of insecticides, herbicides and pesticides.
Rockets – destroy the atmosphere into two ways. Firstly, by discharging smoke into the atmosphere. Secondly, by physical destruction of ozone layer.
(a) On humans:
Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects.
Irritation in the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
Other symptoms include headaches, nausea and allergic reactions.
(a) Include chronic respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and heart disease, even damage to the brain, nerves, liver and kidneys.
(b) Increase of government expenditure – The government might be forced to increase health budget for medical and health care of its citizens.
(c) Lost productivity in the work place due to many people suffering from diseases
e.g. TB and Cancer.
(d) Population decrease – All the diseases associated with air pollution may lead to the death of many people
(e) On vegetation:
– Sculpher – dioxide damages crops and other plants
– Fluoride damages the leaf tissues
– Photo – chemical smog bleaches and blazes important leafy plants
(f) ) On animals
The Livestock near the industrial areas ingest fluorine compounds that fall on the foliage. This leads to flourosis i.e. abnormal calcification of bones and teeth. It also results in loss of weight, frequent diarrhea and a lame walk. Effects of pollution on animals are similar to those of human beings.
(h) On climate, it causes global warming and greenhouse effect. This is the act of the world receiving high temperature or heat due to increase of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air. It also causes acidic rains which affects plant growth and human life.
Air pollution can be controlled in different ways:-
(a) The population growth should be checked to reduce increase of Carbon dioxide
(b) Planting a lot of trees can reduce Carbon dioxide in the environment
(c) Nuclear explosions should be checked and if possible avoided
(d) Reduction in the use of fossil, fuel (coal, oil and natural gases) by switching to another sources of energy e.g. Solar, biogas, wind, tidal energy etc.
(e) Installation of air cleaners and scrubbers in the industries to remove soot and smoke.
(f) ) The government can enact laws to control and minimize air pollution, eg. to ban smoking in public places.
(g) Recycling also helps to prevent pollution. It reuses some wastes that otherwise could have been burned
Water pollution refers to the contamination of water by such substances as human and animal wastes, toxic chemicals, metals and oil.
Water pollution occurs through the following sources:
a) Domestic waste – the pollutants present are excreta, food residue, cleaning agents, detergents, suspended solids, ammoniac nitrogen, cyanide, oil etc.
b) Agricultural practices – The pollutants present are fertilizers, excess of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.
Spraying of agricultural chemicals, such as insecticides, fungicide, nematicides, rodenticides, herbicides and soil fumigants have contributed to water pollution. While practicing agriculture, it releases a lot of chemicals and wastes. Water from rain or melted snow flows from farmland into streams and carries chemical fertilizers and pesticides that farmers have used on their farmland.
c) Electric power plants and nuclear power stations – These stations need a lot of water for cooling power plants. The hot water released in lakes and rivers causes sudden rise in temperature, hence adversely affecting flora and fauna.
c) Oil tankers – When being loaded or unloaded or burst in accident, may release oil in water. The oil leaks from the tankers cover the water body. This prevents air from getting into the water and so leads to the death of marine organisms.
d) Industrial activities – cooling discharge waste chemicals into the rivers, lakes and ocean.
e) Fishing by using explosive materials like dynamites. f ) Bombing test in the water bodies
Effects of water pollution.
Spread of diseases like typhoid, cholera, dysentery, diarrhea and others.
Creating unpleasant environment for recreation because floating debris may hinder boating and swimming activities to take place along the beaches.
Mass destruction aquatic life. Oil spilled by ships may kill marine organisms because the oil leakage covers the water body, hence prevent oxygen from getting into the water. The result is dying of marine organisms due to lack of oxygen.
Increase in poverty. People who depend on marine activities as their source of income will be affected economically. Marine activities include fishing, tourism, and transportation.
Bad smell from the water bodies due to decomposition of waste creates unpleasant condition for people around the affected area. Example, area around Sea View, Msasani and Kivukoni in Dar es Salaam.
Colloidal substances cause turbidity of water thus unfit for drinking or industrial use. Scarcity of safe and clean water for peoples use.
Solutions to water pollution:
(i) Sewage treatment.
The sewage can be treated to prevent it from polluting the water. The most efficient sewage treatment plants use three separate process – primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Whenever possible, sewage facilities should be available in the houses.
(ii) Treatment of industrial effluents.
The industrial wastes should be treated to remove harmful chemicals before dumping them into water. Industrial wastes can also be reduced by using manufacturing processes that reuse pollution chemical as raw materials.
(iii) Treatment of sewage.
1st step: Large and suspended particles are removed.
2nd step: Air is supplies to make use of microbial activity to decompose the organic waste compounds. The water is then chlorinated to remove the bacteria.
3rd step: Nitrate and phosphates is removed by making the water pass through the iron exchangers. Since sewage treatment is expensive, most of the developing countries like Tanzania apply the first two steps.
(iv) Boiling of drinking water. Water should be boiled in order to kill germs and other micro-organism that carry various water-borne diseases.
(v) The Government should enact strict laws against those who cause water pollution. Example industrialists or owners of factories who pump wastes into rivers, lakes and seas must be penalized.
(vi) Mass education on environment. This education can be offered to students in schools and colleges. It can be provided by non-governmental organizations and government institutions through campaigns on environment including water pollution.
(vii) People should be discouraged to use chemicals or dynamites in fishing.
(viii) Proper checking of oil containers to avoid oil spills.
(ix) People should be discouraged from carrying out activities in prohibited areas, eg. faming in the water catchments areas
(x) Population control. Rapid population growth has resulted into increased food needs. This means expansion of farm areas and increase in use of fertilizers and pesticides.
Land or soil pollution refers to the dumping of wastes in the soil or land. It involves pilling up toxic chemical compounds, salts or radioactive materials that can affect plant and animal life.
Causes of land or soil pollution.
Soil pollution can occur due to various causes, such as:
(i) Dumping of industrial wastes.
Excess of agrochemicals in the form of agricultural pesticides, fertilizers etc.
(ii) Dumping of discarded wastes, like paper, food, plastics, ect
(iii) Air pollution, like acid rain
(iv) Water pollution, like pollutants finding their way into the soil.
(v) Discharge from latrines/toilets.
(vi) Rotten fruits and garbage
(v) Wastes from public utilities or homestead.
(vi) Volcanic eruptions
(vii) Bad farming practices, e.g overgrazing, monoculture, bushfire, etc
(viii) Mining activities and large constructions.
(ix) War, including use of landmines.
Effects of soil pollution.
(i) Death of microorganisms, animals and plants due to excessive use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
(ii) Famine. Land pollution can lead the soil to loose its fertility and become unproductive. Resulting to poor food production.
(iv) Debris like rotten garbage can be a source of house flies accumulation which may lead to the outbreak of diseases, like diarrhea, cholera and dysentery.
(v) Damage of landscape. This is due to scattered food, papers, plastics etc; they turnish the beauty of the landscape.
Solutions to soil pollutions.
(i) Government to enact strict laws to prevent land pollution.
(ii) Treatment of chemical wastes. Wastes can be treated before they are released, so as to make them harmless.
(iii) Proper use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Use natural or organic manure where possible.
(iv) Recycling. Example discarded tin cans, bottles, and old vehicles. These items can be processed to be used again, like in making aluminum, cooking pots.
(v) Mass education on environmental care. By educating people on the importance of environmental protection, will take proper measures against land/soil pollution and degradation.
(vi) Practice good farming methods, e g fallowing, crop rotation, contour farming, and mixed cropping.
(vii) Government to emphasize Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) before launching any big project.
(v) Population explosion control.
(vi) Afforestation and reforestation.
B: Land Degradation.
It is the process through which the uppermost layer of the earth surface is destroyed and turned into useless or unproductive for economic undertakings. Soil degradation involves soil erosion, leaching and increase in salinity and acidity. As well as the decline in fertility.
Land/soil degradation is mainly due to human and natural activities.
The causes of soil degradation.
Poor agricultural methods like monoculture, over cropping, cultivating in the slope areas, shifting cultivation and improper use of chemicals.
Deforestation. This involves large-scale removal of forest, prior to its replacement for other land use. It causes the land to be bare. Construction of large infrastructure. Building of roads, railways, domestic houses and dams.
Unplanned mining activities. Use of dynamites or bombs, that can destroy the land.
Poverty, illiteracy and ignorance have contributed a lot to the destruction of the land. Some people do not have awareness of protecting the land and its soil.
Dumping of toxic wastes. This may cause land/soil to loose its fertility because of becoming toxic.
Effects of land /soil degradation.
(i) Decrease in agricultural production. This is due to loss of fertility.
(ii) Destruction of communication systems like roads, railways and bridges caused by soil erosion.
(iii) Environmental refugees. People move from areas that have been affected by land degradation to other suitable ones.
(iv) Deforestation. A bare land cannot support the growth of plants.
Solutions to land/soil degradation.
(i) Reforestation and afforestation. Constant planting of trees in areas previously affected by deforestation and in the new areas.
(ii) Application of proper farming methods, like crop rotation, inter cropping, contour farming and destocking.
(iii) Population control. Population should be controlled so as to avoid excessive use of land, which may exhaust it.
(iv) Government to enact strict laws to protect land from misuse.
(v) Environmental education to the citizen
C. Global Warming.
Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface. It is mainly contributed by the increase of gases or accumulation of greenhouse gases in the air. These gases are produced through human activities in industries or factories, from vehicles, ships, airplanes and from burning woods and bushes.
Green-house effect refers to the gradual warming of the earth’s atmosphere which is thought to be caused by increased level of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). Ozone occur naturally in the atmosphere while others like Nitrous oxide and Chlorofluorocarbon occur in the atmosphere due to human activities.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes half of the effect of all greenhouse gases because of the vast amount vented into the atmosphere at 0.4 percent annually.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are made up of Chlorine, Fluorine and Carbon atoms. CFCs from aerosols, air conditioners, foam packaging and refrigerators are the most damaging of the greenhouse gases.
Nitrous oxide (NO2) is produced mainly from motor vehicle exhausts (combustion process) and fertilizer manufacturing plants. It breaks down the ozone layer, and is destructive by 290 times. Methane (CH4) or natural gas. It comes from fossil fuels, rice cultivation, waste dumps, biomass combustion and ruminants. It affects the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere and causes much of the greenhouse effect.
Human activities have always had an effect on the climate. But with the industrialization, the effects have multiplied. Every year, industrial activities release almost 6,000 millions tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, along with hundreds of millions of tons of other “green-house gases” such as methane and chloro-flouro-carbonates. Forest fires also contribute considerably to the emission of “greenhouse gases”.
Once released in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide remains there for a period between 50 and 200 years. Methane on the other hand, remains for only ten years, but can absorb between 30 and twenty times as much heat as carbon dioxide.
All this makes the temperature of the earth’s crust to increase above the limits of the natural variations. Detailed scientific analyses have shown that the average global temperature of the earth surface has increased by 0.5 degrees in the last hundred years.
The estimated contribution to the increase of the earth’s temperature by different sources of emissions are as follows; 20% from chemical products (CFC’s, halons) 15% from tropical deforestation and 15% from agricultural activities and refuse.
If emission of “green-house gases” continue to increase at their current rate, then by the middle of the next century the temperature could reach the highest level and last for 20,000 years. It could have an unsettling effect on our planet.
Causes of Global Warming:
A. Man Made:
l Fossil fuel- burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is always present in the air. Air consists of about 0.03% carbon dioxide. But there are signs that the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere is increasing. Carbon dioxide prevents heat to escape from the earth into space. As a result, the earth’s temperature increases. This will lead to melting of the ice caps causing severe flooding because there would more water in seas and oceans.
l Growing industrialization – has contributed a lot to emission of carbon dioxide from vehicles and toxic gases from industries and power plants.
l Deforestation. Is a large-scale removal of forest, prior to its replacement by other land uses. Deforestation enhances global warming because 70% of the oxygen we breathe comes from the photosynthesis in the plants. The mass destruction of trees or forest plants
through incineration and burning releases tones of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is the main cause of global warming.
l Increase in population. Increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere goes hand in hand with rapid population increase. Man breaths out carbon dioxide, which is one of the major components of greenhouse effect.
l Use of refrigerators, air conditioners using chlorine as a means of cooling
l Perfumes and cosmetics having methane gas.
l Rice farming discharge methane gas which contributes to the ozone layer.
l Bush fires.
l Wars – sophisticated weapons.
l Space exploration activities.
B. Natural Causes:
l Volcanic eruptions. They release large amounts of gases which lashes into the atmosphere.
l Solar radiation. This is the radiant energy emitted by the sun.
l Winds – carry out dusts and aerosols in the atmosphere.
l Natural fires.
Effects of global warming.
l Increase in global temperature. The temperature of the earth’s crust is increasing above the limits of the natural variations. Between 1980 and 1990 the earth’s crust experienced the eight hotest years of the whole of the century.
l Rise in the sea level due to melting ice. Increase of temperature has led to the melting of ice and therefore increases water volume, which has resulted into floods in many parts of the world.
l Disappearing of lowlands and islands. Due to rise in sea level, the lowlands countries and some islands will disappear.
l Destructive rains. When the land surface becomes warm rapidly than oceans this causes very heavy rains and floods. For example, El-Nino.
l Drought and famine. Due to climaticaly changes that may result into long period of drought (La-Nino), and changes rainfall patterns. The areas, that formally experienced enough rain, would turn into dry land, hence drought and famine.
l Outbreak of diseases. The ultra violet radiations that reach the earth surface, warm it and can cause damage of human skin (skin cancer). Can also cause eye problems and affect the immunity of the body system as well as vitamin D Synthesis.
l Disturbance of ecosystem. A large number of species survive on specific habitant requirements (e.g. forest, water, and marshy areas). Any climatic changes will have an adverse effect on such species.
l Spread of diseases e.g. Malaria which is endemic in this country.
l Psychotically disturbance.
Solutions to global warming.
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This can be done by restricting the use and make use of substitute. E.g. The adoption of biogas technologies, which convert methane from manure into energy.
Afforestation and reforestation. Planting of many trees is very important in combating the global warming, because plants have the ability to absorb most of the greenhouse gases, like Carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce oxygen.
Population control. Human beings emit a lot of Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. They are also responsible for depletion of natural resources like forests. Increased population lead to more demand for food and shelter, hence people are forced to clear land for new settlements and agriculture that contribute to deforestation.
Avoid burning of fossil fuel (coal, oil and fuel wood) that emit Carbon dioxide (CO2). Other sources of energy can be used such as wind, hydroelectric power and solar.
Anvil education: people should be educated on how protect trees, family planning and use of renewable sources of energy.
International community to adhere to International Protocol Treaties related to global warming.
D: Depletion of Ozone Layer.
Ozone is a form of oxygen (O3). The ozone layer is a protective layer that filters out much of sun’s harmful ultra-violet radiation. The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere between 16km (10 miles) and 50km (30miles) above sea level. It is rich in ozone, the same molecule that acts as a pollutant when found at a lower level of the atmosphere in urban smog. Up at the stratospheric level, however, ozone forms a productive layer that serves a vital function. It absorbs the wavelength of solar radiation known as ultraviolet-B (UV-B). UV-B damages deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the genetic molecule found in energy living cells, increasing the risk of occuring problems such as cancer in humans. Because of its protective function, the ozone layer is essential to life on earth.
I. The main cause of depletion of ozone layer.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the main cause of ozone layer depletion. It is the class of chemical used in refrigeration, insulation, foam, and in several manufacturing processes. CFC molecules are virtually indestructible until they reach the atmosphere. Here, intense ultraviolet radiation breaks the CFC molecules apart, releasing the chlorine atoms being reacting with ozone, breaking it down into ordinary oxygen molecules that do not absorb UV-B. The chlorine acts as catalyst that is, it takes part in several chemical reactions yet at the end emerges unchanged and able to react again.
A single chlorine atom can destroy up to 100,000 ozone molecules in the stratosphere. Other pollutant including nitrous oxide from fertilizers and the pesticides methyl bromide, also attack atmospheric ozone. Under this process the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere becomes thin and allows the radiation to reach the earth.
II. Effects of ozone layer depletion.
1. Outbreak of diseases. Diseases such a skin cancer, more cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye).
2. Reduction of yields of some food crops due to change of rainfall pattern and frequent events like storms, drought and typhoons.
4. Climatic change. The decrease in ozone layer allows more ultra violet radiation to reach the earth’s surface, which warms it and can thus cause changes in the surface temperature.
6. Rising of sea level. It is predicted that sea level rises will occur at about 6cm per decade over the next century because of thermal expansion and melting of some land ice.
8. Disappearance of some plant and animal species due to hostile climaticall changes that affect specific requirements e.g. Forest or mountainous requirement.
III. Solutions to depletion of ozone layer.
Ozone layer is destroyed mainly by toxic gases like Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide, Methane and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Therefore all measures required to stop air pollution are directly connected to finding solutions to avoid ozone layer destruction. Such measures include:
i. In factories, installing devices like scrubbers to remove sulpher oxide and some other pollutants before they reach the air, can prevent air pollution by power plants and incinerators..
ii. Use of alternative sources of energy that reduce depletion of ozone layer. For example hydrochlofluoro-carbons which causes only 15% depletion of ozone layer. Whereas (CFCs causes 80%). Bromine or Halon compounds are mostly used in fire extinguishers.
iii. Afforestation and reforestation which contribute to reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
iv. Education on environment. People should be given environmental education so as to be aware of proper maintenance of their environment and to avoid all activities that may lead to environmental degradation and pollution.
v. Strict laws should be imposed and implemented by the government against those who are responsible for any activities that may lead to environmental degradation and pollution For example burning the forests/ bush fires.
A desert is a large land, which has very little water and scanty or no plants at all.
Desertification is the development of a desert or a process of making desert caused by either human activities or natural factors. Or is an irreversible decline in the land productivity. Desertification is a particular problem in dryland used for grazing. Human made deserts are very common in Africa and Asia.
In Tanzania, some parts of Mwanza, Shinyanga and Dodoma are experiencing a desertification process.
The main causes of desertification.
i. Deforestation. Constant cutting down of trees for agricultural and other economic activities has greatly led to desertification. Trees are sources of rainfall. It means if trees are cut down there would be no rain, hence drought and finally desertification.
Ii. Poor agricultural practices. Cultivating on the slope areas can lead to soil erosion ultimately desertification.
iii. Rapid population growth. An increase in population results into the exploitation of natural vegetation, which leads to desertification.
iv. Energy and mining. Open mining activities make the land exhausted and unproductive, hence desertification.
V. Burning of bushes and forests which make the land bare, results into desertification Vi. Volcanic eruptions.
vii. Floods – erode the upper layer of soils Viii. Natural fire – burning the vegetation cover
ix. Climatic changes – prolonged drought.
Effects of desertification.
i. Loss of biodiversities
ii. Shortage of rainfall. Constant cutting of trees may lead to shortage of rainfall, and therefore low moisture in the soil.
iii. Reduction of arable land due to the advancement of deserts. This may lead to food shortages.
iv. Soil erosion and unproductive land.
Solutions to desertification.
i. Reforestation and afforestation. Replanting trees in areas where the old ones had been cut down and in new areas.
ii. Population control. Controlling the birth rates (family planning) may reduce exploitation of natural vegetation, which is being depleted due to the population pressure. For example, farm land, building materials, settlements and so forth.
iii. Mass education. People should be educated on how to protect the environment and land management.
iv. Government should enact laws to protect land. Such as laws to ensure proper farming practices.
v. Proper faming methods such as contour and intensive farming will decrease the area for crop production.
vi. Use alternative source of energy. Example solar, electricity, and biogas. This may reduce the rate of cutting down trees for fuel.
v. Government may declare protected areas. This will prevent human activities that are related to environmental destruction, like logging, farming, and grazing
F. Depletion of Flora and Fauna.
Flora means plant kingdom e.g. forests. Forests mean thick growth of trees and bushes covering large areas.
Fauna means animal kingdom e.g. wildlife. Wildlife refers to all wild animals and birds living in their natural environment.
Wildlife refers to all wild animals, birds, and plants living in their natural environment. Such animals include antelopes, elephants, lions, giraffe, birds, insects and other minute organisms that live above or under the soil.
Importance of wildlife:
i. Hides, timber
ii. Medicinal herbs
iii. Food – meat, honey,
v. National identity vi National revenue.
There are so many activities, that contribute to reduction of fauna in many parts of Africa and Tanzania in particular. Such activities include:
i. Encroachment of wildlife areas for human settlement or economic activities.
ii. Indiscriminate hunting and killing of wild animals within and around designated areas.
iii. Removal of vegetation for any purpose.
iv. Pollution of aquatic ecosystem by agro-chemicals and industrial waste.
v. Indiscriminate burning of forests and grassland areas within and around wildlife areas.
vi. The increase of tourism activities within the designated areas, like construction and littering.
vii Breaking of the rules and regulations, e.g. giving the wildlife food stuff while sightseeing.
viii. Laxisty in law enforcement to protect the wildlife and natural vegetation.
ix. Uncontrolled game cropping.
x. The endangered species to be given protection by law, for example rhinoceros and elephants.
xi. Control animal’s diseases. This can be done by opening vetenary clinics and minimizing encroachment of human and domesticated animals.
xii. Stop unlawful hunting (poaching).
Forests are thick growth of trees and bushes covering a large area. Forests are very important for domestic use, e.g furniture, building materials, and fuel wood.
Vegetation acts as a protective cover for soil. Forest trees regulate the climate and attract rainfall. Various creatures live in forests. Some species need specific habital to survive like rain forests.
Economic benefits. Some people depend on forests for their economic survival, such as logs, pulp papers, medicine, honey and nuts.
Refers to turning the forested areas to non-forest land. The removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. In many African countries, particularly Tanzania, massive deforestation is taking place and reshaping the climate and geography. Deforestation is a result of removal of trees without corresponding reforestation.
Causes of deforestation
i. Urbanization; deforestation occurs where there is a rapid urbanization, which results in demand for construction of houses, industries, roads, railways and dams.
ii. Population increase – rapid population increase lead to more demand for food, hence clearing new areas for food production to feed the increasing population. This encourages cutting down of trees for new settlement, including building materials like timber.
iii. Construction of infrastructure – infrastructures like roads, railways, harbors, airports and so forth involve cutting down of many trees for construction purpose. This may accelerate deforestation.
iv. Source of energy – need for fuel wood and charcoal has contributed to cutting down the forest trees. Poverty is the main reason because poor people cannot efford use of electricity and electrical or gas cookers. Thus opt for cheap energy source which is fire wood.
v. Poor farming methods the process of shifting cultivation leads to cutting down many trees to create place for cultivation. Bush fire which is used to clear land for cultivation destroys a lot of trees and the natural soil cover.
vi. Extraction of minerals – energy and mining projects involve cutting down trees to allow mining projects, this accelerate deforestation process.
vii. Development of science and technology. Some development require use of forest products.
viii. Wars and conflicts
ix. Herbs extraction
xi. Volcanic eruptions
xii. Climatical changes
Consequences of deforestation.
i. Soil degradation – Cutting down trees may lead to the removal of the vegetation cover, resulting to degradation of the top soil.
ii. Draught – Forest attract rainfall, cutting down trees makes a bare land and increases precipitation, hence drought.
iii. Famine – Lack of rainfall may lead into famine, because the land will not be able to produce to its maximum capacity.
iv. Floods – Trees or vegetation provide protective cover when there is plenty of water over flow.
v. The presence of the vegetation cover check water flows and minimize soil erosion.
vi. Depletion of forest resource – There are many resources available from the forests such as honey, medicine, timber, fruits etc. Local communities depend on these forest resources for their livelihood. Depletion of these resources may lead to shortages of such resources.
v. Depletion of valuable forest species. Forest creates homes for many endengared species like bees, birds, trees, bacteria and so forth. Disappearance of forests means disappearance of such species.
Solutions to deforestation.
i. Reforestation and a forestation. More trees should be planted in the new and the old areas.
ii. Government policy. Some forests may be declared as protected areas by law.
iii. Population control. Population should be controlled to reduce pressure on land for human activities in the forested areas.
iv. Mass education – Environmental education should be given to people on how to protect environment, including wanton destruction of trees and shrubs.
v. Proper farming methods – Scientific farming methods should be developed like intensive agriculture, crop rotation fallowing and contouring.
Solutions to Environmental Problems
A: Waste Management
Waste means anything which is no longer of use. It can be solid or liquid in nature. Solid wastes are things like wood products, paper, food residues, plastics and crop remains.
Liquid wastes are things like sewage wastes and industrial effluent (acids, bases etc).
Sources of wastes:
i) Industries – Chemical wastes, radioactive wastes, plastic materials etc.
ii) Farms- Crop remains
Impact of wastes:
i) Environmental pollution affecting water, air and land.
ii) Production of harmful bacteria- This can lead to outbreaks and spread of diseases like cholera, dysentery, bilharzias, typhoid etc.
iii) Toxic chemicals can kill both animals and plants.
Proper waste management will minimize the degree of environmental degradation and pollution.
The following ways can be applied.
i. Recycling :
It involves the use of wastes as a raw material to produce the same item or a different one. E.g. glass, metal and paper materials can be recycled.
ii. Sewage can be treated and reused for irrigation purposes. This is possible when there is a proper developed sewage system.
iii. Wastes collection: Wastes can be collected and dumped in specified areas.
iv. Provision of sanitation services. E.g. garbage removing services. People can also be mobilized to pay for such services.
v. Wastes can be used with an economic end. E.g. to provide biogas and organic fertilizer.
Constraints to Waste Management: (Especially In Urban Areas)
i. Lack of appropriate technology e.g.: for recycling waste products.
ii. Lack of adequate resources e.g.: trucks for collecting and disposing of the wastes.
iii. Poor urban planning: It is very difficult to construct proper drainage system in an unplanned locations, e.g. Manzese.
iv. Lack of general education on environmental awareness among the majority of people.
v. Poor enforcement of by-laws regarding waste disposal e.g. dumping garbage in unauthorized areas.
B: Proper Handling of Dangerous Materials and Chemicals:
Dangerous materials are substances or matters, that when misused have a negative impact on the environment. E.g. Nuclear power systems – if nuclear leak occurs the destructive impacts of such nuclear diffusion is beyond measure. It can destroy living organism and human life.
Dangerous chemicals are substances that are used for various scientific and biological purposes. If such chemicals are improperly or excessively used have adverse impact on the environment. e.g.: Improper or excessive used of artificial fertilizers in agriculture can cause solid degradation. Excessive use of pesticides could lead to health hazards and environmental problems.
C: Proper Utilization of Natural Resources:
A resource is anything useful to man in his various days – to day activities.
Natural resources are anything that occur in a natural state and can be used by man. Such as air, soil, water, forests and minerals.
Natural resources can either be renewable (one that will not run out) or non – renewable (once used, it is no longer useful).
Minerals are non – renewable resources. Whereas air, water, soil are renewable resources.
As these resources are very useful man has been exploiting them to the extent that even the renewable ones are being depleted to an irreplaceable extent. This has led to an alarming environmental degradation at an alarming speed.
Reasons for Mismanagement of Resources.
i. Poverty – this has led people to excessive use of cheap resources, like trees for firewood and shelter.
ii. Population increase – This has led people to clear land for new settlements and food production.
iii. Poor technology–Use of primitive tools and methods in farming, fishing and mining.
iv. Lack of international co-operation. Some natural resources cut – across national boundaries, e.g. lakes, minerals and wildlife.
v. Lack of alternative sources of energy – Most poor people cannot afford other sources of energy such as electricity and gas.
vi. Corruption – By corrupting, one can misuse or overharvest the natural resources.
Proper Management of Resources
There are several ways of managing properly the natural resources:
i. Introduction of appropriate technology – The selection of technologies for specific tasks is a prerequisite for an environment – balanced development
ii. International co-operation is very important in dealing with environmental problems such as pollution and sharing of natural resources that cross over our boundaries.
iii. There should be a systematic planning in order to enhance aforestation research and development
iv. A responsible goverment should check the population increase.
v. More equitable distribution of wealth between poor and rich.
vi. Provide education and training on management of natural resources through campaigns and seminars to increase public awareness.
G. Natural Hazards, Catastrophies and Epidemics
Natural hazards are events that occur in nature through natural forces and when they accur put life of living things in danger or at risk.
Catastrophe refers to disaster or calamity, which causes destruction of properties, as well as the environment. Catastrophes are caused by hazardous events.
Epidemics refer to the rapid spread of diseases among many people in the same area, for example cholera and typhoid.
Hazardous events: Include things such as earthquakes, floods, drought and famine, volcanic eruption and storms.
An earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earth’s crust, which originates naturally at or below the earth’s surface. At the earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by a shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami.
The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcans. In its most generic sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event, whether a natural phenomenon or an event caused by humans which generates seismic waves.
An earthquake at its worst
Causes of Earthquakes:
Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, nuclear experiments and mine blasts.
Rupture of geological faults
i. Volcanic activity – earthquakes are linked to explosive volcanic eruptions. They are very common in areas of volcanic activities where they either proceed or accompany eruptions. The violence eruptions of molten rock from the interior up to the earth surface may lead to sudden shake of the earth surface.
ii. Geological faults – They occur when a rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake.
iii. Human activities such as deep mining, construction of large dams and nuclear plants have been linked to occurrence of earthquakes.
iv. Falling of heavy objects
v. Tectonic movements.
vi. Explosives e.g. bombs.
Effects of Earthquakes:
The severity of the local effects depends on the magnitude and complex combination of the earthquake, the distance from epicenter, and the local geological and geomorphologic conditions, that may amplify or reduce wave propagation.
Therefore, earthquakes have great disastrous effects on the environment and man as follows:
i. High death toll. They cause loss of people’s life. For example in Iran 2003 it killed over 10,000 people.
ii. Damage of cities and farmlands e.g. in 2004 many towns and crop fields were destroyed in Iran.
iii. Damage of infrastructures – This occurs because of fire outbreaks in towns or cities. This can be caused by faults in the electrical power or gas lines.
iv. Landslides and rock falls – This may cause damage in hilly and mountainous areas.
v. Outbreak of diseases – This may be caused by faulty sewage systems. Sewage spillage can cause diseases like cholera and diarrhea.
vi. Tsunami – undersea earthquakes and earthquake – triggered landslides into the sea can cause Tsunamis
vii. They can raise or lower coastal rocks.
viii. They can raise or lower parts of the sea floor.
ix. They can cause outbreaks of fire.
x. They can cause farmine.
Precautionary measures against earthquakes
i. Refrain from building sky – scrapper structures in areas of constant earthquakes risk.
ii. Avoid constructing large dams.
iii. Discourage use of explosives like nuclear and bombs testing, finishing by using bombs or dynamites.
iv. Detect the occurrence of the earthquakes regularly
v. Educate the citizens on this issue.
vi. Alarm warning system should be instlalled in earthquake prone areas.
Floods are natural events. They occur when there is heavy rainfall that fills the rivers and streams above their normal capacity, or if there is a very high coastal tide that causes levels to rise or surge. The excess water that gathers cannot be restrained by normal boundaries and follows along the path of least resistance.
This means areas that are low lying and close to sources of a flood are covered or submerged under water.
Floods in a residential area
Types of floods:
i. River floods – It is overflowing of water from the riverbanks and it is mainly caused by heavy rains, which results into the increase of the water level. It occurs when the strength of the river is so high it flows right out of the river bank.
ii. Estuarine floods – commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by storm force of winds.
iii. Coastal floods – caused by severe sea storms, or because of other hazards – e.g. tsunami or hurricane.
iv. Catastrophic floods – caused by either dam breakage or other hazards, like earthquake or volcanic eruption.
v. Lake – shore floods – Overflowing lakes due to increased water inflow.
Causes of floods
Floods may be contributed by two main causes, natural and man – made causes.
i. Heavy rainfall accompanied by thunderstorm. Floods of this type are very common in the humid tropics.
ii. Glacier melting – increase of temperature on the earth is one of the major reasons that contribute to glacier melting, hence floods.
iii. The size of the river channel – Floods occur in many dry regions because there are narrow steep sided drainage channels.
iv. Topography / relief – The lowland areas are most affected than the highland areas.
v. Rock type – Impermeable rock can absorb water and reduce the degree of floods, but permeable rock will allow water to flow quickly, hence accelerate the degree of floods.
Man – made causes
i. Deforestation – Trees and shrubs are effective in checking water flow.
ii. Human activities such as nuclear tests, dam’s construction and bombs or dynamite fishing are responsible for floods.
iii. Poor drainage system – well established drainage system may help overflowed water to follow the drainage system and avoid floods.
Effects of floods
i. Contamination of water, hence water born diseases, like cholera.
ii. Destruction of infrastructure, such as roads, railways and bridges.
iii. Destruction of land, include farms and crops hence famine.
iv. Loss of people’s lives and properties.
i. Construction of reservoirs and dams along the floody plains.
ii. To discourage human settlements on lowlands like Jangwani in Dar es Salaam.
iii. Construction of floodways which would direct the excess flood water to rivers or lakes.
iv. Afforestation and reforestation programmes – forest cover along the river bank and valley may protect areas prone to floods.
v. Forecasting and warning; Inform people on flood occurences and precaucionary measures to take.
vi. Refrain from activities that pollute and catalyise global warning. This is the main source of glacier melting.
DROUGHT AND FAMINE
Drought is a prolonged condition of dryness (dry weather) due to inadequate rainfall or lack of rainfall.
A serious drought in a country can lead to collapse of economy, which depend on cash crop production, or to a country whose majority population depend on farming for their livelihood, like Tanzania.
Famine is a state of acute food shortage. Drought and famine compliment each other in a sense that when there is drought there would be no rain and where there is no rain, agricultural activities are crippled. Hence crop failure and famine.
Causes of drought and famine Drought:
The natural causes
i. Shifting of global wind system
ii. Global warming – is the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface. One of the effects of global warming is the desertification phenomenon.
Man – made causes.
i. Deforestation – Trees attract rainfall, cutting down trees (deforestation) leave the place bare and without precipitation, hence drought.
ii. Poor farming methods, like overgrazing, bushfire, over cultivation, and soil erosion.
iii. Desertification – is a process which turns previous fertile land to a state of aridity due to human activities that cause environmental pollution and degradation e.g. removal of the natural land cover.
Effects of drought
i. Desertification – it eliminates biological life in the affected area.
ii. Depletion of vegetation covers hence soil erosion.
iii. Environmental refugees – people may be forced to migrate to other places.
iv. Occurence of malnutrition, e.g. Kwashakor and Marasmus.
v. Hunger which may lead to loss of people’s lives.
Precautionary measures against drought.
i. Introduce systematic aforestation and reforestation programmes.
ii. Destocking: pastoral communities to be educated on the importance of reducing the population of livestock.
iii. Growing of more resistant food crops such as millets and sorghum.
iv. Introduction of new sources of energy like biogas, solar, in order to minimize use of trees.
v. Introduction of appropriate technologies that would not endanger the environment.
i. Widespread failure of crops – This is because of constant droughts.
ii. Wars and Civil disturbances – existence of civil wars in many African countries have contributed a lot to famine. Instead of people engaging in production activities they found themselves becoming refugees e.g. Congo (DRC), Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi and Somalia.
iii. Natural hazards like floods and hurricanes.
iv. Poor food management. Most of small-scale farmers do not apply modern storage technologies. Moreover the national food reserves last for one or two years, compared to many developed countries where the reserves last over 10 years.
v. Poverty – this is a state of a person or country unable to meet the basic necessities of life
e.g. food, shelter and clothing. Poor farmers cannot afford to buy farm implements, pesticides, fertilizers or apply irrigation.
vi. Drought – is another cause of famine because without precipitation no agriculture activities can be carried out.
vii. Crop pests and diseases.
viii. High prices of farm inputs
ix. Relying one cash crop.
x. Deaths – scarcity of food may increase the number of people dying.
xi. Outbreak of diseases due to malnutrition.
xii. Production in many sectors may stop because hungry people cannot work.
xiii. Increase of government expenditure, government spends more money to feed people.
xiv. Rural – urban migration – Influx of people from villages to towns hoping to get jobs and good life. This leades to social evils like robbery, prostitution and drug abuse.
Solutions to famine:
i. Promote irrigation – Instead of depending on seasonal rains.
ii. Apply proper methods of pest control.
iii. Maintain good governance and democracy in order to avoid civil wars.
iv. Government to plan programmes that may enable farmers to get soft loans. These will enable them to buy farm implements and inputs.
v. Government to construct modern storage facilities that will function for very many years.
A Volcano is an opening or a rupture in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are pulled apart or come together.
Volcanic eruption is associated with volcanic. This process includes various ways by which molten rocks and gases are forced into the earth’s crust and on its surface. Magma reaches the surface either quietly or with great violence a case is referred to as volcanic eruptions. Africa has not experienced major volcanic eruptions. The greatest concentration of volcanoes is found in the eastern pacific, going from the very tip of Eastern Asia up to Japan, and also on the west coast of America. This distribution pattern forms a ring shape, and is called the “Pacific ring of fire
How does a volcanic eruption occur?
1. Divergent plate boundaries
It occurs when two tectonic plates diverge from one another. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, therefore most volcanic activity is submarine, forming new seafloor. Where the mid – oceanic ridge is above sea level, volcanic islands are formed, for example Iceland
2. Convergent plate boundaries
It occurs when two plates, usually an oceanic plate and continental plate collide. As a result, the oceanic plate submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. When magma reaches the surface, a volcano is formed. Example Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
3. Host pots.
They are not located on the ridges of tectonic plates, but above mantle plumes, where the convection of Earth’s mantle creates a column of hot material that rises until it reaches the crust. New volcano is formed as the plate shift s over the hotspot.
Effects of volcanic eruption:
i. Human life – volcanoes release poisonous gas, which is dangerous to human health.
ii. Settlements: People’s homes are destroyed leaving them homeless.
iii. It is also accompanied by earthquakes that again cause a lot of destruction.
iv. Pollution – It causes air pollution due to released particles in the atmosphere. – Land + water.
v. Lava plain provides excellent fertile land for agriculture.
vi. Global warming – It releases gas, like carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming.
v. Destruct vegetation cover and living organism.
1. Precious metals
2. Building materials (stones)
3. Fertile soil
4. Tourist attractions
5. Climatic changes.
Precautionary measures against volcanic eruptions.
i. Mass education. People should be given education on signs of volcanic – eruptions, precaution measures, and rescue operations.
ii. Migration – people should be advised to evacuate from places where volcanic mountains are still active. They should move to safe places.
iii. Setting up monitoring and emergency alarm system using new technology. This will help to rescue people on time.
A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body’s atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by strong wind, thunder- storm and lighting, heavy precipitation, or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere. In a nutshell, storm means any sudden, severe increase in air motion.
Types of storms:
There are many varieties and names for storms.
1. Ice storms – They are among the most dangerous forms of winter weather.
2. Snowstorm – A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of 2 inches per hour which can last for several hours.
3. Ocean Storm – storm conditions out at sea. Can sink vessels of all types and sizes.
4. Firestorm – Are conflagrations, which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is created during extremely large bushfires, forest fires, and wildfires.
5. Dust devil – A small, localized updraft of rising air.
6. Windstorm – A severe weather condition indicated by high winds and with little or no rain, like European windstorm.
7. Thunderstorm – Is a type of storm which generates lightning and the attendant thunder. It is caused by rapid expansion and contraction of the air, resulting from electrocution discharges that generate intensive heat.
8. Tornadoes – They are violent, destructive windstorm occurring on land. Rotating storms, contained by dust and various small particles.
9. Hurricanes – Are large, violent tropical storms with convergent winds rotating about a low pressure centre. They are usually accompanied by heavy precipitation that can result in disastrous floods.
Effects of storms:
i. Loss of lives of people and destruction of properties.
ii. Heavy and destructive rainfalls cause floods.
iii. Destruction of infrastructures + communication.
iv. Destruct sewage system
v. Economic standstill.
Precautionary measures against storms.
i. Warning systems – people should be alert about impending storm through weather forecasts and warning alarms, so that they can be ready to evacuate.
ii. Control global warming to avoid excessive temperature in the atmosphere, which results into destructive rains accompanied by lighting.
iii. Emergency services should be accessible at all time.
iv. Education on how to deal with to storms.
HIV / AIDS
AIDS is an abbreviation for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. It is a transmissible disease of the immune system. It is caused by a virus known as HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus slowly attacks and destroys the immune system (the body defense against disease).It also weakens the human body, therefore leaving it prone to other infections. The final stage of HIV infection is AIDS where the human body develops fatal infections.
An infected individual may show no signs of illness and remains healthy for a long period up to ten (10) years before developing AIDS (the last stage of HIV infection).
Origin of HIV/AIDS
It was first reported in 1981 by investigators in New York and California (USA) from homosexual men, who contracted the Virus primarily through sexual contact and by intravenous drug users who became infected by sharing contaminated needs. In 1983 French and American researchers isolated the causative agent of HIV, and by 1985 serological tests to detect the virus had been developed.
HIV/AIDS in Africa
It spread to Africa in 1980s, which was mainly facilitated by factors like increasing urbanization and long distance travel in Africa, interntional travel, changing sexual mores and intravenous drug use.
HIV/AIDS in East Africa.
It was first experienced in early 1980s in Uganda and Western regions of Tanzania particularly Kagera region which neighbours Uganda. It was nicknamed as Juliana, the shirts from Uganda or Slim as the infected person become very thin. It was also associated with witchcraft since it developed signs and symptoms that were never experienced before.
Statistics of HIV/AIDS
According to the United States 2004 report on HIV/AIDS, some 38 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, approximately 5 million people become infected annually and about 3 million people die each year from AIDS.
Some 20 million people have died of this disease since 1981.People living in Sub-Sahara Africa account for some 70% of all victims. Therefore this is higher rate compared to other parts of the world.
In US nearly one million people are living with HIV/AIDS and half of all new infections are among African-Americans.
In Asia, the increasing rates of HIV infections are found in China, Indonesia and Vietnam. In Europe, the rate of HIV infections is higher in Eastern Europe than in the Western Europe, this is due to the level of development.
Statistics show that regions that are less developed, especially in the Africa continent are more affected compared to the developed regions.
Researches on HIV/AIDS
There are a number of researches conducted on HIV/AIDS. A research conducted in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde in 1985 came out with two types of virus, namely HIV1 and HIV2,but after further investigation these two viruses were found to be identical since both of them infect the same human blood cells, but their genetic materials differ in incubation period. HIV2 takes longer time than HIV1.However in 1987,the World Health Assembly described HIV as a natural occurring retrovirus of undermined geographical origin.
In 2004, a group of researchers realized that the number of infected people aged between 20-29 years were 7% in Mainland Tanzania and 1% in Zanzibar. The victims are affected by living in a difficult life due to poverty, stigmatization and lack of proper care.
Mode of transmission.
HIV is transmitted by direct transfer of bodily fluids such as blood, semen and other genital sections or breast milk from an infected person to an uninfected person. The primary means of transmission worldwide is heterosexual intercourse with an infected individual; the virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, penis, rectum or mouth.
HIV frequently spreads among intravenous drug users who share needles or syringes. Prior to the development of the screening procedures and heat-treating techniques which destroy HIV in blood products, transmission also occurred through contaminated hemophilia contracted HIV in this way. Transmission also occurs to health care workers by an accidental stick with a needle used to obtain blood from an infected person. HIV can also be transmitted across the placenta or through the breast milk from mother to infant, administration of antiretroviral medications to both the mother and infant around the time of birth reduces the chance for a child to be infected with HIV. Other sexually transmitted diseases like
syphilis, genital herpes, gonorrhea and chlamydia, increase the risk of contracting HIV through sexual contact, probably through the genital lesions which they cause.
AIDS is a zoonosis, an infection which is shared by humans and lower vertebrate animals. A virus which is genetically similar to HIV has been found in chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa.Interestingly,this virus known as Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV),does not readily cause disease in chimpanzees. The practice of hunting and butchering chimpanzees for meat may have allowed transmission of the virus to human beings, probably in the first half of the 20th century. A different form of SIV which infects African green monkeys may have given rise to the virus called HIV2 which cause AIDS, but it does so more slowly than HIV1.The worldwide common Human Immunodeficiency Virus is HIV1. HIV2 is found mostly in Western Africa.
How HIV/AIDS is not transmitted.
It is not transmitted by coughing, sneezing, casual contact like shaking hands, sleeping to gether with an infected person, sharing toilets,hugging,kissing,mosquitoes biting etc
Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS.
HIV/AIDS is associated with many physical and emotional problems, such as;
• Neurological problems like HIV encephalopathy also known as AIDS dementia caused by direct infection of brain cells by HIV, toxoplasmosis, caused by a protozoan infection.
• Many AIDS patients develop cancers like Kaposis Sarcoma (KS) and B-cell lymphoma’s
which is caused by the cancerous transformation of cells in the skin, or internal organs resulting in purple, lesions on the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal.
• Viral opportunistic infections, especially with members of herpes virus family are
common in AIDS patients. They result in progressive oral, genital and perianal lesions.
• AIDS patients suffer from fever, loss of weight, anaemia and diarrhea.
• AIDS patients are mostly affected by fungal infections, like thrush-infection of the mouth caused by the fungus Candida, esophageal candidiasis-affecting the throat.
Prevention of HIV/AIDS.
HIV/AIDS is a completely preventable disease, because the routes of transmission are well documented and known. It is clear that up to now a reliable protective vaccine is not available. In the absence of vaccine, the only means of preventing the spread of infection is to avoid risky behaviors that may cause transmission. This has been the main focus of AIDS education campaigns throughout the world.
Treatment of HIV/AIDS.
Till now there is no a cure or effective vaccine for HIV infection, but there are many efforts to discover the vaccine or treatment.
Socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS.
• Increase of poverty due to loss of productive/energetic people, especially those aged between 20-49 years.
• Increase of dependants especially the children aged 0-14 years, due to the death of their
parents or other people who were supporting them.
• Disruption of families and increase of the street children. This happens after the death of one spouse and the remaining one not in a position to support the entire family as previous.
• Stigmatization, this occurs when HIV/AIDS victims are isolated by other members of the community for the fear of being infected.
• Low expectations, infected people are given low expectations in activities they perform.
Anything they do is underrated, it is not regarded as good as the one done by an uninfected individual.
• Psychological problems like loss of hope for life,self-denial,depression,stresses etc
• Increase of pressure/chaos in health centers like dispensaries, hospitals etc due to increase of AIDS patients. More than 50% of hospital beds in Tanzania are occupied by AIDS patients.
• Exert the burden to the government as it will allocate a lot of resources to take care of the infected people without any return. Also the infected population is unable to participate fully in production activities, especially physical work like cultivation,etc
• Decrease of the labour force as many skilled personnel from different sections like education, health etc will die of HIV/AIDS.
Living positively with HIV.
If you find out that you are infected with HIV, it will not be easy, but you can learn to cope with it .You will need a lot of counseling.
It is also a good idea to tell someone close to you so that you do not feel very lonely.
For many people, the disease progresses very slowly, and they can live with the virus for 10 to 20 years .Be hopeful, because are many scientists are working on HIV. There could be a breakthrough sometime soon.
If you find out you have HIV, it is very important to “live positively.” Living positively can greatly improve your chances of staying healthy for a longer time.
Living positively with HIV means:
• Cherishing your loved ones and practising your religion. Take time to stay closely with your family and practice a spiritual life
• Eating nutritious food such as greens, beans, and dried fish, because these help to
strengthen the immune system
• Treating all illness as they arise.
• Taking plenty of rest, as well as moderate exercises.
• Practising safer sex so that you don’t transfer the virus to others or get more viruses into your body.
Living positively means making the most of your life everyday. Living positively is something we all need to do, even if we are not infected.
It’s also important to help others live positively with HIV/AIDS. Don’t call people with HIV or AIDS “victims” because they are not victims. They are like other people with much to offer. They can work and contribute to the development. They need love and attention like anyone else. They often need special support from close friends and relatives. Have an enlightened attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS. Never make fun of them, stigmatise them or disturb them.
Safer sex means sexual practices that greatly reduce your chances of getting STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) including HIV or getting pregnant. If you want totally safe sex-then the best choices for you are masturbation and abstinence (no-sex).The only body fluids and private parts are yours. Kissing and hugging your partner are so safe. There are no known cases of HIV transmission through kissing or hugging. However if one person is infected with HIV and has sores in the mouth, he/she can infect others through hard kissing. There is also a possibility of infection with infection if you touch each other’s private parts and get other’s sexual body fluids on your hands. If you have cuts or cracks on your hands, you could get HIV if the other person is infected.
Sexual intercourse between two people who are both HIV/STI free is also safer sex.But; of course, you still have to worry about pregnancy. Many people think that if they have known someone a long time, they can trust them to be free from HIV and other STIs, but a test is very necessary. People you love and trust can give you STIs.They may not know that they are infected.
Condoms also make sex safer. In fact, condoms are a very important way to protect yourself and your partner. Even if you are not having sex, read the next section because one day you will need to know about condoms.
Strategies in place, in community, to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS
Prevention and Social Mobilization by:
• Reinforcing multi-sectoral prevention programmes aimed at strengthening family units and upholding appropriate cultural values, positive behavioral change and promoting responsible sexual behavior;
• Intensifying the provision of comprehensive, affordable and user-friendly reproductive health services to youth, men and women, and ensuring that essential commodities such as male and female condoms are made available;
• Strengthening initiatives that would increase the capacities of women and adolescent girls to protect themselves from the risk of HIV infection, principally through the provision of health care and health services, including for sexual and reproductive health education, and through prevention education which promotes gender equality within a culturally and gender sensitive framework;
• Promoting and strengthening programmes for the youth aimed at creating opportunities for their education, employment and self-expression, and reinforcing programmes to reduce their vulnerability to alcohol and drug abuse;
• Rapidly scaling up the programmes for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, and ensuring that levels of uptake are sufficient to achieve the desired public health impact;
• Scaling up the role of education and information in partnership with all key stakeholders including the youth, women, parents, the community, health care providers, traditional health practitioners, nutritionists and educators, as well as integrating HIV/AIDS education in both the ordinary and extra curricula at all levels of education.
• Putting in place national strategies to address the spread of HIV among national uniformed services, including the armed forces, and consider ways of using personnel from these services to strengthen awareness and prevention initiatives.
Improving Care, Access to Counseling and Testing Services, Treatment and Support by:
• Strengthening health care systems, especially public health;
• Strengthening family and community based care, as well as support to orphans and other vulnerable children;
• Facilitating the expansion of workplace programmes on HIV/AIDS prevention and
management among all levels of the workforce, supported by appropriate policy and legal frameworks;
• Development of service and caring capacity among all people caring for the HIV/AIDS
infected persons, including the home based care providers, as well as upgrading of diagnostic and related technologies;
• Expanding access to voluntary counseling and testing;
• Preventing and removing stigma silence, discrimination, and denial which continue to hamper and undermine HIV control efforts, particularly, towards the people living with HIV and AIDS;
• Putting in place national legislation and regional legal regimes to ensure the availability of technologies and drugs at affordable prices for treatment, including bulk purchasing of drugs and manufacturing of generic medicines in the region;
• Increasing access to affordable essential medicines, including ARVs and related technologies, through regional initiatives for joint purchasing of drugs, with the view of ensuring the availability of drugs through sustainable mechanisms, using funds from national budgets;
• Investing in nutrition programmes and promoting the use of nutritional supplements, production and consumption of locally available foods;
• Developing a regulatory framework and institutional capacity for the testing and
utilization of traditional medicines.
Accelerating development and mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS by:
• Creating and sustaining an enabling environment conducive to gender-balance, rapid and broad-based socio-economic development of the Region and addressing major underlying factors that lead to the spread of the HIV infection;
• Harmonizing policies and strategies and undertaking joint programmes in the priority intervention areas including prevention, treatment, care, support, nutrition and food security;
• Enhancing the regional initiatives to facilitate access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support for people living along our national borders, including sharing of best practices;
• Mainstreaming and factoring HIV/AIDS in our regional integration process and focal intervention areas, particularly in the areas of trade liberalization, infrastructure development, food security, social and human development;
• Evaluating the economic and social impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and developing multi-sectoral strategies to address the impact at individual, family, community, national and regional levels;
• Establishing mechanisms for mitigating the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, including the provision of support to families, orphans and other vulnerable children, and strategies to ensure a sustained labour supply.
Intensifying Resource Mobilization by:
• Establishing a Regional Fund for the implementation of the SADC HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (2003-2007);
• Reaffirming our commitment to implementing the Abuja Declaration by allocating at
least 15% of our annual budgets for the improvement of the health sector;
• Urging the International Cooperating Partners, on humanitarian grounds, to assist
our region by substantially increasing the provision of financial and technical support at country and regional levels through various initiatives and commitments such as the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), Official Development Assistance, the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative; and the Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP);
• Developing and strengthening mechanisms to involve all stakeholders, such as civil
society organizations, the private sector, organized labour and business to contribute towards financing HIV/AIDS programmes;
• Establishing simplified mechanisms for the timely disbursement of funds to the
operational level, ensuring that all communities have adequate access to these funds.
Strengthening Institutional, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms by:
• Developing and strengthening institutional mechanisms for HIV surveillance, sharing of experiences and exchange of information on key areas of interventions such as prevention, provision of care to, and support of, HIV/AIDS infected and affected persons and treatment of HIV/AIDS-related conditions;
• Intensifying training and research initiatives or programmes to strengthen Member States’ capacities to manage the epidemic;
• Developing and strengthening appropriate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating
the implementation of this Declaration, and other continental and global commitments, and establishing targets and time-frames that will be included in the SADC HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework and Programme of Action.
Sub-Sahara Africa 28.0 million
Asia 7.4 million
Latin America & Caribbean 2.0 million
Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.3 million
Success achieved in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS pandemic:
In Tanzania mainland;
Progress has been made in reducing HIV prevalence in adults from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to
5.7 per cent in 2007, getting closer to the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) target.
The prevalence rates among women declined from 7.7 per cent in 2003 to 6.3 per cent in 2007 while that among men dropped from 6.8 per cent to 4.7. HIV prevalence rates among youth has dropped quite substantially; from 4.0 per cent to 3.0 per cent among young women in the 15-24years age group, and from 3.6 per cent to 1.1 among young men in the same age group.
HIV prevalence in Zanzibar is far lower compared to the mainland; 0.7 per cent for women and 0.5 per cent for men). The total number of HIV positive people is estimated to be slightly over 1 million among adults aged 15 – 49 years. These estimates are lower than previous estimates.
HIV and AIDS ailments present a heavy burden to society including treatment, provision of care and addressing the issue of orphans. HIV prevalence is higher in higher income groups. More than 50 per cent of the hospital beds in Tanzania are occupied by patients with HIV and AIDS-related illness.
Tanzania has HIV and AIDS policy which places more emphasis on prevention. Emphasis is also being directed at care and mitigation such as through use of ARVs. The government has brought on board Non-State Actors (NSAs) including Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) in the fight against HIV and AIDS. The strategic plan for HIV and AIDS has been developed with support from Development Partners. Scaling up the availability of ARVs to the needy is another measure being taken by the government. The budget for availability of supplies and other commodities such as condoms has increased, and the logistics for distribution is in place. Additionally, a national programme to address the triad of diseases including AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (ATM) exists. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV now includes treatment of the mother with ARVs (after counseling).
Although the overall HIV prevalence rate is declining gradually, the prevalence rate among the most vulnerable groups appears to be on the rise, threatening the sustainability of overall success in recent years. The increasing trend of HIV prevalence in regions with prevalence rates as high as 15 per cent (e.g. Iringa) and the overall slow progress in the reduction of prevalence among women are areas of concern.
Knowledge regarding HIV transmission or prevention is wide spread. However, men and women have not transformed this knowledge to behavioral change. Similarly, knowledge of the prevention of mother to child transmission is not wide-spread. For example, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women who receive nevirapine prophylaxis or start on ARV was estimated to be around 40% in 2008. Although this indicates an improvement, the progress is slow. Also, many people are not willing to undertake HIV Testing through the established VCT services centers, the main reason for this reluctance being the wider spread stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS.
The role of an individual in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS:-
l Total abstinence from sexual intercourse
l To develop a habit of testing in order to know the health status
l To practise safe sex
l To use condoms as the last alternative
l To have one partiner in sexual relationship
l To involve pregnant women in the programme to mother to child transmission
l To avoid dangerous environments that may cause the spread of HIV/AIDS.
l To avoid excessive drinking and drug abuse which foster the spread of HIV/AIDS due to unwise decision making.
l To abide with religious teachings and parental counselling and guidance.
l To avoid the sharing of sharp objects like syringe and needles during circumcision, nail cutting and shaving.
At societal level
Many seminars and workshops are conducted so as to educate people on this subject. They are conducted country wide. Also the government prepared a National Policy on HIV/AIDS which was inaugurated by former President Benjamin William Mkapa in 2001. Futhermore, President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (2005 2015) introduced a befiting slogan: “Tanzania free from HIV/AIDS is possible.”
Another initiative was from the first lady, Mama Salma Kikwete whose NGO among other things, sensitizes people about HIV/AIDS prevention through behavior change. Her famous theme is: “Mtoto wa mwenzio ni mwanao, mkinge na ukimwi”.
In addition abominable cultures, such as female genital mutilation, inheritance of widows and polygamy should be abolished in our society.
What are the impacts of HIV/AIDS
The impacts of HIV/AIDS at family level, is the loss of productive people within families. Loss of manpower because the most productive people are those between 18 and 49 years of age. Another misery is the increased number of orphans, escalating the state of poverty among people.
Questions for discussion
1. Why is it difficult to discuss about HIV/AIDS with your parents?
2. Which age group is most vulnerable to HIV infection?
3. Is there any means/ ways of preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS in our societies?
4. How can you know if you have HIV?
5. If a family member is infected with HIV/AIDS, how can you take care of him/her without contacting the disease?
What is corruption?
Corruption can be defined as the abuse of public power for personal gain or for the benefit of a group to which one owes allegiance. The Oxford English Dictionary defines corruption as the “perversion or destruction of integrity or fidelity in the discharge of public duties by bribery or favor.
Other definitions of corruption stress the role of the participation of public agents, such as public officials, bureaucrats, legislators or politicians. The most widely cited definition of corruption in the public sector-and the one used in the current study denotes corruption as “the abuse of public office for private gain”. Public office is abused for private gain when an official accept, solicit or exhorts a bribe.
It is also abused when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit. Public office can also be abused for personal benefit even if no bribery occurs through patronage and nepotism, the theft of state assets, or the diversion of state revenues (World Bank 1997, P.8).
Forms of corruption
Corruption can be categorized basing on the nature of people who are involved in that dishonest and unlawful behaviour.According to this view,corruption can be classified into two(2) forms namely petty and grand corruption.
(i) Petty or survival corruption;
This is the form of corruption practised by civil servants who are grossly underpaid and depend on little rents from the public to feed their families, pay school fees, accomodation,transport cost etc.This includes police officers,watchmen,teachers,doc tors etc
(ii) Grand corruption;
This is the form of corruption practised by high public officials often involving large international bribes and hidden overseas bank accounts.This may be done by the politicians (the president, the ministers,the general secretaries), the policy makers, the bank governor etc
Impact of corruption to the society;
• It increases the cost of goods and services provided due to the monopolization of the market by the corrupt businessmen who need to dominate the entire market thenselves.
• It leads to the decrease of the government revenue since many will escape to pay tax,
therefore the government will fail to provide social services to the public and run other activities.
• It leads to political instability because most of the people will be suffering to get their rights while the few are priviledged.
• It increases the gap between the rich and the poor, due to shortage of opportunities for the
majority who are poor to overtake in economy.In a corrupt society the few opportunities are in the hand of the corrupt people, so it’s very difficult for the commoners to have an access to those opportunities.
• It erodes the ethics and values of the human being because most of the decisions will be
made on monetary basis.
• It leads to the spread of illegal drugs and unhealthy less quality poor standard products to the market because the government will like a toothless dog.
• It leads to the dominancy of a certain regime or potical party for a number of years.There
a lot of evidences which prove that most of the African leaders are staying in power for long because of corruption or they bribe the electrorates during the general election.
• It facilitates the violation of human rights due to unfair judgement before the law, the
“haves” will be favoured compared to the “have not”.Therefore the judgement will depend on the economic status of the clients.
Not all types of corruption involves direct monetary payment, as government officials may receive more subtle benefits from corrupt activities, such as political support. Public officials may demand bribes to do what they are not supposed to do any way (i.e. the so called speed or grease money) or accept bribes to do what they are not supposed to do, such as overlook the underreporting of tax liabilities.
Corruption manifests itself in innumerable areas, in various and complex form and interactions. Corruption has dominated in the fiscal arena. Although often intentionally, fiscal policies some times facilitate corruption in the private and public sectors, as a result of the ways governments collect and spend resources.
The relationships between corruption and fiscal policy can be simple and direct but also subtle and complex. These relationships can vary significantly from country to country. In same cases, the public sector gives households and firms in the private sector an incentive to be corrupt.
In general, there are countless types of corruption and many distinctions can be made based on the dynamics of the act (i.e. unilateral multiparty), the agents involved (i.e. high level officials) low level official, private agents, the size of the corrupt act (grand corruption or petty corruption).
Impact of corruption
According to Judge Warioba’s report on corruption in Tanzania, the enormous economic problems which be fell the Nation in the early 1970 forced the Government to take various political, legal and economic measures to combat the situation, taxes were raised, the internal trade policy gave monopoly to Parastatal Trading Organizations in the distribution of scarce and essential commodities; a lot of restrictions were imposed in the daily lives of citizens like road blocks aimed at controlling crop movement, restriction on afternoon driving of private cars etc.
A system of permits was evolved without clear guidelines on how it was to be implemented and monitored. Simultaneously, the cost of living surged upwards without a corresponding increase in the incomes of public servants.
The Leadership code denied public servants the opportunity to engage in activities which could create extra income for them, such as trading and other productive activities. In general some public servants and leaders began to invent strategies for raising extra income in order to make ends meet. In most cases, some of the sources of these extra incomes were illegal.
Causes of corruption in Tanzania
It is almost impossible to isolate a set of factors that can be said to be the causal factors of corruption. Sometimes interplay of factors may be responsible for the occurrence of corruption. However in Literature (Gould, 1980) economic, political, social and legal factors have been cited to be responsible for this globally condemned phenomenon Gould,
D. Bureaucratic Corruption and Underdevelopment in the Third World: The Case of Zaire, Pergamon, New York, 1980.
There are writers who link the rise of corruption to the non – diminishing marginal utility of a unit of money. It is claimed in this linkage that, since an additional unit of money (however acquired) does not cause the marginal utility of money to diminish, individuals act rationally to accumulate wealth. The problem with this argument is with moralists who believe that corruption is essentially an immoral act. Therefore it is immoral to corruptly accumulate money.
The most common economic factors cited as being responsible for the rise of corruption involve aspects like low wages, inflation and poor performance of the economy. Low income put a lot of pressure in the rank and file workers who find it extremely difficult to make ends meet. Faced with those conditions, workers could understandably look for alternative (not excluding corruption) ways of earning extra income for their living.
In 1993 it was estimated for example that the necessary monthly wage needed to sustain a low income earner in Dar es Salaam was Tshs 35,000. In 1993 the official minimum wage (monthly) was not more than Tshs. 6,000. Thus, it does not come as a surprise that some workers engage in corrupt activities in an effort to bridge the income gap.
Sociologists argue that corruption stems from an individual’s criminal behavior. This criminal behavior could be influenced by factors like desire for power and influence. Social pressures could influence an individual to become corrupt, the desire for example of an employee to send money home to support his/her relatives back home could force one to be involved in corruption, albeit unwillingly.
Where the political system of a country is not transparent enough and there is no “Watch dog” in the form of political opposition, such regimes are commonly prone to corruption. The regime in power does not fear any repercussions that could be caused by its involvement in corruption. In support of this argument Gould (1980), claims that in Zaire for example, corruption took place because the regime in power (Mobutu’s) wanted to reward its supporters. The regime tended to forgive corrupt officials, provided they showed unwavering loyality.
Presence of Bureaucracy
Some elements of corruption arise because of the presence of excessive bureaucracy in almost all walks of life. For instance, bureaucracy could exist in business licensing import and export trade, foreign exchange acquisition, building permits and foreign travel. In these areas, bureaucracy could take the form of unnecessary delays in paper work, decision making and other forms of red tape. Where bureaucracy of this kind exists, the avenue could be an ample breeding ground for corruption.
Weak Law Enforcement Machinery
In countries where the legal system is known to be soft on corruption, corruptive activities have tended to blossom. Softness on corruption could take form of either
(i) A weak law enforcement machinery
(ii) Collaboration with corrupt elements within the society
(iii) Light punishment to caught corrupt elements.
If it is known for instance that the legal system of a given country is soft on crime and on corruption in particular, or if laws are not well enforced, it becomes safe for corrupt elements to involve themselves in corruption in a country in question.
As it has been indicated earlier, Tanzania has been facing an endemic problem of corruption in varying degrees since its independence up to now, although certain measures have been taken to curb this problem. But it has been a tendency of lowering and recurring of corruption in different forms, with adverse effects to the government performance. Therefore, the Warioba’s Commission and its report were just among the measures that have been taken to contain to the problem.
Preventive Measures and Strategies against Corruption. This is a process that cross international borders, therefore there is always a demand for international bodies to co- operate in the efforts to eradicate it. For example, the International Crime Police Organization (Interpol), Joint Conferences on Corruption, and Independent International Commissions.
Corruption destroys the reputation of governments and poisons the social atmosphere. It is a worldwide and historical problem. Corruption seriously impairs the efficiency of government organs in performing duties and the public confidence in the administration; it affects social fairness and justice, or even endangers social stability.
Because of these injustices, governments and police forces of all countries have always paid great attention to this issue, and continuously taken strong and effectual measures for preventing and combating corruption. Over the years, Interpol has made a lot of effort in this aspect.
In order to prevent and tackle corruption, government and public security organs must ensure public security officers and government officials discharge their duties according to law and exercise their functions and powers properly. Under the unified plan of the state in fighting against corruption, there are must be a policy of handling the case by looking into both its root cause and symptoms with a comprehensive approach.
There is a need for making thorough investigation against corruption cases and imposing stiff punishment, this also demands a build up of a strict system, a close supervisory mechanism, a formal educational program and a strong management plan. Besides, this must take into account the principle of suppressing and preventing corruption when formulating various crucial policies and measures.
There is a need to strengthen the anti-graft laws and regulations in the fight against corruption; the formation of systems is a factor affecting the overall situation and social stability in the long run. The establishment of system is particularly important. Public security organs must pay special attention to areas where corruption may easily occur in the course of enforcing the law and handling cases in accordance with the policy of administering the country in conformity with legal provisions.
A Historical context of Corruption in Tanzania the 1961 – 1967 Period
In an effort to contain corruption the colonial (British) administration enacted in 1958 the prevention of corruption ordinance for purposes of checking corruption from spreading to the levels of government officials. After the country’s independence in 1961 there emerged in Tanzania, a small class of people who had stepped into positions of power formerly held by their colonial masters but with a relatively weak economic base, they expected to live the life style of their masters. Their economic base however could not allow them to do so. They therefore had to seek alternative ways of sustaining the way of life which marched their newly acquired positions.
It is thus safe to claim that during the 1961 – 1967 period, corruption existed in Tanzania, but this was mainly an urban phenomenon practiced by a small group of privileged Africans for the purposes of expanding their economic base. At the time of the Arusha Declaration in 1967 the government saw the opportunity to crack down on corruption by denouncing through the Declaration that corruption was anti peoples’ justice (“Rushwa ni Adui wa Haki”). The leadership code that was designed to accompany the Declaration it considered unethical for a leader to offer or accept bribes (Freedom and Unity, 1968).
The 1967 – 1985: A period of Emergency of Wide Spread Corruption
Several economic factors are cited as being responsible for the emergency of corruption in Tanzania during the 1967 – 1985 periods. Despite various attempts by the government to contain corruption, there were several economic developments which negatively affected the performance of the economy and might have given rise to corruption.
1985 up to date: The Liberalization Period
In Tanzania there is an assumption that politicians must raise campaign funds at all costs, as well as a mass wealth. High incomes which is a result of economic liberalization provides for an incentive for corruption. Economic liberalizations that occurred in the 80s and 90s brought a new experience whereby the private sector now took an upper hand in the control of the economy which was previously under the control of the government, hence an increase in corruption.
However, as has been pointed out by other scholars (Rose-Ackerman, 2001, for instance), a democratic regime does not guarantee lower corruption, as the need to raise campaign funds for electoral competition may lead to abuses of power. There are, of course, other reasons why democracies do not necessarily have lower corruption.
In this case with the economic liberalization after Ali Hassan Mwinyi assumed power in 1985 and the subsequent introduction of multiparty politics in this country in 1992 were
catalysts for corruption. One possibility is that the liberalization of the economy went hand in hand with the liberalization of politics.
Moreover voters may have incomplete information about candidates and obtaining information is too costly. This also can be attributed to the high rate of illiteracy and poor access to information which make the population, particularly in the rural areas more likely to vote to keep corrupt politicians in power.
Combating corruption in Tanzania
– Challenges and opportunities
– The anti-corruption watchdogs: the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB). In Tanzania however, these tasks to a large extent are under the control of the Prevention of Corruption and Combating Bureau, it has been given the mandate to investigate and prosecute all cases that are presented before it. As such, it functions as an interior service regulations agent in curbing corruption in the country. The PCCB liaise with the police force, and other public security organs.
It has the task of maintaining professional code of ethics in the public duties. Moreover, it handles criminal cases related to corruption. It is helpful in good governance due to the fact that it sets rules that are essential in responsible occupation. That is, it tames the exercise of power, it strictly controls the systems and the abuse of power that could be prevented.
Moreover under the leadership ethics code in Tanzania, public officials are not allowed to run businesses or operate enterprises. These codes provide guidance so that government leaders do not use their relatives and friends to run their businesses.
The PCCB monitors performance of civil servants so that they do not abuse power. In this way, it is not allowed to accept gifts, money and any kind of negotiable securities during official activities; it is not allowed to join any activity paid by public funds held in a place of entertainment opened for business; it is not allowed to attend any feast which may affect a fair discharge of official duties, and so on.
Core duties of the PCCB
It enhances management; strengthen supervision, ensure fairness and efficiency in law enforcement bodies. For instance, if the police force or the judiciary was not under supervision, this could have given room for corruption. It was after years of practice, that our public security organs gradually formed a supervision mechanism; some are internal while others are global.
For example, the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), this is primarily funded by contributions from participating countries, and funds from “development partners” such as Canada, the United Kingdom and the UNDP. The APRM reported contributions of some US$17.3 million in 2007, with US$10.5 million coming from development partners.
Internal supervision system is comparatively well developed. In accordance with the laws and regulations of Tanzania, the administrative supervision laws are functioning under various bodies. For example the internal audit interim provisions, are under the Controller and Auditor General (CAG).
The main duties of the inspection department are: to monitor the on-site law enforcement and work performance of public organs. The main duties of the internal auditing department are: audit the economic commitments of the head of public security organs of various levels; and audit the financial income and expense, economic benefit, fundamental development, government purchase of public service organs, and also those of the enterprises and institutions directly under them.
Channel for external supervision.
There are external bodies that conduct independent researches on corruption, for example the Afro-barometer and the Transparent International (TI). These institutions use various mechanisms to asses the rate of corruption. In a way, they help to curb corruption in a country; the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a table that shows a country’s ranking and score, the number of surveys used to determine the score, and the confidence range of the scoring. The rank shows how one country compares to others included in the index.
The supervision system of law enforcement of public security teams by focusing on areas likely to have problems and corrupt practices, and constantly increased our effort on preventing and tackling corruption from its root causes in accordance with the overall anti-corruption plan of the state and the criteria of establishing a sound socialist market economy system.
Continuously develop various kinds of effective anti-corruption educational program and strengthen the power of all public security officers and people’s policemen in resisting corruption and facing changes, launching anti-corruption educational program, assisting the leading cadres of public security organs, public security officers and people’s policemen at all levels to have a correct outlook on world, life, values, power, status and interests and strengthening the line of thinking and moral defense are the basic strategies to combat corruption.
The Media’s Role in Curbing Corruption
Government leaders meet their subjects in the media, therefore the media can act as a force against corruption in ways that are both tangible and non tangible.
The tangible; readily identifiable, ways in which the news media perform this function include those in which some sort of visible outcome can be attributed to a particular news story or series of stories. For instance, the launching of investigation by authorities, the scrapping of law or policy that fosters a climate ripe with opportunities for corruption, the impeachment or forced resignations of a crooked politician, the firing of some officials, the launching of judicial proceedings, the issuing of public recommendations by a watchdog body, and so on.
Intangible effects; by contrast, can be characterized as those checks on corruption which arise from the broader social climate of enhanced political pluralism, enlivened public debate and a heightened sense of accountability among politicians, public bodies are inevitably the by-product of a hard-hitting, independent news media.
How can the media work effectively against corruption?
i. By setting an agenda which will influence public opinion and eventually lead to resignation of office holders who have committed misdeeds.
ii. Persistent reporting may prompt public bodies to launch formal investigation into allegations of corruption as it was the case of the Richmond scandal which eventually lead to the resignation of Prime Minister Edward Lowassa.
iii. Journalism exposes flaws and even corruption within the various bodies of the state (the courts, police and anti-corruption task forces) therefore corruption is put on check.
iv. Media can influence public pressure which leads to reforms of public bodies and delivery of services. An effective media is always a counterweight against corruption.
v. Media can influence election results whereby a corrupt government can fall paving way for an effective government or party that can curb social vices.
Rick Stapenhurst: 2000, World Bank Institute
This topic has involved different concepts. Generally, it is a misuse of drug or subsistence abuse, which modifies mood, behavior in manner characterized by maladaptive pattern of use. We shall discuss the reason behind drug trafficking. According to sociologists and economists pointed out the economical factors because of its profitability, and poor market for some crops grown by farmers in many countries.
The effect of drug abuse to individual and the society will be discussed. They include mental illness, lost of man power and death. There are individual and community role in preventing drug abuse. Education became most preferable method of preventions, especially to teenagers who are the most affected. The rehabilitations program designed for addicts is another advicesable approach.
Meaning of drug
Drug is any subsistence which when taken into living organization may modify one or more if its function
Drug abuse is defined as a self administration of a drug for non medical reason, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively, and which may result in social, physical or emotional harm.
Drug Abuse. The word drug abuse has been defined in different ways depending on perceptions. Some scholars have define drug abuse as habitual use to drugs for a no- therapeutic reason The most common drugs in use include: alkaloids, apopiods, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, amphetamines, opium marijuana and synthetic, However Wikipedia enclopedia has define drug abuse in connection to taking a psychoactive drug to perform and enhance drug for non therapeutics or non medical effect.
Medical definition – From a website free enydopedia, it defines drug abuse as subsistence abuse or harmful use, cover the physical or psychological harm the user from use. While subsistence dependence mean when an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of subsistence. Subsistence abuse as a blanket term to include drug abuse and other things. Other viewer defined drug abuse as misuse of maltreatment, or excusive use, and subsistence abuse is defined as continuous use which modifies the mood or behaviors or manner of the user.
Moreover website from Google continued to define drug abuse as the use of illegal drug or the use of drugs for purpose other than these for which they are meant to be used. If taken in large amounts, drug abuse may lead to social, physical and mental problems.
Sign and Symptoms
According to Wikipedia free encyclopedia; the signs and symptoms of drug abuse. Depending on the actually comport, drug misuse including alcohol may lead to health and social problems, morbidity injuries, unprotected sex, violance, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, mortality, physical dependable or psychological addition. Drugs abusers are usually alcoholic and prone to suicide. The reason believed to cause the increased risk of suicide is the long term abuse of alcohol and drugs, causing physiological distortion of the brain chemistry, as well as the social solution. Moreover, the acute intoxicating effects of the drug may make suicide more likely to occur. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abuser. Suicide in adolescent is also related to alcohol. Abuse is as also associated with increasing risk of committing criminal offences, including child abuse, domestic violence, rapes, burglaries and assaults.
Moreover alcohol and drugs have a relationship with mental illness. This can occur both in the intoxicated state, and also during the withdraw state. In some cases, these psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxicated such as prolonged psychosis or depression after cocaine abuse. Moreover, drug abuse affect the central nerves system (CNS) which determines the level of awareness or perception and sensing.
Is the black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sales of illegal drugs. In some cases certain drugs are legally obtained and sold. Among the drugs that are prohibited include cuberi. Ilegal drug trade operate similarly to other underground marketing. Various drug providers specialize in a separate process along the supply chain.
Direly localized to maximize production efficiency depending of the profitability of each layer;suplier usually vary in size, consistency, organisation and the chain range. Low level street dealer who may be individual, drug user themselves through street gang and contractors like middlemen –up to multinational empires that rival government in size. Moreover much llegal trade cultivate and manufacture this product in many developing nations although production also occur in some of the developed world.
It also refers to the sale and distribution of illegal drug. However penalties to federal drug trafficking convictions vary according to the quality of the controlled subsistence involved in transactions.
Origin of Drug Trafficking
Origin in jurisdiction where legislation restricts or prohibits the procession or sale of drug, most commonly psychoactive drug, potential drug buyers and sellers are unable to transact in open, only illegal drug trade remain as an option, and when such trade occur, a black market is born. Moreover the illegality of the black market purveying the drug trade is relative to geography location and the production countries of the drug market (many in South American, Far East and the Middle East countries) are not as inclined to put effective policies as the consuming countries (mostly the United States and Europe) are the ready market. The massive profiteering inherent to the drug trade serves to extend its reach despite the best effort of law enforcement agencies
In the awareness of this reality the social consequences including crime, violence imprisonment social unrest of the drug are undeniably problematic. Therefore as a solution, it is very necessary to stop illegal drug trafficking and consumption of such items.
Reason Behind Drug Trafficking
Drug abuse trafficking has spread in very many areas in the world. There are various reasons that stimulated this drug trafficking.
The extremely high economic value of drugs and profit margins, allure people to engage in organized crime and illegal business. Political movements needing money to finance their activities including guerilla and independent movements, such activities have mushroomed since the end of the cold war. Resulting in less revenue to fund the world powers.
The hashis production in Morocco, the world’s largest cannabis producer, it is known that people in high places are involved in both the production and the trade. The smooth and organized way the trade is conducted makes it likely this situation is not only related but also may even been coordinated by the authorities.
However since it is no longer a secret that the authorities are highly involved in the trade, including the loyal family, one can wonder why European countries have relatively lenient altitude toward Morocco and King Hassan II
High taxation was also among as the reason for drug trafficking in Afghanistan.
The increase of prevalence of opium is related to the breakdown of the superpower patronage and control. Since parties trying to take control, must ensure there is economic stability, hence the taxation of opium.
The lack of a strong government in countries such as Tajikistan has increased opium trading. Thus increased profit from opium was a deciding factor in removing subsides for wheat. Increased price pushed poor farmers to switch from wheat to poppy production which has much high market value.
On the other hand, Tanzania entertains other dangerous products like tobacco and alcoholic drinks. These are more popular and common in Tanzania, even if they are relatively more dangerous than many illegal drugs and are subjectively less pleasurable. Their production is attributed by profit motives.
High consumption of illegal drug can be also stimulating factors for drug trafficking to major consumer countries, including the United State and Europe. Whereas the major producer countries include Afghanistan (opium) Bolivia and Columbia (cocaine).
Apart from major consumers, the market for illegal drug is massive. It is estimated that the global drug trade is over $321 billions. Exorbitant profits are created because of scarcity and risk involved. Illegal drugs found in the market come in many forms and names, such as: heroin, anabolic, steroid, marijuana opium and methamphetamine.
Big companies involved in drug abuse are the reason behind drug trafficking. Members of organized crime syndicate have advantages over other flagmented groups. They appear to have experience in violence, which is an unfortunate by product of the drug trade.
Farmers also with no alternative crops are forced to cultivate opium. And government officials may not actually produce the drugs, but are compliant to the distribution and transportation of these drugs by turning a blind eye due to bribery or intimidation.
Finally the drug abuse as a business is very profitable since the market is wide open and the price is extremly huge.
The Effects of the Drug Abuse to Individual and Society
A loss of human resource (loss of productivity). Many people who engage themselves in drug abuse, fail to work productively whether in farms, offices or industries.
Drug abuse can also cause health problems, including sexualy transmitted diseases (STD), as well as social problems including sex violence, motor vehicle accident, homicides, suicides, high mortality, drug addiction and alcoholism.
Drug abuse affects central nervous system, which produces changes in mode level of awareness or perception and sensation. The cost to human socially and economically is very high. For example in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that the social and economic cost in terms of crime, absenteeism and sickness is in excess of 20 billion pounds a year.
Employment: A growing number of connectors are self employed and work in private groups. They contract counselors who are well trained and effective professionals, in vocational education, rehabilitation, mental health, behavioral disorder and drug abuse. However, experts in counseling programmes are not enough, and are even fewer in rural areas.
Other drug abuse stimulate decay of the moral value in the societies. Most of the addicts tend to separate from their family and society, and indulge themselves in illegal activities like raping and sex. The war against drug abuse is extremely costly in terms of taxpayers’ money, productivity, law enforcement and unrest among the society. Some people urgue that because it is very expensive to contain illegal drugs, they should be legalized.
Governments in developing countries like Tanzania are more affected with drug abuse because they do not have the financial and technical capacity. Most of the victims are the youth who are the workforce. Many of them depend on their family economically, hence become a burden to their parents and the nation at large.
Eccentric or odd ball like deviants are recognized law breakers and are observed and defined by the society as outlaws, and as discuptive and a threat to the social order. These eccentrics may be legated for several reasons. Firstly, they are petty thieves, drunkards, and lazy. Secondly, they are always on the sick list and therefore a burden to the society.
Mental illness; According to Beth B.Hess…et al, it is defined as residual deviance which is less obvious and more difficult to define or classfy or diagonise.
Risks to many people who drink heavly may put themselves at risk with a range of potential health problems. Brain effects: Scientifics examination to determine how alcohol affects the developing of a brain, but it is difficult to detect the extent of damage caused by drug abuse in an individual or a community.
Roles of Individual and Community in Preventing Drug Abuse
Prevention is an important way of solving problems of drug abuse. Citizens of all ages can be victims of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and mirrah, thus cause financial and social problems to the nation.
Drug abuse is hazardous especially to young people. It puts them at risk and are likely to be alcoholic permanently. Thus, a concerted effort to educate them is needed.
Education. In general, drug prevention is demonstrably most effective among the young. In addition to putting in place mitigation programs, education is likely to reduce the number of drug addicts, drug trafficking, and unbecoming incidences, like violance, rapes and sexually transmitted diseases.
Parents have a critical influence over children aged between 8 and 12 years. Their role is to change the attitude and behavior of their children in order to grow up as good citizens. The behavior change is later heightened by school teachers and the community. Well behaved children will normally shy away unlawful acts, such as drug abuse.
The strategy to curb drug abuse is to embark on health education by using the mass media. Such campaign should focus on preventing the young generation from drug use and encouraging current users to quit. However the compiling focuses on primary prevention targets the underlying causes, and therefore has the greatest potential to reduce the scope of this problem.
Secondly, primary prevention campaign will lessen the need for treatment. Media campaign has greater potential to affirm the ant – drug attitude of youth who are not yet involved in drug use than to persuade experienced drug users to change their behavior. The Media has proved to be an effective tool in the war to prevent or reduce consumption of illegal drugs and smoking, along with risk on behavior.
The method used is to campaign harnesses a diverse mixture of information tools: television, video, redio, internet, newspapers and other forms of news media to drive home information about drug abuse.
Education: Educational school counsellors provide individuals and groups with personal social and educational counseling regarding drug abuse at all levels of education and careers.
There are many ways to contain drug trafficking and use;
i. Disrupting the market chain of drugs
ii. Stepping up campaigns to educate the public on the potential danger of drugs abuse.
iii. Law enforcement against current users through medical screening and testing the suspects.
iv. Law- enforcement effort against elements of the supply chain though surveillances and undercover work.
v. Providing effective and targeted treatment to dependant users.
Penalties for use and distribution of illegal drugs vary widely around the world. Various contrite share decriminalized possession of small amount of these substances, Countries like Canada, The Netherlands and USA, the penalty for illegal drug possession and sale vary from a small fine to long prison sentence.
Finally the international social and cultural factors are to playing a big role in the expansion of prohibited drugs. People have shifted from localized consumption of opium poppies to internationalized and professionalized coccaine and heroine.
Impact of drug abuse
• It increases the rate of crimes, example theft, murder, prostitution etc.
• Users tend to neglect their families, friends and responsibilities
• It leads to low productivity in working places
• It increases unnecessary burden to the government example drug users are crowded to the courtrooms, jails and creating burden on the criminal justice system hence costful to the government.
• It results to mental disorders and makes the users relaxed, restless, uncoordinated etc.
• It leads to death
• It increases the spread of HIV/AIDS due to the tendency of sharing sharp objects and needles.
• It leads to the increase of street children due to irresponsibility of the users to their