GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 

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ANSWER (NECTA GEOGRAPHY 2012)

1.

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
E C D A C D A A B B

2.

I II III IV V
G E A F B

3.(a).Earthquake these are sudden earth movements or vibration in the earth’s crust.

(b). Five effects of earthquakes are

(i). Loss of life and property. An earthquake is a natural disaster. For example, the earthquake that hit Toro in Uganda in 1966 killed 157 people, injured about 1300 people and destroyed about 6000 houses. Displacement parts of the earth’s crust vertically or laterally.

  1. They can raise or lower parts of the sea floor. The Agadir earthquake in Morocco in 1960 raised the sea floor off the coast. In some areas the depth of the sea decreased from 400 m to 15 m after the earthquake.
  2. They can raise or lower coastal rocks. In the Alaskan earthquake of 1899, some coastal rocks were raised by 16 m.
  3. They can cause landslide and open up deep cracks in the surface rocks. The El Asnam earthquake in Algeria, in 1954, destroyed an area of radius 40 km and opened up deep cracks up to 3 m deep.
  4. Destruction of infrastructure and houses in Bukoba Tanzania 2016 earth quake causes more than 100 without settlement.

GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

  1. Four ways of reducing the risks of earthquakes are
    1. Refraining from building high-rising structures on the land vulnerable to earthquake as well as strengthening buildings by using reinforced concrete, steel frames, deep foundations and light roofs.
    2. Geologists should detect epicentres and tell the people to evacuate the places likely to be affected by earthquakes.
    3. To avoid constructing very large water bodies like Kariba dam which can cause the earthquakes due to the weight of water and other materials.
    4. Discouraging the use of explosives like dynamites in breaking the rocks during mining and construction operations

4(A)

Year Clove Sisal Cotton Total
1990 4000 3500 7000 14500
1991 2500 2000 4500 9000
1992 3500 1500 6000 11000
1993 6000 1000 8500 15500
1994 6500 1500 9000 17000

COMPOUND BAR GRAPH REPRESENT THE EXPORT OF CROPS IN TONNES

A Bar Graph (also called Bar Chart) is a graphical display of data using bars of different heights, It is a really good way to show relative sizes: we can see which types of movie are most liked, and which are least liked, at a glance.

GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

We can use bar graphs to show the relative sizes of many things, such as what type of car people have, how many customers a shop has on different days and so on

(b) Two advantages and disadvantages of compound bar graph are

Advantages

  1. It is easy to read and interpret as the totals are clearly shown.
  2. It gives a clear visual impression of the total values.

Disadvantages

  1. The graph is very difficult to construct and interpret.
  2. It is not easy to represent a large number of components as this would involve very long bars with many segments.

5(a). Sampling technique refers to te style of of collecting samples from the population.

(b).(i) A Sample is the small number of population which represents the whole population

    1. Random Sampling is a type of probability sampling where by every individual has an equal chance to be selected in a sample. This technique involves selecting a sample randomly from the sampling frame without replacement. E.g. it is very common in Lottery’s such as Bingo and communication companies.
    2. Systematic Sampling is a sampling technique where by a sample is obtained randomly but in a systematic way. It is a sampling technique which involves selection of a sample randomly at regular intervals from the sampling frame
    3. Stratified Sampling in this Sampling Individuals for the sample are selected from different strata. Example: A researchers wishes to get a sample of 20 students from 5 schools he/she will have to select 4 students from each.
  1. The following are the procedures of conducting an interview.
    1. Create friendly atmosphere where two people can talk easily.
    2. Maintain warmth and friendliness. It enables respondent to express in detail their thought and feelings.
    3. Be neutral in note and don’t suggest any answer.
    4. Instill confidence and trust to the respondent by assuming his/her information given would be confidential.
    5. Explain briefly the purpose of the interview.

6 (a).(i) Leveling is a method or element of land surveying which deals with determining points on land surface above sea level. The points of known height are called benchmarks and they are determined from an assumed zero height point at sea level called datum. It employs leveling instrument such as theodolite and the abney level.

(ii) four benefits of leveling survey are

It helps to determine the relative heights on land that can be used in contour mapping.

Leveling can be used for determination of heights or elevation of the land surface such as hills, valleys, plans

Housing foundation, the location of industrial sites, the route of communication and sites of building can be located and determine with the help of leveling.

It is also important in the construction of routes of transport like roads and railways.

  1. Essential equipments used in leveling surveying.
    1. Leveling staff
    2. Survey Telescope
    3. Tape, chain and pegs.
    4. Note book and pencils.
    5. Spirit level or buble tube.

7(a). Relief features found on this mapped area are hills and mountain due to the presence of hills name eg Lukoka hill and contour lines

  1. Area of whole map of Korogwe

calculating area using the square method

    1. Count the full square covered by whole map of Korogwe Full square= 168
    2. Also count half square covered by whole map of Korogwe and divide it by 2 Half square = 42÷2

Half square=21

    1. Add full square and half square result obtained by divided half square by 2 168+21=189
    2. Convert map area into actual area

Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km

Use this scale to calculate whole map of Korogwe ( 1cm=1/2km)

Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit. (1cm) square= (1/2) square

1cm square = 0.25km square

    1. find area of one square on the map.

To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.

Area of square = wxw W= 2 so

A= 2×2

Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare

    1. find the area of whole map of Korogwe

1cm square =0.25 km square 4cm square = x

Cross multiplication 1xX= 4x 0.25

X= 1kmsquare

Convert 189 square into kilometre square 189x1km square= 189 km square

Therefore Area of whole map of Korogwe = 189km square

  1. settlement patterns shown on a map are linear and nucleated settlement patterns because arrangement of houses are concentrated in a group in a relative areas and also arrangement of houses are developed along railway.
  2. Two centimetres on a map represent one kilometre on the actual ground.

GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

8(a). Three types of photographs are

    1. Horizontal or Ground photograph
    2. Oblique photograph
    3. Vertical or Aerial photograph
  1. The type of geographical photograph which is
    1. taken horizontally on the ground is called Horizontal or Ground photograph
    2. used in map making is called Vertical or Aerial photograph
  2. Five differences between the Vertical or Aerial photograph and topographical maps are
    1. Topographical map represents a vertical “plan” of a region while Aerial photograph presents a realistic image.
    2. Topographical map cover large area compared to the Aerial photograph
    3. Topographical map contain keys and scale while Aerial photograph does not contain keys and scale
    4. Topographical map show grid references while Aerial photograph does not show grid references
    5. Topographical map show both latitudes and longitudes while Aerial photograph does not show latitudes and longitudes
  3. Tourism refers to the travel of people away from home to other place for recreation, leisure, religious, family, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism involves visiting places of interest like wildlife, beaches, museums etc,

Five negative effects of tourism in East Africa are

    1. Tourism poses a threat to natural and cultural resources such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs and pollution
    2. Tourism can cause events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession.
    3. The tourists can lead to erosion of traditional cultures and values.
    4. Bad behavior and overcrowding to the host community
    5. Bad behavior and overcrowding to the host community.
  1. Transportation refers to the process of carrying materials and people from one place to another. Major means of transport are three namely Land, Water and airport transport

Eight reasons indicating why the transportation sector is important to the economy of Tanzania are as follow

  1. It encourage the development of industries through the supply of raw materials and transport materials to the markets or consumers
  2. It create employment in Tanzania for example some people are employed as drivers, stations masters etc
  3. It encourage the development of Tourism in Tanzania.
  4. It can make goods available where are they demanded.
  5. It lead to the promotion of trade in the World
  6. It enhance the accessibility of places.
  7. It facilitate spread of technology in Tanzania
  8. It lead to the intensification of Unity among nations.
  9. Environment refers to all external conditions surrounding an organism and which have influence over its behavior and activities.

Eight environmental problems related to the rapid population growth are

( i ) . Environmental pollution.

( ii ) . Loss of biodiversity.

( iii ) . Soil erosion and land degradation.

( iv ) . Desertification.

( v ) . Flooding.

( vi ) . Acid rain.

( vii ) . Harmful radiation.

( viii ) . Drought

12.(a) Census is an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals.

five objectives of conducting census in a country are

    1. Determining the major demographic and socio-economic traits of the population.
    2. Updating the data basis of population register.
    3. Providing necessary information for sectoral planning (health, education, etc.).
    4. Identifying geographic areas lacking certain services so that remedial measures can be taken.
    5. Providing data on buildings conditions (private or public) and their occupancy status, so current and future housing needs can properly be evaluated.
  1. Three limitations of census in African countries are
    1. Cost of Conducting Census
    2. Traditional and Religious Beliefs can Interfere with the Census Exercise
    3. Insufficient Census Expert

GEOGRAPHY FORM FOUR NECTA 2012 SOLVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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