1. The following are features formed by wave deposition

Wave deposition

Deposition occurs where waves and other ocean motions slow. The smallest particles, such as silt and clay, are deposited away from shore. This is where water is calmer. Larger particles are deposited on the beach. This is where waves and other motions are strongest.

  • Beach,

This is accumulation of sand, shingles and pebbles at the coast. It is caused by deposition process of the wave when the swash is stronger than backwash.

  • Berm

A bench or ridge wit a steep front,found on the upper part of some beaches.Berms are most common on beaches with a steep profile, that is especially singles and sandy beaches along swell coast. Berm formation is influenced by the size of the tidal range, where this is large several berms may develop.

  • Spit,

This is narrow ridge like accumulation of the sand or deposited materials that protrude into the sea and is attached to the mainland.

  • Tombolo,

This is the spit that connects mainland to the island.

  • Cuspate foreland,

This is formed when two spits converge and join at the tips and it is triangular in shape.

  • Lagoon,
  • Barrier Beach

Barrier Beach is a long sand ride, parallel to the coast and often separated from it by a lagoon. Barriers that are not actually joined to the coast are called barrier island. Barrier Beaches form from the movement in land of underwater offshore sands bar.

  • Bay Bar

Bay Bar is a bank of sand or of sand and gravel deposited by waves and currents across the mouth of a bay so that the bay is no longer connected or is connected only by a narrow outlet with the main body of water.

Diagram of the features formed by wave deposition.

4 (a) Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean.

(b) (i) Range =Highest age – lowest age Range = 15-5

Range = 10

The range of the age of the pupils is 10


  1. Step: Arrange age of the pupils in ascending order or descending order.

5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14 , 15

  1. Step: Find the middle number (If the age of the pupils is in the series of an odd number)

find the average of two middle number ( If the age of the pupils is in the series of an even number )

( 8+12)/2=20/2

= 10

Therefore, the median of the age of the pupils is 10

5(a). Research is the careful collection of data/information based on a problem, analyzing the data and making conclusion out of those collected. Or Research is a scientific and systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data basing on a certain phenomena.

  1. Four benefits of conducting research are
    1. Research develop or generate new knowledge e.g the information produced by research can be applied in many ways.
    2. It helps to improve human activities for the betterment of people e.g A society can develop irrigation scheme when finds show that there is food shortage.
    3. Research can be used to develop new theories and laws.
    4. Research enable in finding solutions about the special programmes e.g HIV, hunger, etc.

6(a). The best steps required in order to conduct an accurate chain survey are

  1. Reconnaissance / preliminary inspection/primary surveying

It is the process of taking general view of the land to be surveyed in order to get real picture of the work to be done. It is done by visual observation of the area. During the reconnaissance the surveyor does walking around the area to be surveyed and taking general views and noting down the dominant features area, Boundaries of the area, Corners of the boundaries of the area and Other structures such as building, big trees, ponds, lakes, small hills

  1. Actual survey /secondary survey

This steps involved observing, measuring and recording direction, angles distance and elevation by using surveying equipment or tools.

  1. Presentation

This involves presentation of data or information collected or recorded, the information can be presented by writing or drawing form

  1. The following are the five good booking methods used in chain survey
    1. Each chain age should be recorded on a separate sheet.
    2. All measurement should be recorded on a separate sheet.
    3. Temporary books or loose sheets of paper must never be used for recording
    4. Sketches should be neat and complete
    5. Figures should be neat, overwriting is not permitted and good quality pencil should be used.

7(b). The following are the major types of transport shown in the area.

  1. Roads due to the presence of road symbol on the map
  2. Railway due to the presence of Railway station and railway crossing on the map
  3. Water navigation due to the presence of lake Tanganyika
  4. Foot path due to the presence of agriculture and trading centers.
  5. The following are the economic activities taking place in the area apart from fishing activities.
    1. Transportation and communication due to presence of road on the map, presence of lake Tanganyika, presence of Railway station on the map, telephone line, transport line.
    2. Cultivation due to presence of scattered cultivation on the map .
    3. lumbering due to presence of woodland on the map .
    4. Selling goods and services due to presence of market,oil storage area like pier,pipeline and power station on the map
    5. Banking services due to presence of bank on the map.
  6. Map area is located in southern hemisphere

8.(a)The type of photograph is oblique photograph because photograph taken when a camera is slanting at an angle less than 90°

  1. The relief of the area is flat land scape because of the presence of large water body on the top left side of the photograph which could be an ocean or a lake.
  2. Three possible factors which have contributed to the growth of this town are
    1. Fishing
    2. Trade
    3. Transport.
  3. Apart from providing shade, The following are three advantages of the vegetation shown on the photograph.
    1. vegetation act as a source of rainfall to the area.
    2. vegetation prevent and reduce soil erosion
    3. vegetation provide fresh air ( oxygen ) to living organism
  4. Japan is home to a number of companies that produce cars, construction vehicles, motorcycles, and engines. Japanese automotive manufacturers include Toyota, Honda, Daihatsu, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Subaru, Isuzu, Kawasaki, Yamaha, and Mitsuoka.

The following are the six factors which account for the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan.

    1. Availability of raw material.
    2. Fuel and power availability. For example location of iron and steel industries in Japan.

Human resources. This helps to the labour supply both skilled and unskilled.

    1. Availability of capital. This is needed for the investment in the machinery and importation of raw materials .
    2. Availability of transport and communication systems.
    3. Government policies. This helps on balancing the economic development of a country and provision of jobs.
    4. Government stability.
  1. Transport can be defined as the movement of people, animals, goods or services from one place to another. It provides a link between different parts of the country, region or world.

The following are the six problems facing railway transportation in East Africa.

    1. inadequate of capital:
    2. Lack of skilled labour
    3. High fuel costs
    4. Rough terrain:
    5. Differences in railway gauges
    6. Corruption and embezzlement:
  1. Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa with a height of 5895 meters (19340 ft) and the highest free standing mountain in the world. Mount Kilimanjaro is located in northern Tanzania in East Africa, not far from the border to Kenya.

The following are the six importance of Mount Kilimanjaro to Tanzania.

    1. It is tourist attraction hence it is source of foreign earning from tourism
    2. It modifies the climatic condition of Kilimanjaro region making it receive high rainfall through orographic rainfall formation
    3. Rivers flowing from it are source of water to the people living around it.
    4. It is symbol of Tanzania nation since it is known to be home to highest mountain in Africa
    1. The forest around it are source of timber and other forestry products
    2. The Kilimanjaro national park around it is home to numerous species of animals and plants hence it help to preserve the biodiversity of the country
  1. Pollution is addition of harmful and or unwanted materials on the environment. in other words Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances energies or naturally occurring contaminants.

The following are the six effects of environmental pollution in African cities.

    1. The disruption of coral reef cycle due to water pollution along the coasts
    2. Bad odour and ugly landscape caused by pollution due to improper waste disposal
    3. human diseases, such as water borne diseases like typhoid, respiratory diseases and amoebiasis
    4. Since the African continent is part of the world the air pollution in this part contribute to global warming
    5. Land infertility due to soil pollution
    6. Loss of biodiversity .

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