GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

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GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Manufacturing industry refers to the industry which involve processing and changing the materials in order to make new products of greater value to man. Manufacturing industries are also refers as secondary industries. Manufacturing industries are divided into processing and fabrication industries.
GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Processing industries:

are the ones, which deal with preparing the raw materials for fabrication for example coffee, pulping, decorticators, cashew nut hollered, etc.

Fabricating industries: are the ones that deal with making new products from the processed raw materials. For example textile industries, etc.

Manufacturing industries can also be classified as heavy industries and light industries.

 Heavy industries are the industries, which involve the production of bulky and heavy products like iron and steel industry, car assembly and ship building.




Light industries are the industries, which involve the production of light and complex product, for example; the manufacture of plastics, textile, cosmetics and paper.

Factors Influencing the Location of Industries;

There are several factors, which combine to influence the location of industries. These include;

1. Raw material availability.

Where raw materials are available, industries develop fast. Some raw materials can be obtained locally, while some can be obtained through importation. In West Germany for example Iron and Steel industry developed in the iron mining areas since iron is a major resource for that industry. But some industries can be located along the coast where the raw materials are imported from other countries. E.g. Japans has its industries located along the coast since most of its raw materials are imported from other countries. Japan does not have enough mineral resources has it imports from outside.

2. Fuel and power availability. Some industries are located where there are source of fuel and power. For example coal deposits in U.K and China have led to the location of iron and steel industries in coalfields.

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

3.Human resources. This is connected to labor supply both skilled and unskilled, also determine the location of industries. For example, electronics industries are located in the areas where there is skilled labor. Also, the industries which need high labor like cement industries, are located is areas with dense population.

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

4.  Availability of Capital. This is needed for investment in machinery. Importation of raw materials etc.

5.  Market availability also encourages the development of industries in certain country. Where the market is poor the industrial development also becomes poor. Availability of transport and communication. Some industries are located near the transport systems like the railway line because of being bulky.




6.Government policies

play a great role in the location of industries.The government can encourage the location of certain industry in certain place for the sake of balancing the economic development in certain area and provision of jobs.

7.Government stability can encourage the development of industries in certain country due to peace and harmony. People feel safe in investing in that country unlike where there are political problems like wars.

8.Industrial inertia and historical factors. Industrial inertia is the tendency of old industries to remain in the same area without shifting to the new area despite unfavorable condition. These old industries continue attracting the new industries because of well established transport system and assured supply of labor as well as social services supply.

Significance of Manufacturing to the World Economy;

1. It provides employment to the fast growing population in the world, especially the tropical countries.

2.      Industries lead to the diversification of the economy of the country and reduce the reliance on one type of product.

3.   It contributes to the earring of foreign currency in the country. For example Japan earns a lot of foreign currency because of exporting the manufactured products.

4.   It leads to self sufficiency. This means that the country reduce its reliance on imported goods. Hence, its economy becomes stable.

5. It stimulates the development of transport and communication like road, railway lines, ports etc.

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

6.  It leads to the improvement of other economic activities like trade, tourism, agriculture etc.

7. It reduces expenses on imports.

8. It encourage the improvement of social service.



Effects of Manufacturing Industries on the Environment;

The effects caused by industries can be either negative or positive. Positive effects involve the use of the margin land, which was once useless.

Negative Effects on the Environment Include:

1.Gaseous Pollutant:

These include green house gases like Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, etc, which pollute the air. These pollutants, on polluting the air, lead to the formation of acid rainfall and global warming. Acid rainfall leads to the addition of acid in the soil, which in turn causes the death of plants and microorganisms as well as the destruction of building by removing the paints on the walls. It takes place most in German due to high level of industrial emission. Global warming is the general rise of temperature at a large scale.

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Global warming is due to the green house effect caused by these gases, which trap and retain the energy from the sun in the lower atmospheric level. It lead to melting of ice and increase of the sea level, death of some animals and decline in agricultural production and hence there can occur shortage of food, increase of diseases due to the change in climate. Malaria can increase as a result of the rise in temperature because mosquitoes multiply greatly when there is high temperature.

2.  Particulate (dust) matters and other solid matters which emanate from the industries get into the air, water bodies or soil and cause contamination.

These can lead to the increase of acid or toxicity in places where they are dumped.

3.  Liquid matters:

These involved hot water and chemical from industries. Hot water leads to thermal pollution of water bodies which later can kill the aquatic organism because of the sharp rise in temperature.

General effects of industries pollutants on the health of industrial employees and communities living around:

1. Water pollutants cause disease like cancer, typhoid and diarrhea.

2. Air pollution can lead to respiratory disease like bronchitis to employees and people around.

3. Soil pollution can cause decline in agricultural production and hence starvation can take place to people.

4. People are also affected by noise and sometimes can lead to problems in the blood circulation.

Ways of Reducing Pollutants;

1. The industries should be located far away from the residential areas.

2.  Recycling the wastes for example the metal materials should be recycled so as to produce other materials.

3. The combustion system in the engines should be fitted with efficient facilities so that the amount of green house can be reduced if not solved totally.

4. To avoid noise pollution. The part of the machines should be lubricated and the materials used should be like bronze, which do not produce noise.

5. There should be concerted efforts by the government, non – governmental organization and some committed individuals in combating environmental pollution.

6. There should be strong policies governing the industrial operations and ensuring that people who invest in industrial development are given proper education on how to handle the waste product properly like recycling.

7. The industrial wastes should be treated to render them harmless to the health of the people.

8.  Alternative energy source which are environmentally friendly like solar energy, natural gas, wing power, etc.

9. There should be other activities developed so as to avoid over degeneracy on manufacturing industries only especially in Japan etc.



CASE STUDIES

SHIP BUILDING IN JAPAN

Ship building in Japan expanded fast after the Second Would War (WW II).

 

The main reasons for that expansion have been;

1. Japan’s enormous increase in external trade, which led to the increase in demand for merchant ships.

2. Japan’s large engineering industry has stimulated the development  of ship building.

3. Absence of the old established shipbuilding industry made it easy to introduce modernization. Normally old industries tend to create problems in introducing new technology.

4.  A large skilled labour force. Technology is well advanced and efficient hence has stimulated the fast development of the industry.

5.  Strong determination to become successful in industrial and trade activities in Japan.

6.  Introduction of prefabricated shipbuilding.

7.  The development of fishing industry in Japan and worldwide has stimulated the development of shipbuilding industry

8.  Forestry industry in Japan has contributed a lot since the forest materials are used as one of the components in the shipbuilding.

9. Ready market worldwide especially the rich countries.

10. The government policy has supported the industrial development in Japan.

11. Reliable supply of power like HEP power and Nuclear energy.

12. The need to import the raw materials has stimulated the development of the shipbuilding industry. This is because the country lacks raw material so it imports most of raw material and shipbuilding industry could help in cutting down some coasts of transport.

Problems of ship building industry

1.  The industry is threatened by frequent earthquakes because the country lies within the weak zone of the earth crust.

2.Stiff challenge from other countries like China and South Korea, which are also developing their own shipbuilding industries. This reduces the market.

3. The industry also faces opposition from the environmentalists and is bland to be of the source of pollution in the world. Coastal area has been polluted and this affects people and animals.

AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN GERMANY

Automobile industry is concerned with the production of different types of cars. It is basically the assembly industry. The industry developed at the end of 19th C. early development began in Europe such as in West Germany.



Factors that contributed to the Development of Automobile Industries in West Germany;

1.  Availability of raw materials like iron, which is important for the manufacture of the cars.

2.  Effective and efficient transport and communication system, which helped in the ferrying of raw material and manufactured cars.

3.  The use of advanced technology in the process of investing and manufacturing the cars.

4.  Availability of high capital, which was needed in investing in the car production.

5. The presence of metallurgical industries the provision of accessory materials need in the car assembly.

6.  High market for the car in West Germany is another factor that facilitated the development of the automobile industry.

7. Availability of power from the Rhine rise and coal, power was needed for processing iron ore to get iron and steel which are needed in the manufacturing of spare for the car assembly.

Location of automobile industries in Germany

Frankfurt producing Opel, Cologne producing Ford, Stuttgart producing Benz, Wolfsburg producing Volkswagen and other industries are located in Berlin and Dusseldorf.

Advantages of Automobile Industries;

1. It has promoted trade in Germany as well as at an international level. This is because the cars are being sold both inside Germany and outside Germany.

2. It has enhanced the mobility of  goods as well as the fast spread of science and technology. Transport and communication have been promoted.

3. It has also led the creation of employment opportunities in the country helping in solving the problems of unemployment.

4. It has stimulated the development of other sectors like manufacturing industries, mining sectors, and agriculture.

5. The industry has also facilitated the rate of information flow (The diffusion of science and technology).

Negative Impacts of the Industry;

1.It contributes to air pollution through the emission of fumes or exhaust gases into the atmosphere. Air pollution has in turn led to the problem of acidic rainfall, soil pollution, skin diseases and smog.

2. The cars led to the destruction of vegetation which in turn causes soil erosion etc.

3. There has been the increased number of accident due to many cars which are produced. Road accidents are as a result of among other things reckless driving accident car veering off the road and tire bursting.

4.  It has led to great debt crises in the poor countries because these countries cannot buy many cars due to poor financial position.

5.  Noise pollution is another problem.




Solution to the Problems;

1.There are efforts to produce cars, which are fitted with some facilities which cause combustion to take place effectively and reduce the amount of greenhouse gases produced.

2.Widening the road, tar marking, straightening them and effectively training the driver are reducing car accident. Traffic lights and speed limited are also installed to control the movement of the cars. Also there are special signs and symbols put along the roads to educate the driver and the pedestrians so as to reduce the chances of having so many accidents.

3.To reduce noise some new material are being introduced like bronze and the use of great for lubrication.

Limitations Facing the Automobile Industry in Germany;

1. There is strong competition from other countries like South Korea, Japan, Italy, Sweden, USA and Britain.

2.  Exhaustion of iron deposits will lead to the rise of expenses since the country will be forced to import most of its raw material for the industry.

3. There are strong campaigns to reduce air pollution hence encouraging the reduction in the production of especially small cars.

4. Poverty in the developing countries limits the market for West Germany.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN CHINA

Textile industry is the industry dealing with the manufacture of clothes and can be from wool, cotton, silk, linen, Nylon and rayon. The industry is classified as a light industry and is widely distribute. It is footloose industry since has a wide range of location factors that is it is not only one location factor. It can be located anywhere.

Historical Background

It is the oldest industry that began in Britain, then USA, to China, India, Japan and other countries. China textile industry was dominating before the revolution of 1949. It was concentrated along the east and along the Yang tse Kiang River. It was followed by iron and steel industry in Manchuria. After 1949 there was more development involvement. The location of the industry became more decentralized such that new industries were located inland.

Areas Where Textile Industries are Located (Distribution of Textile Industries);

Beijing in the North of Manchuria, Shanghai in the Yang tse Kiang delta (is the oldest textile region due to contracts by visitors from 1840’s), Kunming, Chungking, Lanchow in the central basin of Yang tse kiang river, Human canton, Hubei etc. all these industries are in the eastern part of the country.

Factors Which Facilitated the Development of Textile Industry;

1.  Nature of the industry. It is light and hence easy to develop since it is less expensive. The materials can be imported because they are not bulky to bring transport problems.

2.   Availability of local raw material in China especially cotton and synthetic fiber. China produces cotton, which goes to the textile industry.

3.  Cheap labor provided by the local people since China has the  highest population in the world.

4.  External contact in 1840’s led to the introduction of the textile technology in the country.

5.  Iron and steel industry lead to the development of machines that could be used in the manufacturing of textile materials

6.The use of local people ingenuity (Skills) facilitated the development of textile industry. Some local people were already making textile at a local level hence after being mobilized the textile industry developed faster.

7.Varies power supplies from different dams led to the effective running of the machines. There are power centers on the great river like Yang tse Kiang and other centers.

8.The government influence through formulating the policy that encourage the development of industries in the county. The five years plan senesced on the development of industrial base. In 1958 Mao Zedong introduced ‘Great Leap forward policy’ and the open policy, which was to allow different people to give their skills needed for the industrial development.

9.Cheap transport and communication using the greater rivers and the Grand Canal.

10.Agricultural success was another factor, which have stimulated the development of textile industry. This provides cotton for the industry and food for the workers.

11.Increased research on fabrics and synthetic fibers has lead to further development of the industry

12.Water supply from the river and rainfall has great impact in the growth and development of the textile industry. Water is used for cleaning the raw materials as well as cooling the machines.

13.Reliable domestic market since China has the highest population in the world, which assures a great demand for clothes in the country.




The textile industry has led to the realization of advantages like creation of employment, stimulation of agriculture since it has provided market. Development of other industries development of town like Kunming and Chungking, stimulation of transport and communication improvement of the living standard of the people etc.

The industry faces limitations like stiff competition from other countries like India, rapid population growth will lead to the problems of capital and concentration of food production rather than cotton, problems of floods price fluctuation, excess cotton production low level of industrial structure etc.

Environmental pollution is the problem caused by the industry itself because of dumping waste products in the river and other water bodies, introduction of gases into the atmosphere etc.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA

Tanzania has portrayed a negative trend in terms of the development of Textile industries. Most of the textile industries have collapsed such as the friendship textile mill in Dar es Salaam and the existing ones are operating below capacity. The major raw material used in the Tanzania Textile Industry is cotton most of which comes from the Lake Victoria regions that is Mwanza and Shinyanga.

The factors, which have been Hindering the Development of the Textile Industry in Tanzania;

1.  High costs of production due to the high prices of the raw materials especially the imported ones like dyes and some machine spare part.

2. Poor market for the textile products within and out. Internally the industry is affected by the competition from the cheaply imported second hand clothes. People find the Tanzania clothes expensive and this is due to the high cost of production. Also the external market is affected negatively because of the poor quality of clothes which cannot compete with those synthetic fibers.

3.  Low level of technology (poor skilled labor) which has resulted in the production of low quality products which leads to poor market or limited number of customers.

4.  Poor infrastructure like poor roads, poor railway lines etc lead to the poor distribution of the textiles products to different places in the country.

5.  Inefficient management characterized by corruption. The industries fund has been running under poor management associated with the misuse of fund.

6. Poor capital availability has been another problem most of the fund has been coming from outside leading to slow pace or failure in the development of the industry.

7. Unreliable power supply associated with frequents black or have been another hindrance hampering the development of the textile industry in Tanzania. Power shortage has been foreign some of the industries to stop working for sometimes until when the power supply stabilizes again.

Nonetheless, Tanzania is looking into the possibilities of reviving the old industries and maintaining those which are still performing in order to stimulate and fasten the process of industrialization in the country. Tanzania has learnt that, textile industry is easy to establish since it is a light industry and can be located in many places because cotton, which is produced in Tanzania, can be ferried to different places easily because it is not bulky.

Textile industry can help in combating the looming problem of unemployment prevailing in the country. Different people both their living. This in turn can lead to the promotion of the living standard of the people in the country.




LOCOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa has many industries and some of these are involved in the manufacture of locomotive (Trains). The locomotive industry in South Africa has developed due to the following factors:

 

1.The presence of heavy iron and steel industries as well as engineering industry. These are located in the towns like Johannesburg and Pretoria.

2.Availability of capital used in the process of establishing the industry. Capital was obtained from the mining industry like gold and diamond.

3.The strong need for a reliable and cheap transport system, which could be used in carrying heavy goods from the interior to the port for export or to facilitate the distribution of spare parts and other goods within the country.

4.The government policy that insisted the promotion of the transport system so as to stimulate faster industrial development in the country.

5.The use of advanced technology in the engineering industry.

6.Economic sanction also made the South Africa government think deeply in term promoting the local market through the development of cheap transport system especially the railways network.

7. The country also wanted to cut down costs that were formerly involved in importing some locomotives from countries like Canada.

Advantages of the Locomotive Industry in South Africa

1. It has enhanced the development of cheap transport system in the country. South Africa railway system especially in the Eastern part is well interconnected.

2.  It has propelled the development of other manufacturing industries, mining and agriculture.

3.  Trade both local and international has been stimulated. The goods are carried from the interior cheaply up to the port where they are exported.

4.   People’s mobility, interaction and technological diffusion have been promoted in the country.

5.  Tourism has been encouraged since the railway transport is relatively cheap and more reliable.

Cars and Aircraft Industries

These are basically assembly industries. Assembly industries are the ones that put together various component parts manufactured by other industries.

The motorcars and Lorries are now mass-produced in USA on assembly line. Assembly needs considerable engineering skills. USA is the largest producer of road vehicles and the industry is located along the shores of Great Lakes such as Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo. Another important center is Los Angels, in California. Car assembly need a large area of flat land there must be good communication with the industries, which supply component parts.

Car industry in USA is facing a great challenge from other countries like Japan centering at Chukyo and Yokohama; Germany centering on Nuremberg, Dusseldorf, and Stuttgart; U.K centering on Coventry, Birmingham, Derby, Oxford, and Dagenham.

AIRCRAFT IN THE USA

Aircraft cannot be mass-produced. They are like shipbuilding which has to be built very many to individual schedules. The first successful flight was made by American Wright Brothers in 1903 and later after the WWI more production started. Aeroplanes are usually assembled in the area where road vehicles are made. The USA is the largest producer in the world with industries near Los Angels at Seattle (on the Pacific Coast).

GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Factors that Facilitated the Development of Aircraft in the USA;

1. Pre-existing technical advancement led to the fast aircraft industrial development.

2.  Military demands during the World WarI also encouraged the production of more aircraft.

3. There was a strong need for space exploration.

4. The need for speedy transport especially when there are urgent cases like rescuing people from floods of earthquakes, sending medicine or taking the sick people very far across the continents and international leaders.

5. The need to avoid physical barriers like water bodies, mountains, rift valleys and vegetation so as promotes an international contact.

6. Advanced researches in air transport facilities.

7. Availability of capital.




Advantages of Aircraft Industry

1. It has promote air transport and accessibility of different places.

2.   People’s mobility has also increased since they can move to different places without physical barriers given there is political stability.

3. It has also helped in the diffusion of new technology in the world.

4.  There has been great improvement in the rescuer activities. For example in Bangladesh and Mozambique in 1999 the Helicopters were greatly used in rescuing people who had been hit by floods. In Afghanistan the aeroplanes have been used in proving the bags of food to the refugees of American – Taliban war against terrorism.

5.  The planes are comfortable.

6. International trade has expanded.

7. There has been promotion of defense and space exploration.

8. It has stimulated the development of tourism especially in the USA

Limitations Facing the Aircraft Industry;

1.These are financial difficulties following occasional global economic slumps.

2.There is limited freedom on air space.

3.There is limited market especially in the developing countries.

4. Stiff challenge from other countries like Russia, China and South Korea.

5. Terrorism is reducing the market for air transport and hence the industry will be affected greatly. This is due to the fact that most people now fear traveling using the airways.

Car and Aircraft Industries have Greatly Contributed to the Following Problems;

1. Air pollution because of introduction of gases in the atmosphere.

2. Acceleration of accident in the air and on the road claiming the life of the people.

3.  Drug trafficking from countries to countries.

4.  Spread of disease like AIDS due to contacts global interactions among the people.

5. Acceleration of terrorism and wars in many parts of the world. The weapons are transported from one continent or country to another.

Electronic Equipment Production in South Korea;

South Korea is among the Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) whose economy has been growing very due to heavy investment in the industrial development. Other NICs are Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore etc. the economics of these countries are referred to as “TIGER ECONOMIES” because they have growing very fast.

Electronics equipment production industry is classified as High-tech light industry since it produces light articles like Television, Electronic watches, desktop calculators, radios sophisticated articles like microprocessors, magnetic discs for computers, computer terminals, software, etc.

In South Korea the major center for electronics production is around Taegu in the south where there are more than 150 electronic factories.




Factors for the Development of Electronic Equipment Production in South Korea;

1. Labor supply in the initial stage of industrial development has been reliable and people are hard working and efficient.

2. Technology because of advanced education among the people.

3. The industry is flexible (footloose) in location. It can be located anywhere even if the space is small like in the city center. It does not need very large area.

4. Ready market for the articles produced in South Korea since they are of high quality and of the current in the world.

5. There has been strong government support in the industrial development.

6. Agricultural development supported this industry especially in creating capital for investment.

7.  Efficient transport system in the country.

 

Advantage of the Electronic Industry in South Korea;

1. It has led to the creation of employment to the population of the country.

2. It has stimulated fast information flow especially through Internet service, which uses computers.

3. The use of computer has stimulated efficiency and accuracy processing bulky data in different enterprises or companies etc. labor work has been avoided through automation of the machine. In some areas there is the use of robots, which can work more than a human being.

4. The economy of the country has risen fast as a result of exporting electronic facilities.

5. It has stimulated the growth of other industries like heavy industries.

6. The export trade expanded leading to increase international relation between South Korea and other countries.

7. It has contributed to the diversification of country’s economy.

Problems of the Electronic Industry;

1.The spread of virus computers lead to error in data processing.

2. It does not have high market in the developing countries where technology is very low and many people do not know how to use electronic facilities.

3.It has lead to the rapid growth of urban population due to rural urban migration. This has led to the rise of squatters and congestion as well as the decline of rural areas.

4. It has contributed to retrenchment of employment (trimming down of man power) since most of the work can be done by few computer more efficiently than human beings. E.g. The use of robots in shipbuilding and car assembly.

5.There has been worldwide competition especially from American in manufacturing electronic facilities.

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN THE USA

Iron and steel industry is very important in the human and economic development process since it has been useful in stimulating the development of rather industries like car assembly, shipbuilding and locomotive industries. In this industry iron is made from iron ore by smelting in the blast furnace. The iron comes out of the furnace and cools to from a pig iron (It is brittle in nature and hence cannot be made into different shapes).

 

Steel is made (as an alloy) by mixing iron with other metals like chromium, nickel and manganese. Steel can be rolled or made into different shapes to make different things like spoons, bars, pipes, rods, sheets etc.

Factors that Stimulated the Development of Iron and Steel Industry in USA;

1.  The availability of iron ore in several parts of USA like in the Pittsburgh area.

2.  Availability of water needed for the running of the industry especially in the cooling process and cleaning.

3.  Reliable and cheap transport network like waterways and railways lines

4.  The supply of labor in the mining of iron ore and the smelting process.

5.  Market availability for the iron produced in USA both within the country and outside like Japan.

6.  The strong government support in the development of the industry so as to create a strong base for the economic development.

7.  Cheap and plentiful power supply from coalfield and HEP stations.

8.  The advancement in technology also contributed in the development of the iron and steel industry.

Factors Influencing the Location of Iron and Steel Industry;

Generally steel and iron industry tends to be located near the sources of raw material (iron ore) and sources of power (coalfield) since they tend to be bulky.

The Factors that Influence the Location of the Iron and Steel Industry Includes:

1.  Raw materials.

Iron and steel industry tend to be located near the sources of raw material like coalfield and iron fields to avoid costs of transport since the raw materials are bulky in nature and hence heavy.

2. Power source.

Since coat is still the main source of power, the location near the coalfield is usually chosen. Other power sources like the hydroelectric power station are chosen for the location.

3. Water supply center.

Iron and steel industry is also located near the water source since it needs a large amount of water. Hence it cannot be located in the arid areas.

4. Transport costs.

Cost of transport is also considered in the location of the iron and steel plant. For example the America (Labrador) the coastal location was chosen for water transport.

5. Flatland.

Large areas of flat, cheap land are required for the establishment of the iron and steel industry. Hilly areas are not chosen since they need leveling.

6. Political factors.

The country can dictate the location of the industry in certain place so as to stimulate the development of the regions, which are still lagging behind. Also it can encourage the development of the industry in areas, which are safe or less vulnerable to attack from other countries.

7. Market availability.

The presence of other industries that use iron and steel as their raw materials like the locomotive, shipbuilding, automobiles, and engineering can influence the location such that the iron and steel industry can be located near these other industries which provide market.




Major Iron and Steel Regions in the USA

1. Pittsburgh Region.

This area influences the location of iron and steel industry because of the presence of iron ore deposits. It was using coal from Pennsylvania Coalfield but when the iron ores exhausted in Pittsburgh area, iron ore was brought from the Mesabi Range, to the west of Lake Superior. Pittsburgh and Youngstown are the main iron and steel center. Most of steel produced is used in the engineering industries of the region.

2.  The Great Lakes Region:

the Iron and steel industry was established in this region because of the presence ports along the southern shore or Lake Arise, where iron ore was transferred from ship to rail wagons. These ports were discovered to be well brought for the development of iron and steel industry. Coal was brought from Pittsburgh where already iron ores were exhausted.

Detroit, Cleveland and Buffalo are the main centers. Another important iron and steel areas is located along the southern shore of Lake Michigan. The plants here use iron ore from Chicago are the main centers and they produce steel, which is used mainly by the engineering shipbuilding and railway industries.

3. The Atlantic Coast:

The iron and steel plants of this region use iron ore imported fro Labrador, Venezuela and Chile and coal from the Pennsylvania coalfield. The main center is Sparrow’s Point and Bethlehem.

4. The Birmingham region:

This industry uses iron ores, limestone and coal all of which are mined in the region around Birmingham, at the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains. Birmingham is the center of the iron and steel region.

The Changing Location of Iron and Steel Industry in the USA

The iron and steel industry in the USA, just like in Europe (UK) has been changing in terms of location from time to time. For example traditionally the location was determined by the location of iron ore and coal and Pittsburgh because the major area (the iron and steel capital) and coal came from the Appalachian Mountains. But where the iron ore began getting exhausted the location changed. Some new the iron and steel industries were located along the coastal areas where there were ports. Thus, nowadays the location of the iron and steel industry has become more flexible due to the emergence of many determining factors:

1.Discovery of new and more valuable iron and ore deposits in different parts of the country has led to the spread of iron and steel industry. The new discoveries took place after the old deposits got exhausted in the Pittsburgh region.

2.The dependence on the imported iron ore from Labrador in Canada made the shift take place the coastal areas. Hence, the ports are other determinant of the location of iron and steel industry not only in the USA also in Europe (UK) following need to import the raw materials from other countries.

3.The industry has begun using more scrap metal than ore due to the advancement in technology. Hence, it can be located wherever there scrap metal materials are produced in a large amount especially where these are locomotive and car industries already established.

4.There are other sources of energy than coal. Hence iron and steel industry is not necessarily tie to the coalfield but also can be located where there is hydroelectric power, especially along the river course. This site has another advantage of being able to supply water for cheap and steel industry.

5.Development of cheap transport means like the St. Lawrence contributed to the increase in locational flexibility of industry since it became another factor that attracts the location of the iron and steel industry.

Hence the emergence of other determinant factors like discoveries of new deposits other source of power like HEP, development of cheap transport, advancement in technology especially recycling of scrap iron material and political influence especially the government influence has made the location of iron and steel industry more flexible not only in the USA but also in other parts of the world like Europe.




Importance of the Iron and Steel Industry in the USA

1. It has encouraged the development of other industries like Automobiles locomotives shipbuilding agricultural machinery aircraft industries and the rolling stock.

2. It has contributed to the fast development of mechanized agriculture in the country due to the production of farm equipment like tractors and combine harvest.

3. It has also encouraged the development of transport and communication systems. This has been through the manufacture of cars and locomotives as well as stimulation of railways construction.

4. It has created employment opportunities in the country.

5. There has been stimulation in the development of towns like Pittsburgh (the iron and steel capital) Detroit, Youngstown, Birmingham and Chicago.

6. It has also stimulated the increase in the power supply centers for the snake of running the industry.

7. Export of the iron and steel products have been earning the country a lot of foreign currency as a source of the government revenue.

Disadvantages of Steel and Iron Industry;

1. It has contributed to the environmental degradation and pollution.

There is air pollution from gases emanating from the smelting plants due to the burning of coal, water pollution by introducing some metal material in water and other chemicals, soil erosion due to the clearing of vegetation when establishing the industry and infrastructure as well as noise pollution.

2. It has been facing a lot of limitation like iron or exhaustion strong restriction on the use of coal as the source of energy from the environmentalists, it is also expensive to establish since it needs a lot of capital and finally the stiff challenge from other countries with the same industry like China, Japan, Canada, Germany etc.

3. It is involves bulky and heavy materials, which bring problems in the transportation. Transporting such bulky materials involve a lot of costs.

4. Its stimulation on mechanization has led to unemployment since the machines are now doing the work that was being done by the people.

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA

Among the East Africa countries Tanzania has the brighter future as far as iron and steel industry is concerned. The bright future is due to the following factors:

1. About 500 million tons of iron deposits have been discovered to exist in Linganga area. In Liganga iron is present in large quantity in the titaniferous magnetite iron ore deposits. The deposits are near the surface and hence it will be easy to work on them. The other area where there are iron ore deposits in Tanzania is Kisaki in Morogoro.

2. There are large deposits of power resources, which include Chetewaka – Mchuchuma area with 300 million tons of Anthracite coal and 20 million tons at Ilima area.

3. The existing high demand for construction materials like iron bars have stimulated the government to think on establishing parts of Tanzania.

4. The existence of the present steel rolling industry in Tanga has led to a strong inspiration for establishing iron and steel rolling industry.

5. There also exists other source of power like HEP especially at the stiegler’s gorge. These will provide power for the iron and steel industry.

6. The need to cut down costs incurred in importing the iron material from other countries.

The government through the National, Development Corporation (NDC) thinks of exploiting these deposits for the future.  This will take place in phases. In this plan it has thought of involving the private sectors in the development of this industry like the SITA steel rolling industry in Dar es Salaam (Tabata).




Advantages Expected from the Iron and Steel Industry in Tanzania

1. It will create employment opportunities for the population especially in the southern parts of Tanzania.

2. It will lead to local supply of steel material to the steel-rolling industry in Tanga.

3.  This will cut down costs of importing steel from and hence will save a lot of government revenue that could be used in importing steel.

4. It will facilitate the construction sector such that stronger buildings and bridges will be set up.

5. It will also facilitate the development of transport and communication in the country.

6. Agriculture will also improve since farm implements will be produced in a greater quantity and will be cheap compared to the imported iron and steel materials.

Factors Limiting the Development of Iron and Steel Industry in Tanzania;

1.  Lack of capital since Tanzania economy is very low.

2.  Low technology  among the Tanzania. This has led to the existence of poor skilled manpower.

3. There are poor transport and communication systems such that the transportation of iron and steel materials will be problematic.

4.  Poor internal market is another hindering factor delaying the development of iron and steel industry in Tanzania.

5. Traditionally Tanzania has poor industrial based since it has been depending on agriculture as its economic backbone (Economic Mainstay).

Why was faster development of industries after independence in Tanzania?

There was faster development of industries in Tanzania after independence because of the following reasons:

1. The government found that selling processed products was more economical.

2. There was a strong need by the government to diversify the economy rather than depending on agriculture only. Over dependence on agriculture only was risky as putting all the eggs in one hanging basket such that one’s it falls the owners suffers a great loss of having all eggs broken. Hence the economy that depends on one economic aspect has the risky of experiencing a horrendous total collapse.

3.There was a need to provide employment opportunities to the young people most of whom were from different learning institution like universities. Hence these could locally and relatively cheaply, provide skilled labor rather than depending on the foreigners whose labor was expensive.

4.There was also a great need to cut down on imports that were expensive and save the foreign exchange earnings for a more comprehensive national development process. The saved foreign exchange could be used in establishing other important economic project especially those related to industrial development.

5.To facilitate the benefit exploitation of the local resources rather than exporting them to other advanced countries where they are manufactured and then resold to our countries more expensively.

Show the Rationale behind the Development of Steel Rolling Industry in East Africa

1. To build a strong industrial base for the countries in order to have fast economic development.

2.  To cut down costs on imported goods made of steel (Import substitution).

3. Tanzania especially a wanted to become self sufficient on steel materials (The aim was promotes self reliance in the process of industrial development).

4.  To create employment opportunities in the countries.

5.  To diversify the economics of the countries so that their incomes could be stable.




What is the Role of the Steel Rolling Industry in East Africa?

1.  It has facilitated the construction process like strong tall buildings, bridges, etc.

2.  It has helped in the recycling process leading to proper management of wastes. Some of the worn out metallic materials are sent to the industry to be smelted and roiled into steel bars for other important use.

3.  Steel rolling industry has lead to the creation of employment among the people in East Africa.

4. Small Industries. Which use appropriate technology (AT) has emerged, for example Jua Kali. These use some of the materials produced from the steel rolling industries.

5. It creates market to the power produced from different power resource centers. The power is needed for smelting the iron materials before they rolled.

6. It has stimulated improvement in transport and communication network especially as a result of the constructing bridges etc.

Factors that hinder Development of Manufacturing Industries in East Africa are:

1.  Low level of technology used in the establishment of the industry.

2. Low level of capital to be invested in the industries.

3.  People are so migratory (they keep on moving from place to place and hence they cannot concentrate on production).

4. Civil wars also hinder industrial development in East Africa.

5. Low government support on the industry development. Policies are not giving strong emphasis on the manufacturing industries. The priority is given on processing industries.

6.  Poor availability of raw materials. Some of the available resources are of poor quality and some tend to exhaust quickly.

7.  Poor transport and communication. Hence, the transportation of manufactured goods and raw material is very costly.

8. Poor labor supply to the industrial places due to low skills or death of young and energetic people due to accidents and diseases like HIV/AIDS.

9. Limited mineral sources and sources of energy. Sometimes the energy supply unreliable.

10. Limited or poor marketing system. The local people have low purchasing power while the international market is highly competitive and most of our products are primary in nature hence do not have strong market command.

11.The present machines are old and hence they cannot facilitate the industrial activities to a great extent.

12.The people themselves do not have strong determination as far as high development is concerned. It is not like in Japan where people are so determined and are hard working.

13.There are poor research activities that take place in the country, and those, which are being carried out, take quite a long time while the demands are cropping so high day after day.

14.Explosive population growth hinders fast development process, because more attention is given on solving population problems like diseases and food supply abandoning the development of industries.

15.Hazards also pose a great problem especially in the location of the manufacturing industries. For example there is a great fear in establishing or locating the industries in Rungwe (Mbeya) because of sporadic earthquakes that pose a great menace of problems to people.

16.Colonial legacy. The colonialists created poor industrial foundation that the countries inherited. Most of the industries were processing industry and most of them were dealing with cash crops. Hence there was no any strong foundation that could encourage the development of heavy in the countries.




Ways of Improving the Industrial Base in East Africa.

1.  There should be improvement in transport and communication systems.

2. There should be improvement in science and technology so as to facilitate industrial growth.

3.  The government should formulate policies which support industrial development in the country.

4. The local resources should be explored and exploited for industrial use.

5. There should be control of population growth so that the capital can be invested in industrial development rather that supporting the rapid growth of population.

6.  People’s on production rather than wasting time moving from one place to another.

Tanzania has a great Potential for Industrial Development, justify:

Tanzania has a great potential for industrial development due to the following facts:

1. It has about 500 million tons of iron deposits that have been discovered in Liganga area. In Liganga iron is present in a large quantity in the titaniferous magnetite iron ore deposits. The deposits are near the surface and hence it will be easy to work on them. The other area where are iron ore deposits in Tanzania is Kisaki in Morogoro.

2. There are large deposits of power resources, which include Chetewaka-Mchuchuma area with 300 million tons of Anthracite coal; and 20 million tons at Ilima area. There also exists other sources of power like HEP especially at Kihansi, Nyumba ya Mungu, Mtera etc. these will provide power for heavy industries.

3. The need to cut down costs incurred in importing manufactured goods from other countries.

4. It is assured of labor supply due to high population.

However, the Development will depend on the Following Aspects:

1.  Improvement in technology through training of manpower available.

2.  Improvement in the transport and communication system for easy movement of goods, people and services.

3.  Capital availability for being invested in the establishment of the industry.

4. The state of both external and internal market for the goods that will be produced in the industries.

How Tanzania Can Modernize Her Manufacturing Industry?

1.  Improving science and technology through training and educating people. The skilled labor should be utilized in the industrial processes.

2. The energy supply should be improved so that the machines can utilize effectively.

3.  The policy should put more emphasis on the modernization of industries especially developing heavy industries should use local resources like iron ore from Liganga and Kisaki. Emphasis on food processing industries should not overshadow the development of heavy industries since these industries lead to fast economic development. They also encourage the development of other industries.

4.  Also there should be wider chance given to the private sector to invest in the industrial development rather than leaving the whole burden to the government which is not having enough capital.

5. The quality of products should be improved so that they can get market outside.

6.  Modernization will take place fast once there is a strong control of population growth. Population growth creates pressure for land and hence industrial location tends to be problematic.

7.  Another way that Tanzania can purse in the modernization of its manufacturing industry in through being a member of international organization. These help in the diffusion of technology and expanding the market for the manufactured goods.

8. There should be improvement in transport and communication in order to facilitate the movement and distribution of manufactured goods to different places air transport.

9. The need to avoid physical harrier like water bodies mountains rift valley and vegetation so as to promote an international contact. There are mountains like the Rockies and Appalachians, which act as barriers to land transport.



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