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River Development projects are the schemes which are development for different purposes. They are called multipurpose schemes because they are aimed at meeting many goals like flood control, Water supply in the industries, irrigation schemes, Settlement etc. Example of river development projects, In Africa Volta River projects in Ghana at Akasombo dam, Orange River projects in South Africa, Gezira irrigation scheme in Sudan at Sonar dam, Aswan High in Egypt located on the Nile Mwea Tebere and Galole irrigation schemes in Kenya Rufiji Basin development, Kilombero basin development and Kagera development river basin development schema. Out of Africa are the Tennessee valley projects, Indus in Pakistan and Ganges project in India Amazon Basin development scheme in Brazil.


Processes in the River Basin Development include;
1. Construction of the dams for retaining water.
2. Dredging of the river. This refers to the removal of silt or mud from the river.
3. Straightening and widening of the river channel so that it can  accommodate more water.
4. Clearing of vegetation where economic activities  are going to take place.
5. Planting  of  trees of the sides of the river so as to prevent soil erosion and check the movement of the surface run off so as to reduce or prevent flooding.
6. Creating some canals and installing the pipes that can help in irrigation.

 Economic Importance (Benefits) of the River Development project benefit;
 1. They help  in  the control  of floods where  they are established.
2. They lead to the improvement  of  navigation in the  respective rivers especially when the dams are constructed.
3. Lead to the development of the fishing industry especially after the construction of the dam.
4. Water  is provided for the domestic  use and  industrial purposes.
5. Water  also is provided for the irrigation schemes hence leading to  the expansion of farms and increased agricultural  production.
6. They are used as research center for studying ecosystems and their importance to human being.
7. River  projects encourage environmental conservation like the control of soil erosion by planting trees.
8. They are used  as research  centers for studying  ecosystems and their importance to human being.
9. River development project have encouraged the development of towns in many places e.g in Germany most of the towns like cologne, Bonn and Frankfurt are found along the rivers. Hence they can help in solving  the problem of overpopulation.
10. Employment  is usually created  in  river basin development  projects.
11. They are center for  hydroelectric power generation.
12. Silt removed from the river during dredging adds fertility to the soil and hence promotes farming.
13. They lead to the development of timber industry e.g. in Canada and Sweden the river are used for transporting  downstream to the saw mills.

Setbacks (Hindrances or Limitations) Facing the river Basin Development Projects;

1. Unreliable rainfall and excessive evaporation lead to the drying of the river and other water bodies. Hence economic  activities can’t take place easily due to dryness.
2.Accumulation of silt in the dam leads to the reduction of  the  volume of water.
3.Water  pollution   especially by the  industries  discourages  the utilization water  from the river  basins for   economic development.
4.Lack of capital  for  establishing and  maintaining  the river basin projects.
5.Lack of or  technological  equipment  and labor for managing the river  basin projects.
6.Soil  exhaustion due to intensive  farming.
7.The outbreak of diseases  like Malaria and cholera.
8.There is a problem  of displacing the  people  to other areas.
9.Soil  erosion  can also  face  the established project  and cause damage.

Disadvantages of River Basin Development Project

These disadvantages are based on the problems, which are caused by scheme itself. They include;
1. The  projects lead to the increased debt  cries in the developing  countries because of borrowing money from the  developed countries.
2. The projects can cause soil erosion if they are not well managed.
3. They cause environmental pollution like the increase in salt (Stalinization) in the soil, acidification because of the  use for chemicals in agriculture and industrial waste disposal as well as air pollution as a result of introduction of gases like methane and carbon monoxide into the air.
4. The construction of dams leads to the displacement of people. This  is disturbance and can cause loss during migration.
5. The projects are expensive to establish hence they consume  a lot of capital.
6. They also lead to the outbreak of diseases, which  affect people.
7. They can  cause overpopulation since many people are attracted to establish their settlement.
8. Occurrence of conflicts between countries that share the river.



Tennessee is the tributary of  Ohio River in the United States of Africa (USA). The Ohio River in turns the tributary of the Mississippi river.  The Tennessee valley receives high rainfall over 1250mm and in the high areas it can be as higher as 2000mm. The valley was characterized wit fertile soil and hence attracted people to the valley. The people cleared vegetation for cultivation. Formerly the river had an irregular flow and had huge silt load which made navigation difficult. It used to flood. Other problems included the presence rapids and diseases. Because of poor methods of cultivation erosion set in this led to the decline in agriculture. The valley is well known in the world in terms of the successful control of the problem of severe soil erosion.

How the valley was developed;
The U.S.A government organized the development of the valley. It first set up the Tennessee River Authority (TVA) in 1933. The general aim was to sole the economic problems of the people.

Major Aims of the scheme;

1.To control soil erosion and improve the quality of the land that had been degraded by sever soil erosion.
2 .To control the floods.
3.To improve navigation.
4.To develop the Hydroelectric power generation centers.

Steps that Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Took in Developing the Valley were;

1.    1. Constructing the dams along the river course. A total of 32 dams were constructed to control floods.
2. Reforestation was done especially on the steep slopes of Appalachian Mountains.
3. Gullies were filled up with brushwood to trap the eroded soil particles especially silt.
4. Modern farming methods were introduced, for example terracing, contour, pouching and crop rotation on the slopes.
5. Planting  of grass or  cover crops not the slopes so as to reduce  surface run –off.

Advantages (Results) of the Project;

1. There has been increase in the water supply for irrigation, domestic use and industrial use.
2. Navigation in the Tennessee River has improved. Commercial freight ships are operating in the river.
3. Hydroelectric power was made available to many people.
4. The floods have highly been controlled.
5. Provision of Hydroelectric power has led to the development of different manufacturing and heavy industries. For example Machinery and Aluminum smelting in Alabama and Atlanta in  Georgia. Atomic power station and Aluminum smelting at Alcoa.
6. It  has stimulated the development of mining industry,  forestry etc.
7. The  project has created job opportunities for more than 50,000 people.
8. Tourism developed after the river development. Many public parks (around) 100 and camping areas have been established.
9.  Erosion was highly controlled.
10. There has been disease control. For example, formerly Malaria.
11. Increase  on the  size of the arable land due to soil control.
12. There has been development  of fishing industry due to the contraction of  dams.

Problems that Limit the Development of Such schemes in the country;

1. Political suspicion and terrorism.

2. Such  schemes are very expensive to establish  and run.

3. There is low government  commitment toward developing such schemes in the  country.

4. There is high rate of people migration urban areas expecting to get employment hence the scheme suffers the problem of  labor supply.


Is the river which drains the great lakes, flowing at ways into the Atlantic Ocean. It passes through the most densely populated part of Canada and highly industrialize portion of the USA. It serves as a waterway for ships for about 3,218km and produced much hydroelectric power at Niagara and Cornwall. St. Lawrence lowlands are good for agriculture because of fertile soil. The climate is also conducive for a variety of crops. It has a long growing season, adequate and well distributed rainfall. But the river has many rapids and water falls.

These problems were solved by constructing some canals to bypass the rapids and falls such canals are ERIE and Well and) Dredging and the dams were constructed so as to regulate the river flow. The aim was to make St. Lawrence the seaway. But the idea was opposed by the Railway companies in US and it took long time to achieve this aim.
After signing the agreement (Canadian – American agreement 1950) St Lawrence Seaway was opened in 1959

1. It has provided a good channel useful for the bulk transport of wheat, iron ore and coal.

2. It has also encouraged the supply of  power due to the transport of fuel and development of HEP stations after the construction of dams.

3. It has stimulated the growth of industry especially timber since the forest is found in the river areas around the basin.  St. Lawrence forest provides raw material for the timber industry and the  river provides transport for timber materials.

4. Agriculture has also developed involving mixed farming and dairying. This has been due to the good climate with long growing seasoning summer, enough rainfall and good soil. The crops grown  are wheat, maize tobacco, potatoes, vegetables like lettuce, and fruits like apple.

The major limitation of navigation in the St. Lawrence river basin has been winter condition. When water gets frozen efficiency of the river is lowered. But the problem is reduced through systematic reporting of ice flows, which give a computer picture of the condition in the river flows which give a computer picture of the conditions in the river especially at the estuary. Helicopters are also used in monitoring the conditions of the river.

N.B following many drawbacks St. Lawrence has not been great financial success winter being the major hindrance.

Problem Due to the River Basin Development;

1. Conflict with the railway companies arose since the river basin development was seen as the challenge to the railway system in the country.

2. Industrial problems occurred such as decline of other industries due to emergence of the new one. Mining exhaustion made some of  the people migrate and some became unemployed.

3. Encroachment  on the rural areas swallowing up valuable agricultural land.

4. Occurrence of population leading to the outbreak of diseases and stench  small wafting from the dumping places in the river basin.

5. The influx of the backs into the area has led to the occurrence of ghetto life.

6. Encouragement office the mining and timber industries especially coal mining has led to land degradation. This has been associated with the cretin many pits, deforestation and erosion.

7.There are new laws made to ensure the restoration of the mined areas but still the problem is likely to provable due to more demand of coal caused by the global energy crisis.


The river Rhine flows through Switzerland sets Germany and Netherlands and forms the border of France. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean and German has most of the Rhinos Course. It is the most important river in Europe.

C  Characteristics of the River;
1. It has low seasonal fluctuation, it seldom floods and rarely freezes.
2. It has  high volume due  to many tributaries like Moseley etc.
3. It flows through highly industrialized areas.
4. The soil in the river basin is fertile.
5. It is navigable as far as Basel which is 950km upstream and 230m above this level.
6. Little seasonal fluctuation and dare occasions of flooding the freeing.
7. Freedom of movement along most of the Rhine course encouraged the improvement of navigation condition along its tributaries namely Main, Moseley, Neckar and Rhur.
8. High water volume for easy movement of the vessels.
9. The river has been improve by being straightened by dredged.
10.Its idea position and flowing  through the industrial heat of  Germany makes it most intensively use for commercial water way  it is used for moving a lot of bulky goods and raw material.

A series of canal have been constructed to enable barged with capacities exceeding 1000 tones to Link River in the Rhine water way system. The canals are Rhine – Rhone canal, Main – Danube canal, Albert Canal Dortmund Ems canal and Mitt eland canal.

Importance of the Rhine River to Europe;
1. It has stimulated the development of HEP generation center which supply power to the industries, mining centers and homesteads.

2. It has provide  on the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean from the interior of western Europe.

3. It has led to the development of industrial sector. Many industries especially in West Germany are located near the    river Rhine industrial development has also been due to the cheap and large sale transportation of the raw materials. Industrial towns sired by the Rhine river waterway include Ludwigshafen, Strasbourg Stuttgart, b\Basel Antwerp Lyon a Mainz.

4. It supplies water for agricultural like market, gardening and airy farming domestic and industrial use. Hence, it has also encourages market gardening since water is used for irrigation in the gardens.

5. Navigation in the river basin has stimulated the development of  trade, it has become an axis on which trade highs in the whole of the European Common Market.

6. It has become of the tourist attractions. Some tourists come and see the successful use of the river water for the development of the countries. Tourists are interested in seeing how the use of water form Rhine River is well organized such that there haven’t been economically developed countries.

7.It  has also stimulated  the growth of  towns since people have settled close to the river due to water availability.

1.   Spread of  diseases because of water pollution caused by the river  basin development.
2.  The area is facing the problem of land degradation since it is densely populated. But the governments are very  keen introduced encouraging people to stop reproducing in a big number.
3.   Aging  of people will lead to inefficient use of the river and its resource.


China river basins have been the back born to the development of the country. The river  include  Hwang Ho, Yang tse Kiang and Si Kiang Hwang Ho and Yang tse Kiang originate from the Tibetan plateau and  poor their water in the China Sea. These rivers have basins which offer fertile soil goods for agriculture. Planned agriculture was carried out in these river basins.

How the River Basins were developed into a more Productive state;
1.  The government launched some comprehensive national schemes for the control of great river that is Hwang Ho, Yang tse Kiang and SI Kiang. The river control  project were initiated to achieve reclamation, creating of navigation water way.

2.  Several dams were contracted across the river channels as to hold back excess water during the rimy season and minimize floods. The dams  were multi page, that is for encouraging navigation,  providing water for  domestic  and industrial  use, and encouraging fresh water fishing the country.

3. Apart from constructing dams, canals was constructed to connect all the great rivers. This  made  transport cheap and efficient.

4. Forestation programs were introduced in the river basins so as to control soil erosion. The forest could provide a variety of products for economic and social use.

5. There was the use of fertilizers and manure for reclaiming the land.  Also deep pouching was applied across the slope.

All these were initiated during the twelve year plan launched by the government of china. In the development of the river basins people also have largely been involved in making decision and implementation those decisions.

 Achievements as a Result of River Basin Development in China;

1.   More  arable land was reclaimed and used for agriculture and settlements.

2.  Industrial development took place in the river basins such as metal Engineering, chemical prosing, cement industries etc Industrial centers in the yang tse kiang basins are  hunan, chungking, Kweiyang and Kumning, e.t.c.

3.  Simulating of the developed towns like Tientsin, Shangria, chungking etc.

4.  Stimulation of the mining sector due to transport development copy of water. Minerals like coal iron or etc are being mined.

5.   There  is greater soppy of HEP powered  due to the contraction of  dams across the river channel.

6.  Floods have been minimized to great extent in the river especially after the construction of dams and planning of trees.

Problems caused by the scheme;
1.The development of the river development schemes has led to the growth of high population causing stress on the land and its resources. But nowadays the government of China has been fighting against population growth by imposing very strict policy on population control loads to avoid some environment problems.

2. Water pollution due to domestic refuse and industrial waster being dumped in the river basin. Some  of the wastes are toxic.

3. Greater use  land due to expansion of agriculture and industries  development  acceleration and river floods.

Problems facing the scheme;

  • Disease and pests which agent the cops animals and people.
  • Frequent floods and storms affect the river  basin and the activities carried out.
  • Land fragmentation as a result of high population with poses pressure on the land.

The Orange River Basin Development
The Orange River and tributaries: The Harts, the veal, the Modder and the Caledon rise from the Drakensberg and flows westwards in the Atlantic Ocean. The river crosses or drains Lesotho Botswana South West Africa and the Republic of South Africa. It is the largest river in South Africa with a flow of water equal to all other rivers (in South Africa) combined.

T    Features of the River;
1. carries a lot of silt due to unstable soil in South Africa.

2. It tends to flood in the rainy season.

3. It has got high water fluctuation due to high evaporation. This is due to the fact that it flows through the desolate desert. Sometimes the river dries up. Hence the river flows to the drier parts of the country in the west.

The combination of aridity and poor water supply has made the western parts of the country lag backwards in terms of development compared to the eastern part of country. But the Orange River basin has got high economic potential for supporting the increasing population in South Africa. It has high potential due to the following facts;
1.The valley is wide  and hence can allow large scale agriculture activities to take place.
2.The river basin has a flat land surface good for establishing  irrigation schemes and applying mechanization.
3.The  soil is fertile to support a variety of crops needed for the country.

The Orange River Basin scheme

The project started in 1962 with the following objectives;
1.To  make full side of the irrigation and hydroelectric power  potential of the river and provide a sound basis for agricultural and industrial.

2.Controlling  floods, which have been hindering the development of the river  basin.

3.Achieving soil stabilization by planting trees.
The total cost of the project was estimate as US 900 million the scheme was estimated to enable a further 280,000 land to irrigate.

The Process of Developing the River Basin;
1.Building of the dams like the P.K leroux Dam Hendri Verwoers Dam (completed in June 1971) Mortuary, Kalk fontein and welbedacht etc. The dams were aimed at providing water for irrigation cosmetic use, industrial activities and fishing.

2.Contraction of canals like van der kloof from P.k leroux dam to de aar, Riet, Brak Angers and carnavongeles valley where irrigation could take place, Other canals leading to the great fish river where there is fertile soil but poor water supply.

3. Channels and tunnels where also constructed  with the purpose of leading water to the drier parts for irrigation.

Achievements of the Orange River Scheme;
1.There has been an increase in the area for irrigation in order that more production can be realized. There has been an increase in crop production by 25% and crops grown are sheet, maize, hay groundnuts, cotton and vegetation. The dangers of drought conditions over a large area of the interior  have minimize.

2.There has been a wide control of floods to reduce the damage caused by water.

3.Reduction in silting through soil stabilization.

4.Water supply has been stabilized due to the creating of dams. The existing schemes are supplied with water leading to greater crop production. The current water supply systems have been relieved.

5.Stimulation of both primary and secondary industries. For example textile industries have developed due to the improvement of sheep farming.

6.More areas for settlement have been established where people are living. The area has attracted population from the east reduction of over  population.

7.The project has contributed to the reduction of the imbalance between the west and the east.

8.Cheap power from the contracted  dams has aide mining and communication development  in the  South Africa region

Problems caused by the scheme;
1. It made the government incur a lot of costs in establishing. The estimated cost was US 900 million. Hence other  important economic activities could be ignored for sometime.

2. The construction of dams led to the acceleration of coastal erosion.

3. Development of the scheme led to water pollution and hence the occurrence of diseases.

Problems facing the scheme;
1. Labor shortage since most of young people go to the mining areas manufacturing industries sand tourist area. The ongoing tension in South Africa due to the profound imprints of  apartheid system also causes the problem  of labor availability.

2. Diseases, which affect the crops, animals and people affect the production and efficiency in the scheme.

3. There is a problem of soil erosion and silting because of unstable soil.

4. There  is  water   available is under high competition involving the agricultural sector, mining and industry.

5. Volume fluctuation in the river is another problem. This is due to the fact that South received  little rainfall and arid is common feature in the western part of the country.


Historical Background

The development of the project was formerly organized by the government of Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi in 1977 Uganda joined in 1981. The project was to be established with the main aim of starting a massive Hydro electric power schema, centered on the dam at the established at Rusumo fails in the Kagera River. At first Tanzania  proposed building dam of 1395 meters high capable of generating at  least 128 megawatts of HEP needed for a large  scale industrialization  and electrification  of the  lake  region. The four countries convened a summit in Bujumbura in May 1981 and agreed to hold the dam of 1325 meters high at Rusumo falls so as to produce 80 megawatts of hydroelectric power.

Characteristics of the Kagera River Basin;
1.It  has reliable water flow since it is located in the area that gets high  rainfall (Highland).
2.It has a wide variety of plant  and animals.
3.The soil is fertile, and hence good for agricultural development.
4.There  are same mineral deposits like iron hence the development of  the river can speed up mineral extraction.

Requirements for establishing the scheme;
1.Capital for investment  on the  equipment  was needed.

2.Training of people is also  necessary so as to equip them  with necessary to be  utilized in the river  basin development.

3.Rwanda and Burundi needed other areas for agriculture. Rwanda has to lose about 8200 hectares and get another land to resettle about 10500 ramifies. Burundi has to lose 3200 hectares and   find another land for restyling 1600 families. These brought some hesitation with these countries since losing their landing order to develop the project under joint venture. So there has been a loan argument about this and about the compensation to be paid out of the international funding.

4.There should be surveys  to find new farmland for the people  dispossessed of the land.

5.Arranging some  claims and squabble of families for favored new sites set by  the government.

6.Ensuring  that  building materials are available.

7.Common agreement among the country  concerned since the project could affect each a  of them.

Advantages expected from the Kagera River Basin Development project;
1.The production of HEP  for the member countries  and even the neighboring  countries.
2.Employment of the people.
3.Development  of transport  and communication systems in the region.
4.Greater  cooperation among the member countries  and hence paving the way for the development  of trade and peace.
5.Development  of agriculture and the mining industry.
6.Diffusion of agriculture and the mining  industry.
7.Expansion  improvement  of  market for the  crops produced in the region.
8.The  development  of tourist industry.
9.Improvement of  the life standard of the people by electrifying the waste  lake Victoria.
10. Development of search activities especially on biodiversity.

Problems encountered in the Development;
1.Hesitation by Rwanda  and Burundi who will lose the part of their  land for the giving room for  development of the scheme.
2.The researches and preliminary plans are taking too long.
3.This will lead to the decline of other small projects because of the government concentrating more on that project.
4.Expenses will be high since the process needs high capital and the  government do not have enough capital.
5.Low  technology among the  local people  and these need intensive training.
6.Four of the serious congestion after one project is completed in another bottleneck to the fast development of the country.
7.The ongoing civil was in Rwanda and Burundi. These keep people resoles and insecure causes retardation in the development of the project.
8.Labor supply is a problem because of migration of people from  that region to  other areas like Dar es salaam and the mining centers in Arusha  and shinyanga.


The Rufiji River in Tanzania portrays a good example of the areas which has high economic potential but not fully exploited and is under populated because its resources can support more population.

Characteristics of the Rufiji River Basin;
1.It has the largest river (the Rufiji) in the  country and starts from the southern interior highlands of Tanzania emptying its contents in the Indian Ocean.
2.It has features like waterfalls, meanders, alluvial fans, and ox bow lakes.
3.The river basins also characterized with a variety of animal vegetation like the mangrove and grass as well as bird.
4.It has different resource including water oil natural gas wildlife (flora and fauna) and good arable land.
5.It has  conductive climatic conditions receiving enough rainfall, high temperature that allows a variety of crops to be grown.
6.It tends of flood in the rain season giving transport problems and destruction of property in the farm.

Activities Going on in the Rufiji Basin;
1.Fishing is taking place at a small scale under the local inhabitants. The government once proposed to start prawns farming project but encountered  a staunch resistance from the environment.
2.There is cultivation of rye, sugarcane, coconuts, vegetables  etc large scale irrigation scheme is taking place in the Kilombero River basin apart of the Rufiji basin.
3.Tourism  is taking group  in the sell outs game Reserve contributing to the earning of the foreign currency in the country.
4.Hunting of the wild game by the local people.
5.Lumbering also takes place  involving the local people and the other businessmen from other regions like Dar es salaam.
6.There are researches and mineral exploration going  in the area.

Why the Rufiji Basin has a High Economic potential in the country?
1.It has a large fertile land which has not been fully utilized for agriculture. If fully utilized for cultivation it can lead to high  production of crops boosting up the economy of the country.

2.It has many attractive aspect like variety of vegetation, the delta, ox bow  lakes, meanders, alluvial, fans, animals,  fish and boards
These can attract more tourists making the Rufiji Basin another great tourist destination.

3.It has potential resources for power production like the waterfalls oil and gas deposits which are either not fully exploited or lying idle.

4.Enough rain and good temperature that can support a variety of crops like rice, sugarcane beans maize etc

5.There are people who can provide labor for transforming  the basin into productive area.

Factors that limit the Development of the Rufiji Basin in Tanzania
1.Poor capital availability to be  invested in the development  of the basin.
2.Low level of technology is another hindrance. The local people are using poor tools because of low technology.
3.There is shortage of labor caused by the rural urban migration most young and energetic people are running from the Rufiji basin to towns like Dare es salaam.
4.Remoteness associated with  poor transport and communication system.
5.Poor market availability especially the local market. The local people have low purchasing  power due to poverty.
6.The government  priorities are focused more on other  area than river basin development.
7.There are frequent floods which affect the crops it harms and other people property.
8.There are frequent floods, which affect the crops in the farms and other people property.

What should be done?
1.The local people technology should be improved so as to facilitate effective exploitation resources in the basin.
2.Seeking financial assistance from different diners for the sake of getting capital to the invested  basin development.
3.Restricting rural urban migration so that people can stay in rural areas and produce. Migration can be reduced by heavily investing into the region there  by  establishing some projects.
4.Transport and communication systems should be improved so as to facilitate the movement of people information and different  products.
5.Intensifying environment  conservation processes for the sake of fostering the status of the local attraction in  basin and draw the  attention of many visitors in the  areas.
6.Water conservation processes should take for the sake of promoting the supply of water for domestic  use industrial use and irrigation.

Threats to the Rufiji Basin Development

The Rufiji basin is threatened by some problems like water pollution deforestation.  Diseases land degradation resource exhaustion and conflicts. The causes of these threats are tourism fishing agriculture lumbering, fuel, wood extraction, mining and settlement.


Kilombero irrigation scheme is located along the river kilombero a (tributary of river Rufiji in southern Tanzania, R. Kilombero) is close to the Great Ruaha River. Its water is pumped to supply overhead sprinkler irrigation.

Organization of the scheme

It has large estates or plantation of sugar and there are factories at Msolwa and Ruembe. Small scale farmers were allowed into the areas so as to ensure suffice\client supply of sugar cane for the factored. These farmers are called out growers. They were given 6000 hectares of land to cultivate and same agricultural facilities as well as extension services were made, available, three settlement villages were established and were located about 20km south of the Company sugar Estates. During the early stages of this schema (1960) European expatriates were involved and late local Tanzanian was tainted for running the project.

Aim of the scheme
1.To open up the remote and no prosperous area of southern Tanzania.
2.To improve the crop (sugar cane) yields, about 2800 hectares were put under irrigation where sugarcane has been being grown as the main crop on the estates by the state owned company and out. Other crops grown in the valley are rice, beans maize and vegetables with the help of irrigation. Fishing also is taking place.

Factors that Facilitated the Development of the scheme
1.The need to develop the rural areas of southern parts of Tanzania.
2.The available large land in the river basin with retile soil.
3.Reliable water supply from the river for irrigation and other uses.
4.People high need for sugar made it necessary for developing the scheme.
5.Availability of transport services for example the establishment of the TAZARA railway lines the development of the schema.

Advantages of the Scheme
1.There has been flood control and the river is helping man instead of working against him.
2.The scheme has stimulated  the development and maintenance of  the railways lines and roads.
3.Sugar production increased compared to the order time when the  supplies were so scarce and expensive.
4.There has been less dependency on the imported sugar and thus saving  foreign currency for Tanzania.
5. It opened up the remote areas like Msolwa and Ifakara by encouraging the construction of roads and railways to serve and link up the schema with coast.
6.It  has led to the creation of employment opportunities.
7.It has  promoted the life standard of the people (out growers) through assisting them by giving them felsites training.
8.The development and organizing the market for their crops  for example new towns like Kidatu, Makambako and Mikumi which offer social services to the people.
9.The company provides the expert advice to the farmers on how to plant, weed and protect crops. This means that it has encourages the development of technology among  the local people.
10.It has promoted the market for HEP from kidatu.
11.Timber  and fishing industry have developed as a result of the utilization of the valley.

Problems facing the scheme;
1.   Poor labor supply due to rural – urban migration.
2.  Diseases like cholera and malaria affect the farmer and  hence failed to help effectively in development of the scheme.
3.  The climatic problems like drought have been affecting water availability. Sometimes the volume of water in the rivers decreases
4.  There are transport problem prevailing since the roads and bridge are not well constructed.  Hence during wet season the areas in not well accessible.

Prospects of the Project
The government has a great intention of developing the valley so that it can be more productive than it is today. In achieving the goal the following will have to be done;
1.  Constructing more dams for  retaining water all the year round.
2.  Maintaining the roads and modifying them to a better standard.
3.  Training the local people on other activities than sugar product only so that the valley can be for diversified economic activities  like fishing, timber production, wild life conservation and mining.

Importance of rivers, dams and lakes;
1.  River  help  in the generation of HEP like at kihansi on the kilombero River Mtera and Kidatu on the Great Ruaha and Nyumba ya Mungu on the Pangani River and the Kariba dam, etc.
2.  They promote transport and communication in the country.
3.  They supply water for irrigation, domestic uses and industrial activities.
4.  They modify the environment like introducing moisture to the atmosphere, which later leads to the formation of rainfall.
5.  They attract  settlement due to the supply of water  and good soil.
6.The features like water falls in the rivers attract tourism.
7.River  act as boundaries such as Ruvuma between Tanzania and  Mozambique’s and Kagera between Tanzania and Rwanda as well as Uganda.
8.They promote the  fishing industry.

Problems of rivers dams and lakes;
1.Fluctuation of the  river  volume  due to the excessive evaporation.

River Basin Development
1.   There are problems of cataracts, rapids and waterfalls, which bring problems in navigation.
2.   The invasion of vegetation in these water lead to problems in fishing and navigation.
3.  Some of the rivers have short courses such that these rivers cannot contain enough water for economic uses.
4.  Also some river directions are such that they drain water away from the place which need that water for irrigation and hence end up emptying water in the ocean.
5.   These water bodies lead to the spread of disease like e.g. bilharzias.
6.  Some cause conflicts especially when the rivers are shared by many countries like Nile, Ruvuma and the Kagera
7.  Flooding of the rivers loads to destruction of property soil erosion and the spread of diseases.

1.   What are the advantages of the river basin development schemes?
2.   Mention five disadvantages of the river basin development schemes in Africa.
3.  Mention six River Basin Development schemes in Africa.
4.  What is the basic requirement for developing the River Basin Development scheme?
5.  Mention the factors that facilitated the development of Punjab Agricultural Scheme in the Indus River basin.
6.  Outline the factors that hinder the development of the River basin Schemes in Tanzania.
7.Mention the problems caused by the River development Schemes in any country you have discussed.
8.  Identify the advantages of the following river basin development schemes.
(a)  The Kagera River Basin International Development Scheme.
(b)  The Kilombero River Basin Development Scheme.
9.  Show five achievements the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) attained in development of the Tennessee Valley.
10.Explain four benefits the small holder farmers get from the Kilombero River Basin Development Scheme.

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