GEOGRAPHY FORM SIX:TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

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TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

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This post is all about transport and communication topic for form six

Transport means the movement of goods, people and services from once place to another place. Transport is an important aid to trade.

   Importance of Transport

1.      It can make goods available where they are demanded.

2.      It facilitates mass production by enhancing supply of raw material movement of goods to the market, and necessary equipment for production.

3.      Transport is one of factors, which improves trade relations within economic units.

4.      It leads to the intensification of unity among the nations.

5.      Leads to the spread of technology since transport facilitates communication between different places.

Types/forms of Transport

There are three main types/forms of transport. These include:

1.      Land transport.

(a)  Human portage

(b)  Animal transport

(c)  Road transport

(d)  Railway transport

(e)  Pipeline

2.      Water transport

3.      Air transport

 

1. LAND TRANSPORT

a. Human portage

It is the most common type of transport used by the majority of the people in various parts of the world. This is because most of the parts in the world are remote, severely lacking capital and skills to put in place the modern methods of transport. A person who carries things is called as a porter.

Human portage has an advantage of being used where other forms of modern transport cannot be used. For instance in the mountainous or swampy areas.

Disadvantages are that it is extremely slow and laborious to the user. It is therefore, not very development to the country.

b. Animal Transport

It’s the form of transport, which involves the use of animal and is not so well developed in many parts of the world it is commonly used in those areas, which are wild and hostile so that other means of transport are hard or difficult to be used. The animals commonly used may include camels, donkeys, horses, cattle; dogs’ etc. animal can be used for riding as well as carrying or pulling loads. These animals, which are involved in this type of transport, are referred to as draught animals.

Advantages;

1.      Animals are quicker than human being.

2.      They carry heavier and larger loads than human being.

3.      Animals are capable of being used in adverse (hard or hostile) condition like desert and waterlogged region.

4.      It is relatively cheap and more developmental than human portage.

 

      c. Road Transport

Road transport involves the use of vehicles, motorcycles, and so on. It is well developed in various parts of the world. The best example of well-developed road network is in Germany. In Africa; It is South Africa which has the best road network in the eastern part of the country due to mining, industrial development, trade and agriculture.  In Tanzania and East Africa at large, road transport is the most important and it will continue to play a vital role in the economic development of the countries.

Advantages of Road Transport;

1.      Road transport is flexible. It can be constructed to many places and can serve even individual homesteads.

2.      Road transport offers a variety of transport facilitate giving a customer a wider choice of the type of facility to use. For example the facilities can be trucks,  taxis buses etc.

3.      It is faster and cheaper at shorter distances.

4.      It is suitable for delivering perishable goods for short distance e.g. Vegetables, milk fruits and so on.

5.      Road transport is easy to construct and run compared to railway transport.

6.      Vehicles that run to the road do not need to run on time schedule like trains and planes. But schedule can be involved at a minimal extent with buses.

Disadvantages (Short comings);

1.      It handles a specific and limited amount of goods.

2.      Usually heavy loaded lorries are too slow to cover up the expected distance.

3.     It is too risky especially for delicate goods. This can cause breakage or destruction goods like computers and glass materials causing a great loss.

4.      Weather conditions tend to disrupt road transport especially during the rainy season.

5.      It is highly susceptible to attacks by highway robbers on the way.

6.      Road transport has led to the increase of road accidents leading to the loss lives of many people.

7.     Road transport usually because of being too congested (traffic jam) in the urban areas may end up being very expensive and deterrent to the users.

8.      Transport facilities have contributed to air and water pollution in the worlds.

9.      Construction of roads encourages land degradation.

 

ROAD TRANSPORT IN GERMANY

Germany especially West Germany has the most advanced road network.

The road network is characterized by modern system of motorways (Highways). The importance of roads in Germany has increased as a result the explosion in car ownership. Germany leads with the total of over 20 million automobiles and for every three people in the country there is one car unlike in India where for every 800 people there is one car. Other factors that have stimulated the development of roads in Germany are fast industrial development, advanced technology in road construction the mining industry and the development of tourism.

Problems which have been caused by the rapid development road network include congestion and road accident as well as air pollution which have led to the occurrence of acidic rain.

One of solution to these problems includes the construction of the wider motorways that run from Germany high-speed freeways with total length of about 11,000km (68,000mile). The motorways are relatively new form of transport. They tend to radiate from the capital cities. They began being constructed before the constructed before the World War II by Hitler for military reasons; Hitler was responsible for the construction of 3,200km of highways (autobahns). But by that time they were narrow while nowadays have been widened and the network enlarged. These roads are straight and cut directly through a country. They have a good surface and hence they facilitate efficient transportation with reduced chances of the occurrence of accidents.

 Characteristics of Roads in Africa

1.      Most of them are untracked and are not all water roads. Most of them can be used during the dry season and stop being used in the wet season.

2.   They are not evenly distributed. The dense network is in areas which are economically potential, e.g. mining areas towns due to market industrial areas or politically influential like the administrative headquarters or capital cities.

3.      Most of road were built during the colonial period and few have been added by the local governments.

4.      They connect different nations and region but interconnection between local areas is poor.

d. Railways Transport

This involves the carrying of goods and passengers by train. Today railway transport has become an important means to transporting bulky goods. This has been a result of rapid industrial development in various parts of the world, where bulky raw materials and finished products have to be transported for long distance. Railway transport has also become an important of transport in Western Europe due to traffic congestion of various vehicles, which slows down greatly people’s movement.

Railways Transport

Advantages of Railway Transport

1.      It is suitable and relatively cheaper for transporting bulky commodities or goods over long distances.

2.      It is less affected by unpredictable weather condition if is well constructed.

3.      Once the railway has been constructed, Its operating costs are very low and hence freight charges are usually lower, over long distance than those charged by the roads for most commodities.

4.      More loads and a greater number of people can be transported at a single journey compared to road and air transport systems.
Disadvantages of Railway Transport

1.      The railways are expensive to build. A lot of money is required to lay down the lines and all other facilities e.g. stations warehouses etc.

2.      It is not flexible like transport. Only areas with railways line are the ones that can be served. Also door to door service cannot be done with the railway transport.

3.    It is not suitable for commodities, which are perishable, like milk and vegetables or goods which are urgently needed like medicine newspapers and so on.

4.      Rail transport is not mostly efficient and time conserving. Especially in the developing world, train services are too slow and backward.

5.      Because of strictly adhering to time schedule, sometimes it may cause some inconveniences and delays.

6.      Rail transport is a bit costly in terms of equipment rail setting and train purchasing and maintenance.

7.    The gauge of the railway lines vary from one place in some places the gauge range from 1.5 – 1.7 meters while other is as narrow as 1metre. Many parts of Africa have narrow gauges.

The railways are expensive to build
The railways are expensive to build

Characteristics of Railways Transport in Africa

1.      The railway lines are running parallel to each other with little or no interconnection within local areas.

2.      Most of them are running from the areas with economic importance to the coastal areas for export. For example – Ghana has a railway line running from Sekondi to the Tarkwa gold mining area, sierra Leone has a railway line which runs from Freetown. To Pendembo which was mainly to serve the oil-palm growing areas, Liberia had a railway line which was built to serve the iron-ore mining area in the interior. It runs from Monrovia to Rome hills. In Tanzania the central line runs from Mwanza (the source of raw materials and minerals, Kigoma and Rukwa the source of labor and minerals.

3.      The railway lines are unevenly distributed. Some areas are better served and other is not. Good railway network is found in South Africa in the Eastern part.

Hence, in many parts of Africa there is a close relationship between railways and the location of mineral or areas of economic importance like mining areas agricultural areas labor reserves, etc.

Example of railway line is TAZARA railway line running from Dar es Salaam – Tanzania to Kapirimposhi – Zambia and the central line from Dar es Salaam to Mwanza, Kigoma and Mpanda.

RAILWAYS TRANSPORT IN SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa has the most advanced railway network in Africa. This is concentrated in the eastern part of the country due to the presence of mineral deposits. Good agricultural land and presence of many industries. Railway construction began at Cape Town in 1859 and today a large portion of it is electrified. It is estimated that South Africa Railway handle more than a half of the total railway freight in Africa and covers within the territory a distance of more than 21773 km.

Advantage of Railway in South Africa

The railway system has stimulated industrial development, mining industry, development of town like Johannesburg, development of tourism in the country, increased mobility of the people expansion of market both internal and external the railway is used in the distribution of goods within the country and ferrying goods to the ports for export, it has facilitated the process of administration and information flow in the country.

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

 

PIPELINES
These are type of pipes constructed to carry liquid material such a oil.Example of these pipeline is the TAZAMA which is jointly owned by Tanzania and Zambia carries oil from Dares salaam to Ndola in Zambia OR Is the transportation of good through a pipe.

PIPELINES
PIPELINES

Pipelines constitute another form of transport system which has grown in importance since the formation of the customs union in Europe.

 

Pipelines carry liquids especially oil. In Tanzania TAZAMA is an example of the pipeline which runs from Dar es Salaam oil refinery (TIPPER) to Ndola in Zambia which is 1700km. In Kenya the pipeline managed by Kenya Pipeline Company extends from Oil refinery near Mombasa to Nairobi covering a distance of some 450 km.

Tanzania–Zambia Pipeline
Tanzania–Zambia Pipeline

 

Advantages

  • It involves low unit costs and easy to maintain.
  • There is no physical barriers.
  • It has high ability to  cover long distances.
  • Where volume and market demand is sufficiently great and stead pipelines are more economical than forms of transportation.
  • There is low rate of risk unlike tankers.
  • It is very reliable.

 

 Factors Limiting the Construction of Pipelines in Africa are:

 

  • Low or lack of capital to be invested in the construction of the pipelines.
  • High costs of construction are also a limiting factor.
  • Poor cooperation between or among the countries in Africa.
  • Political instability in different countries which lead to the outbreak, conflict like civil wars. These lead to the destruction of the pipelines and   consume a lot of money could be invested in the construction of the pipelines.
  • Lack of reliable deposits especially in Tanzania and other East Africa countries.
  • Low technology among the Africans.

 

Economic Importance of the Pipelines in East Africa

  •  They have stimulated industrial development because of stimulating the supply of fuel oil in the countries.Example construction of industries in Mtwara region due to presence of gases pipeline.
  •  They have stimulated the development of trade between the countries sharing the pipelines. For example Tanzania has established strong relationship with Zambia because of sharing the TAZAMA pipeline.
  •  They have led to the creation of employment in the refineries and the industries developed of the better supply of oil through the pipelines.
  •   Also the life standard of the people in the countries has improved due to fuel supply.
  •   Pipelines have cut down costs of transportation.

 

2. WATER TRANSPORT

Considering the geographical location of continents water transport is the most convenient means of handling the movement of goods between continents. This type of transport has been used from earliest times. This type of transport can be divided into two sub-divisions that are inland water transport and ocean transport.

WATER TRANSPORT
WATER TRANSPORT

Inland water transport involves the use of river lakes and canals. Ocean water transport involves the use of seas and oceans. The facilities that are involved in water transport are ship, boats, canoes etc.

Advantage of Water Transport

1.      Water transport is cheap since there are no costs of constructing waterways unlike railways and roads.

2.      Water navigation facilities such as port tugs and lighthouses do not need frequent repairs and maintenance.

3.      It carries heavy and bulky goods over a long distance.

4.      Usually little time is wasted of traffic control unlike is other forms of transport.

5.    Is suitable for the transportation of fragile or breakable goods e.g. glass, since there will be very limited shaking and jolting on the waterways.

6.    Usually costs of collection and delivery are minimized especially where the ports of dispatch are in the same waterside.

7.       There is limited chance of robbers unlike in the case of highways of either roads or railways.

8.     Facilitate the development of industries by enhancing the supply of raw materials.

Disadvantages of Water Transport;

1.      Perishable or urgently required goods such as newspaper cannot be transported through this means to final consumer.

2.      If there is use of water canals’, these are greatly affected by the dry season.

3.      Water transport system cannot be constructed anywhere. It is specific in areas with water bodies while roads and railways can be established in many areas.

4.      There is a problem of strong winds, which greatly interfere with the shipping schedules.

5.      There are dangerous animals like crocodiles and hippopotamus, which affect the lives of the people.

 

MARINE TRANSPORT IN JAPAN

Marine transport in Japan is highly developed. It has different types of ship like liner for passengers; Cargo liners use for both passengers and general cargo and follow the scheduled routes. Bulk cargo ship for large cargo like oil iron ore wheat grain and have mechanized loading and unloading for example oil tankers which include super tankers there also container ships which use containers for carrying goods and loading is done by fork lift truck; The advantages of containers includes low costs and reduction of breakages, Other ships include Tramp Cargo ships, which carry assorted cargo and they call at any port. These have no specific sailing dates. Finally there is several fishing vessels fitted with refrigerators pilot vessels etc.

MARINE TRANSPORT IN JAPAN
MARINE TRANSPORT IN JAPAN

The Development of Marine Transport in Japan has been facilitated by the Following Factors:

1.      Presence of many indentations along the coast, which have provided the sites for the development of ports in the country. The coast is long totaling some 29,750km (18,490) miles major harbors have developed at the bays like Tokyo pay between Tokyo and Yokohama, Osaka bay at Kobe Osaka metropolis, Tse bay near Nagoya etc.

2.      The expansion of the fishing industry has encouraged the development of marine Transport which has been facilitating the shipping of fish products to the country itself or to other country’s overseas. The Japanese are highly depending on marine products for their development since they have poor availability of land resource and the physical landscape in the interior has forced people to locate their settlement along the coast.

3.      Land reclamation along the coast has created more land for the establishment of harbors.

4.      The need to import some raw materials from other countries for the industrial development has facilitated the development of marine transport. Japan has limited mineral deposits hence it has been importing some raw material from other countries for her industries. It imports iron uranium etc for her industrial development. So the marine transport development could provide cheap transport for the imported goods and save some foreign currency.

5.    The presence of shipbuilding industry has promoted the development of marine transport in Japan since Japan produces.

6.  Advanced technology and the per-existing experience of sailing among the Japanese have made the development of made the development of marine transport.

7.      The location of the country (being surrounded by the sea) has made Japan develop the Marine transport.

8.      The strong need to expand trade by creating external market has also stimulated the development of marine transport. This happened because of the fast development of manufacturing industry in the country, which led to high production of goods that became more than the local demand.

9.      The presence of forests in the country has also provided timber for the construction of ships in the country.

10.The availability of capital that made the government invests in the marine transport.

 

Contribution of Marine Transport to the Development of the Economy in Japan

1.      It has stimulated the further development of the fishing industry in Japan. Both offshore and deep ocean fishing takes place.

2.   It has encouraged the development industries since the raw materials are imported easily from other countries.

3.      It has led to the expansion of market for the industrial goods produced in the country. The ship is used in transporting the goods to another country at low cost.

4.    Marine transport has also expanded the international relationship with other countries.

5.It has also encouraged the intensification of research activities and further diffusion of technology in the country.

6. The major problem facing the marine transport in Japan is the frequent occurrence of earthquake since the country lies in the zone of convergence of tectonic plates. For example in 1995 there occurred a severe earthquake at Kobe that disturbed the coastal areas and this threat still exists.

7. Marine transport has contributed to environmental pollution especially water pollution and land deforestation as well as overfishing.

 

THE ST. LAWRENCE SEA WAY

This is one of the largest water in the world. It is formed by the great lakes of North America i.e. Lake Superior, Michigan, Erie, Huron and Ontario which are dreamed by the St. Lawrence River. It is shared by both Canada and the USA. The route covers 3,800 kilometers stretching from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast to the port Duluth on the Lake Superior. The 50 kilometer long Wetland canal provides a link between Lakes Ontario and Lake Erie. Lake Huron and Erie are linked by St. Clair and Detroit River whose channels are drained frequently to improve their navigability. Lake Michigan and Huron are at the same level by a strait. The Lake Michigan lines entirely in the USA while other are on the border of the USA and Canada. The Soo Canal or Sault St. Marie Canal bypasses rapids on the St. Mary’s River to facilitate navigation between Lakes Huron and Superior.

THE ST. LAWRENCE SEA WAY
THE ST. LAWRENCE SEA WAY

The construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway Project started in 1954 and ended in 1958. The four years sea way project was jointly set up by the Governments of USA and Canal with following purposes:

1.      To remove rock shoal rapids, several Island and fall so as to make the river navigable. These hampered navigation in the river.

2.      To check the problem of shallow water in some areas by deepening the river channel.

3.      To remove silting caused by the delta deposition between lakes Erie and Huron

4.      To remove differences in the lake levels.

5.      To enlarge the course of the river so as to accommodate ocean going ship. This involved the widening of some section of the river where it was too narrow.

6.      To construct dams so as to generate hydroelectric power and regulate the river flow.

Development of the Sea Way

The work of developing the sea way involved the following

1.      The building of locks and dams to remove rapids and materials.

2.      Dredging to widen and deepen the river as the need dictated.

3.    The building of the canal to join lakes Erie and Ontario. The building of the canal was undertaken while preserving the Niagara Fall, a source of HEP and tourism attraction.

Between 1954 – 1958 the obstacles were removed. A thousand island which formed shallow rocky areas were removed. The rock shoals were removed by blasting. Several dams and locks were built. The numerous rapids, like Lachine and long Sault, were drowned by the water reservoirs formed behind the dams. The removal of these obstacles enable ocean going ships to use the inland water way.

The Work of the Sea Faced Some Problems as Follows:

1.      The USA was unwilling to share the costs. Furthermore the USA feared the importance of New York would decline as a result of opening up of the seaway.

2.      Land was lost where the river was widened causing displacement of many people who had to be resettled.

3.      The December to April winter freeze meant that ice-breakers had to be used on the seaway.

Despite the problems Encountered During the construction of the project, the St. Lawrence Sea way has brought several benefit:

1.    There has been a huge increase in the total trade passing through the seaway. The 3,800 kilometer inland water stretch has increased trade between the USA and Canada and the rest the world. Iron ore from Mesabi Range, West of Lake Superior is transported through the route to the Pittsburgh industrial area for use in the iron and steel industry. Other commodities transported along this water way include copper, wheat and timber. The flow of traffic from inland is more than the ones going upstream.

2.      It has encouraged the growth of ports like Toronto.

3.     There has been development of towns like Quebec and Montreal.

4.   There has been growth of agricultural production. Truck farming or market gardening is well developed to serve the urban population.

5.      Ease of transport: The removal of various bottlenecks on the route made it possible for the ocean liners to reach the interior parts of North America. The seven locks and the two dams (Iroquois and Cornwall) on St. Lawrence – Sea way ensure the regulation of the flow of water. Furthermore, canal form good links with lakes, thus increasing the volume of cargo, which passes through the route. A total of more than 3,700km of the seaway is open for ocean going ship.

6.  HEP is available for the people and the power has stimulated industry growth. Four dams on the St. Lawrence Sea way (Moses Saunders and Beauharnais), Niagara Fall and Sault St. Marie generate electric power, which is used in homes and industries.

7.      Costs of transportation especially of the bulky goods (iron, coal, grains) have been greatly reduced.

8.      Foreign ships pay toll charges, which go to the government of the USA and Canada.

9.      The seaway is the model for cooperation between countries.

10.  It has added to the tourism attraction in the countries. St. Lawrence has the world spectacular waterfall, the Niagara Fall. This waterfall attracts a lot of tourism and generates plenty of hydroelectric power from Canada and the USA.

11.It has created employment opportunities in transport and industrial sector of the region. This has been due to the increase in the movement of raw materials and industrial products.

ST LAWRENCE SEA WAY.

 

3. AIR TRANSPORT
It involved the use of vehicles,bicycle and motorcycle

Air transport is the latest and the faster means of transport in most countries. It is usually confined to urgent cases. The first successful air flight was made by the American Wright brothers in 1903. Great development has taken place since then. Aeroplanes were developed for military purpose during the first war. But nowadays they are used for transporting goods and passengers.

AIR TRANSPORT
AIR TRANSPORT

 Advantages of Air Transport;

1.      It is the fastest means of transport, therefore useful for urgent cases and transportation of perishable goods.

2.      It leads to low risk of damage since there is not rough movement and goods do not stay long in transit.

3.      It is free of physical barrier (Sea Mountain etc) and hence it is free to go in any direction.

4.      It is comfortable and less tiresome especially where one is required to travel greater distances.

5.      Operation of air transport are on schedule and this ensure no time wasting.

6.      Planes play a major role in providing relief in major disaster areas where other forms of transport are absent or unable to reach. For example during floods, droughts, epidemics and earthquake, rescuer personnel and food can quickly be airlifted to the affected area.

7.      Air transport has facilitated tourism in different parts of the world like in Western USA.

8.      It has facilitated the transfer of technology from the developed countries to the developing countries.

9.      It has also led to the strengthening of international relationship among the countries.

Shortcomings of Air Transport;

1.      It can’t transport bulky or heavy goods or poorly packed goods.

2.      Dangerous commodities such as those which are likely to cause fire (e.g. petrol, paraffin etc) are transported using air means.

3.      Usually weather conditions like fog or mist greatly interfere with the schedules compared to other means of transport.

4.      Construction of air-field (airport) is usually expensive.

5.      Air transport service involves expensive fares such that ordinary people cannot afford.

6.      Usually considerable time is wasted in air traffic control over the airfield e.g. cheeping, booking etc.

7.    During accidents there is very little chance for survival. Therefore it has contributed to the loss of life of many people in the world.

8.      It faces problems of hijacking like what happened in USA on 11 September 2001 where the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon building in Washington were horrendously destroyed leading to the loss of many people’s lives.

9.      The airport are normally built far from towns, therefore time is lost in taking goods to the airport.

10.  It contributed to the air pollution as a result of the burning of fuel and emission of greenhouse gases.

11. There is limited freedom of air since many nations claim all the air space over their territory. Foreign planes cannot use this space without permission to obtain flying right is often a long and expensive battle.

 

AIR TRANSPORT IN THE USA

Air transport is highly developed in the USA and ranks at the top position in the world. The first successful flight was made by American Wright Brothers in 1903 and later after the World War I more production started and air transport expanded fast. The USA is the largest producer of aircraft in the world with industries near Los Angels, at Seattle (on the Pacific Coast). This has contributed to the development of money airports in the country.

 

Factors that Facilitated the Development of Air Transport in the USA

Physical Factors;

1.   The size of the land is so extensive that the government saw the need of establishing the air transport in order to facilitate mobility in the country. For example from New York to Los Angels is over 2500km such a long distance has propelled the development of air transport.

2.    The need to avoid physical barriers like water bodies, mountains, rift valleys and vegetation so as to promote an international contact.

There are mountains like the Rockies and Appalachians which act as barriers to land transport.

 

1.  Pre-existing technical advancement and Military demand during the World War I encouraged the fast aircraft industries development. This has facilitated the rapid development of air transport in the USA.

2.The strong need for space exploitation also has promoted the air transport.

3.The need for speedy transport especially when there are urgent cases like rescoring people from flood of earthquakes, sending medicine or taking the sick people very far across the continents and international leaders, sending perishable goods like milk, fish, vegetables as well as fresh fruit and the growth of package holidays since 1960’s associated with the increase in tourism.

4.Advanced researches in air transport facilities.

5.The fast and large-scale agricultural development has led to the need of aircraft in spraying large tracks especially the plantations.

6.Availability of capital to be invested in the establishment of airports and manufacturing of aircraft. This has greatly been possible due to the advanced economic level of the country.

7.High per capital income or high living standards justify the use of air transport. This is due to the fact that, despite being relatively costly, people can afford the air transport.

8.The manufacture of aircraft facilities in the country and the presence of many airports.

Problems facing the Development of Air Transport in East Africa;

1.      There are few airfield.

2.      Establishing airports is very expensive.

3.      Low capital since many people is poor and hence they cannot afford this type of transport.

4.      Low capital availability.

5.      There are no local industries for producing planes.

 

COMMUNICATION

Is the exchange of information or message between people. It can also be defined as the process of passing information from one part to another part. Transport and communication are so related since through transportation, information can move from one place to another place. This means that transportation facilitates communication.

COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION

There are channels of Communication that is Oral, Written and Visual.

1.     Oral Communication is the method through which people contact one another through telephone, radio, face to face conversation, and recorded message.

2.     Written communication involves the transmission of information in written form like letters, parcels, post cards, telegrams, e-mails, telex, fax, etc.

3.Visual Communication includes passing information through charts, photographs, films and graphs. Sometime these channels can be combined for example oral and visual can form audio visual communication etc.

  Oral Communication
Oral Communication

The Role or Significance Communication;

1.      It has led to the spread or dissemination of ideas and information on various aspects of a human society.

2.      It has lessened the isolation of remote places especially telecommunication and radios.

3.      It has enhanced the ability to warn of disasters and to organize relief or rescue more rapidly.

4.  It has greatly assisted in the promotion of trade by allowing shipping firms to direct their vessels by transmitting news using radio, Television and newspapers.

5.      Radio and Television have become important in the entertainment aspect.

6.      Communication helps in spreading education and promotion of technology.

7.  It has a big role to play in the political matters all over the world. Leaders use different means of communication to speak to their people and mobilized them for the general human and economic development.

8.      It has instilled sense of competition since people keep track of events around the globe.

9.  It has been used in enhancing gender equality through education and reducing violence in the societies.

10. Communication is used encouraging people on the necessity of facing different challenges.

Wasafi Tv
Wasafi Tv

Disadvantages of Communication;

1.   It can lead to disunity or conflict among the people especially when negative information or report on people are passed from one place to another.

2.      It is always affected by distortion and fallacies.

3.      It is costly especially telephone such that few people in the country like Tanzania can afford.

4.      Establishing communication lines needs high capital.

5.    The services are supplied unevenly. Some places are better served due to their economic importance than other places.

6.    It helps in spreading immoral value in the societies hence encouraging the evil activities like prostitution etc.

 

Problems Facing Communication in the Developing Countries;

1.      There is lack of capital to be invested in the communication industry.

2.      Illiteracy in some areas hinders the development of the communication system as the flow of information.

3.     There is low technical know-how among the people and poor equipment to carry out research.

4.  There is poor transport network which to leads to inefficient information flow because of the reduced people’s mobility.

5.    Low income among the people is another hindrance facing the development of transport and communication systems.

6.Low volume of trade in some countries discourages the development of transport and communication network.

 

Solution to the Problems that Face Communication in Kenya;

1.      Borrowing from friendly countries and international institutions so as to finance communication networks.

2.    Training institutions are being established to provide the necessary personnel, e.g. the school of Journalism, Kenya institute of Mass communication Railway Training School and Post Office Training School.

3.      Adult education and low cost education system are being adopted to reduce illiteracy.

4.      Diversification of production is being encouraged in order to boost incomes.

5.      Emphasis is being laid on small scale industries so as to improve earnings of the people.

6.      Import restrictions are being reduced or removed to allow the importation of communication components.

7.    Local industries are being encouraged to produce spare to meet the local demand for communication gadgets.

 

COMMUNICATION IN THE USA

The USA has the most developed communication network in the world. She has Over 70 telephones per hundred people, has the largest number of radios, has high number of television station, has the highest number of newspaper, has an advanced and highly precise satellite network covering the whole world.

 

Q. Account for such great advancement in communication network in the USA.

These can subdivided into physical, political and human factors.

A. Physical Factors;

1.  Relief: Distance and relief features like mountains; escarpment plateaus etc affect the cost and possibility of building the lines of communication. Where the land is flat transport and communication develops easily and involves low costs.

2.Earth’s movement like earthquakes, faulting and volcanic lead to the difficulties in developing transport and communication system. These movement can also destroy the existing transport system develop the transport and communication systems.

3.Climate is another factor which determines the development of transport and communication. The areas which experience heavy rains like the Congo area and Amazon lead to poor transport development.

B. Political Factors;

Political factor influence the development of transport and communication in the country. The governments can therefore decide on the development of transport and communication system in their respective countries.

Also the country with peace experiences smooth development in the country but where there is no peace the development becomes slow and the existing means of transport and communication can be destroyed due to the lack of peace in certain country.

C. Economic factors;

Development of transport and communication system takes place fast where there is enough capital. But lack of capital leads to poor development of transport and communication while the areas which are not having enough resources experience poor development of transport and communication.

 

Importance of Transport and Communication

1.   They encourage the development of industries through the supply of raw materials and transportation of manufactured goods to the market or consumers.

2.      They create employment in the country. For example some people are employed as drivers, station master etc.

3.      They facilitate the spread technology in the country.

4.      Enhances the accessibility of places.

5.      They lead to the promotion of trade in the world.

6.      Transport and communication encourages the development of tourism in the country.

 

Negative Effects Transport and Communication;

1.      Transport leads to accidents especially in the roads, water and air.

2.      Transport and communication facilitate terrorism in the world.

3.  Construction of transport and communication system leads to the decline of other sectors because of involving high capital investment.

4.      Also the construction leads to the destruction of people’s properties and displacement of people for the sake of laying the transportation and communication lines across certain area.

 

Problems Facing Transport and Communication in Africa;

1.      Low capital for investing in the development of transport and communication system.

2.      Remoteness is another problem. Some places are so remote such that they are not accessible easily.

3.   Political conflicts lead to the destruction of transport and communication lines. They can also limit the construction of the communication lines

4.  Climatic condition like very heavy rains leading to floods affects the development of transport and communication systems.

5.    Land lockedness leads to high costs since landlocked countries have to pass through other countries when exporting or importing their goods. This causes high costs to the transporting from the societies lead to poor communication among the people in the country.

6.      Restriction involved in the gathering information from the societies lead to poor communication among the people in the country.

7.      Transport and communication facilities are costly hence some people cannot afford the costs.

8.   The variation in language between different places is another problem. This leads to poor understanding between the people concerned.

9.  Other problems include physical feature like mountains with steep slope and swamps, which limit the construction of the infrastructure and movement of transport facilities.

10. Cost of repair of the old facilities and the transport and communication lines are high.

physical feature like mountains
physical feature like mountains

Future Prospects of Transport and Communication in Tanzania

The success in the development of transport and communication in Tanzania  will depend on the following factors:

1.  The great government concern in the development of new transport and communication systems like roads, railway lines, telecommunication systems and radio stations. The government has started encouraging the development of this sector in different places. For example there are places where new roads are being constructed and in other places the old roads are being improved especially by widening like the Morogoro road. There is a strong need of switching from single – tract network to double-track network in order to reduce the problems of delays and increase efficiency.

2.   Involvement of the local people and the private sector in the development of the transport system and the maintenance of the existing transport systems.

3.      Expansion of both internal and external trade. These will necessitate the development or improvement of the transport system in order to enhance the distribution of goods and services.

4.      The development of other economic sectors like manufacturing industries, tourism, mining and agriculture.

5.      Improvement in the safety standards in the transport systems especially by careful driving, repair of cars etc.

6.      Education to the users of the infrastructures so that they can have the sense of responsibility in the proper use of the roads, railways lines, etc.

7.      Proper urban planning and settlement schemes in order that there can be enough room for the development of the good roads, railway line, etc.

8.    Control on the variation in the types of cars. Once the cars are so variant; they bring the problems of obtaining different types of spare parts to be used in the cars.

       REVISION QUESTIONS

1.      Define the following terms:

a)     Transport

b)     Communication

2.      How does transport differ from communication?

3.      Identify different types of transport and explain the advantage of each type.

4.      Show the importance of transport and communication in the development of the country.

5.      Explain the pattern of railways system in Africa.

6.      Identify different types of communication used in Tanzania.

7.      What are the advantages of communication to the country like Tanzania?

8.      Identify the factors limiting the development of transport and communication in Tanzania.

9.      How can Tanzania improve its Transport and communication systems?

10.  Show the contribution of pipelines to the economy of Tanzania.

11.  Outline the problems facing the pipeline transportation system in Africa.

12.  What are the factors affecting the development of transport and communication in any country?

13.  Show the role of different communication media (means of communication) in Tanzania.

14.  Explain how negative and positive reporting on women affairs can affect their status in the society.

15.  Show how positive reporting can lead to the reduction in gender inequality in the society.

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