Geography Solving Examination 2009
PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY
- For each of the items (i) – (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.
(i) The solar system is made up of
- sun, planets and interplanetary gases B. atmosphere and hydrosphere C. planets, clouds and gases D. clouds wind and gases E. sunlight, gases, wind and clouds. Answer= A
(ii) If the time recorded at time X, 45°E was 9.00 a.m. what could be the longitude of Y at 3.00 a.m.
- 90°W B. 45°W C. 15°E D. 90°E E. 75°W Answer= B
(iii) Lunar eclipse occurs because
- the moon comes between the earth and the sun B. the earth comes between the moon and the sun C. the earth rotates from west to east D. the sun comes between the moon and the earth
E the moon, the earth and the sun are in rotation. Answer= B
(iv) About 98% of the matter making the sun is
- light and heat B. heavier elements C. stars and other heavenly bodies D. lighter elements of hydrogen and helium E. gases, heat and sun ray. Answer= A
(v) Absence of drainage on the surface in the limestone region is the direct result of
- very low rains in the area B. Presence of swallow holes C. the big rivers which swallow small rivers D. Presence of deep gorges E. presence of sound and big pores. Answer= B
(vi) The following are marine depositional features:
- Beach, lagoons and sand spits B. Beach, fringing reef and stump C. Beach, stump and atoll
- Tombolo, delta and headland E. Headland, geo and stacks. Answer= A
(vii) Why do two different countries located in different latitudes or hemispheres experience similar type of natural vegetation? It is because of
A their positions which are very far B similar traditions of the people living in those areas C the same type of climate D same onshore prevailing winds E fertile soils, good could cover and rains. Answer= D
(viii) ………. shows the soil’s grain size.
- Soil texture B. Soil structure C. Soil morphology D. Particle density E. Soil profile Answer= A
(ix) Temperate cyclones are characterized as follows:
- They are instruments with cycles for measuring temperature B. Have long hours of high temperature C. They are temperate winds which have a high speed D. They are low pressure centres which develop in temperate Latitudes E. They are strong temperate rains in the United States of America, Africa and the Congo basin. Answer= D
(x) A vertical cross-section of the soil showing its horizons is called
- soil erosion B. soil porosity C. soil profile D. soil PH E. soil catena. Answer= C
- Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response besides the item number
|LIST A||LIST B|
|(i) Intervisibility||A It determines the distance of a cross section|
|(ii) A Basin||B Weather station|
|(iii) Glaciers||C A catchment area of the river|
|(iv) Denudation||D Ox-bow lake|
|(v) Stevenson’s screen||E One of the sources of a river|
|F A screen showing precipitation|
|H Weathering and erosion|
|I Movement of the earth|
|J The ability to see between two given points|
- With the aid of diagrams, explain the types of moraines.
There are four types of moraine which are
(i). Terminal moraine
Terminal moraine refers to an irregular mound or ridge or drift, sometimes extending across country as a belt of low hills for hundreds of kilometers. It is formed by extensive deposition along the edge of an ice sheet, and may be more than 50m high. Large well formed Moraines develop where the ice front remained in one position for a long time due to a balance between melting and ice advance.
(ii). Ground moraine
Ground moraine refers to the moraine formed at the bottom of glacier.
(iii). Lateral moraine
Lateral moraine is the types of moraine which is formed along the side of glacier .
(iv). Medial moraine
Medial moraine is a moraine in the middle of a glacier parallel to its side that is often formed by the union of lateral moraines when to glaciers coalesce
APPLICATION OF STATISTICS, INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH AND ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
- Read carefully the climatic data for station A presented in the Table and answer the questions that follow:
|TEMP IN °C||26.6||26.6||26.6||26.6||26.6||26.6||27.2||27.7||28.3||28.3||27.7||27.7|
(i) Describe the climatic conditions of station A.
Climatic condition of station A is Equatorial climate (tropical rain forest climate) due to the following reasons
Climatic data has high temperature throughout the year with an average of 27.2°C.
Mean annual rainfall of 1692.
(ii) Name any two countries in the Great Lakes of East Africa which experience this type of climatic conditions.
The countries which experience Equatorial climatic condition in Great lakes of East Africa are Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo
(iii) Present the data graphically.
GRAPHICALLY REPRESENTATION OF CLIMATIC DATA FOR STATION A
- (a) What is research design?
Research Design is the frame work of research or research design reffered as the conceptual structure within which a research is conducted.
(b) Briefly explain any four (4) types of research-design.
The following are the four (4) explanation of types of research design.
(i). Experimental research design
Experiments research design this is the most appropriate in controlled settings such as laboratories, it assures random assigned to groups. It aims at exploring cause and effect relationship where causes can be manipulated to produce different kinds of effects.
(ii). Case and field research design
Case and field research design is called ethnographic research, it is used direct observation to give a complete snapshot of a case that is being studied. It is useful when not much is known about a phenomenon and uses a few subjects.
(iii). Correlation research design (Prospective)
Correlation research design is the types of research design aimed at exploring relationships to make predictions, it is uses one set of subjects with two or more variables for each.
(iv). Survey research design
Survey research design is the types of research design which describe and explain conditions of the present by using many subjectives and questionnaire to fully describe a phenomenon, also is referred as descriptive research.
- (a) Mary is a good cartographer, she intends to produce a contoured map of Dar es Salaam. What type of survey method would you advise her to apply?
Survey is the scientific and systematic measure of distance , height(altitude) and angles between various points on the ground. Or Survey is the process of observing and measuring in order to determine distance, position , boundaries and elevation of physical features on the land.
Types of survey I would like to advise Mary to use to produce contour map of Dar es salaam is Topographical survey because it used to measure contour map on the land.
(b) Apart from producing contour maps, what is the other significance of the type of survey you have mentioned in (a) above?
Other significance of topographical survey apart from producing contour map is to measure and plot physical features in their horizontal and vertical position.
MAP READING AND PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
- Carefully study the map extract of Galula provided then answer the following questions.
(a) Calculate the area of the forest in Km square north of northings 450.
AREA OF FOREST
calculating area using the square method
(i) Count the full square covered by Forest on a map
Full square= 23
(ii) Also count half square covered by Forest on a map and divide it by 2
Half square = 44÷2
(iii) Add full square and half square result obtained by divided half square by 2
(iv) Convert map area into actual area
Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km
Use this scale to calculate area of Forest ( 1cm=1/2km)
Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.
(1cm) square= (1/2) square
1cm square = 0.25km square
(v) find area of one square on the map.
To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.
Area of square = wxw
W= 2 so
Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare
(vi) find the area of Forest
1cm square =0.25 km square
4cm square = x
1xX= 4x 0.25
Convert 45 square into kilometre square
45x1km square= 49 km square
Therefore Area of Forest = 45km square.
(b) Calculate the length of River Ipwizi in Kilometres from grid reference 150508 to grid reference 125435.
To measure the length of the River Ipwizi using a sheet of paper.
By using a piece of paper the map distance of River Ipwizi is 20.2 cm
Scale on map = 1:50000
Change. 1:50000 into kilometers.
1km = 100000cm
X = 50000cm
100000x = 50000×1
x = 50000/100000
x =1/2 km (one a half)
So. 1Cm = 1/2 km
X= 10.1 km
Therefore the length of River Ipwizi in km from grid reference 150508 to 125435 is 10.1km
(c) Find the bearing of Tete Village (grid reference 127506) from Ifwekenye village (grid reference 160460).
The bearing of Tete village (grid reference 127506) from Ifwekenye village (grid reference 160460) is 330°NNW.
(d) Describe the main physical features found in the area.
Main physical features found in this area are
(i). Plain due to the area that show contours are far apart.
(ii). Hills- hills shown at 192473, 252466, 243476, 239449 grid refetences
(iii). Valley- valley shown at grid references 170490, 166507.
(iv). Escarpment – escarpments shown at grid references 270442, 173513.
(e) With evidence, show the main economic activities.
The following are the main activities shown on a map
(i). Fishing due to the presence of Ipwizi river on a map
(ii). Farming due to the presence of scattered cultivation on a map
(iii). Lumbering due to the presence of forest on a map
(iv). Pastoralism due to the presence of scrubs on a map
v). Irrigation due to the presence of Ipwizi rivet on a map.
- Study the photograph provided and then answer the questions that follow.
(i) What type of a photograph is this? Give reasons for your answer
The types of this photograph is Ground/ Horizontal photograph
Camera is at the same level as the object being photographed
Objects are clearly shown on this photograph.
The foreground and horizon seen on this photograph.
(ii) With evidence, suggest the type of climate of the place where this photograph was taken.
The types of climate of the place on this photograph is Savannah/Tropical / Sudan type climate.
Scattered trees and it contain grassland
(iii) What kind of activity is taking place in the area?
Activity taking place in the area is clearing of trees (deforestation )
(iv) What will happen if the activity in (iii) above takes place in your local environment?
The following will happen if the activity in (iii) above takes place in my local environment are
Loss of biodiversity
Soil erosion and land degradation.
REGIONAL FOCAL STUDIES
9.(a) What were the aims of constructing the Aswan High dam?
Aswan High dam is the dam across Nile River in Egypt which is construction completed on July July 21, 1970. It is located in Aswan in Egypt and utilizes the power of the river for a variety of social and economic causes.
The following are the aims of constructing the Aswan High dam was
(i). Production of hydro- electric power For both domestic and industrial uses.
(ii). Accelerate tourism activities to the Aswan high dam.
(iii). Fishing and fishing industries also have been developed
(iv). Control of floods near and along the Aswan dam.
(v). Navigation has been improved.
(b) If the dam were constructed at Kondoa, how would the people of central Tanzania benefit from it?
Kondoa District is one of the seven districts of the Dodoma Region of Tanzania. It is bordered to the north by Manyara Region, and to the south by Chemba District. Its district capital is the town of Kondoa.
The following are the benefit to the people If the dam were constructed at Kondoa
(i). Creation of employment opportunity
(ii). Development of fishing activities
(iii). Accelerate tourism activities
(iv). Flood control near or along Kondoa
(v). For irrigation purpose
- “Agriculture achievements in China have been brought about by good Government policy only.” Discuss.
Agriculture is the practice of farming which involves crop production and livestock rearing over the earth’s surface.
Over the last twenty five years, China has made huge progress in meeting its agricultural policy objectives: agricultural production has risen sharply, rural industries have absorbed a large part of farm labor, poverty has fallen dramatically, and the level and quality of food consumption has improved significantly.
Government policy made agriculture achievements in China by applied the following
(i) Adoption of green revolutionary by the the government
(ii) Government involvement in agriculture activities .
(iii). Development of infrastructure i.e transport and communication
(iv). Pests and diseases control.
(v). Chinese spirit of cooperation and hard work.
(vi). High population size in China
(vii) Good environment conservation measure
(viii). Availability of social services.
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, POPULATION AND SETTLEMENTS
- With vivid examples, explain the causes of population change in the Great lakes of East Africa.
Population refer to the number of people, animals and plants (living things) occupying a certain
Population change is the growth or decline in population i.e increase or decrease population can change by positive growth and negative growth.
The African Great Lakes are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.They include Lake Victoria, the second-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, and Lake Tanganyika, the world’s second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth.
The following are the causes of population causes in the great lake of East Africa.
(iii). Fertility rate
(iv). Mortality rate
(v). Good climatic conditions.
(vi) fishing activities around great lake in East Africa.
- Some lakes and rivers in Tanzania are likely to lose their aquatic resources. Suggest any five (5) ways on how to overcome this threat.
Aquatic resources refers to all resources found in the body of water example all organisms live in water such as fishes etc.
The following are the five (5) ways on how to overcome to lose their aquatic resources.
(i). Encouraging the use of proper fishing methods
(ii). Provision of education about importance of aquatic resources
(iii). Support organization working on protecting aquatic resources.
(iv). To discourage water pollution around lakes and rivers.
(v). Introduction of water recycling technology.