HISTORY FORM 1 TOPIC 4:DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

HISTORY FORM 1 TOPIC 4:DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

 

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Kinship Of Clan Organization

The Meaning of the Kinship or Clans

explain the meaning of the kinship or clan

Prior to European colonisation in the late 19th century, Africa had a very long history of state building as well as a rich variety of social formations that were decentralised or stateless.

The Social, Political and Economic Organization of Kinship or Clans

explain the social, political and economic organization of kinship or clan

Clan Organisation

Leaders in the clan organisation were chosen by a heritage system that was either matrilineal or patrilineal. Matrilineal systems are based on the mother’s side and patrilineal systems are based on father’s side e.g. of matrilineal societies are Makonde and Zanaki, while the Sukuma and Pare are good examples of patrilineal societies.

The clan leader had a lot of functions such as:

Note: The clan leaders in Africa had local names e.g. Sukuma – Mtemi, Nyakyusa- Malafyale.

Chiefdom or Chieftain Organization

Therefore, the chiefdom organisation system was adopted by many societies that were under clan organisation. This included the Sukuma, Chagga, Nyakyusa, etc.

The functions of a chief in these societies were similar to that of the clan leader the difference is the chief had a larger area.

Age set system was a type of organisation which involved age and sex in distribution of activities.

Looking at the Maasai; they were organised as follows:

  1. Soldiers

Increasing the herds of cattle by raiding from other societies

Moving with their cattle in need of water and gras

2.Religious leaders

Distributed resources e.g. Cattle

State organisation were systems of administration adopted by few African societies while having administrative organs, army and judiciary. Each organ was responsible for different activities. State Africa can be grouped as follows:

Interlacustrine Region

  • Buganda
  • Bunyoro Kital

Others include

  • Hehe
  • Nyamwezi

Western Sudanic State

  • Ghana
  • Sangai
  • Dahomey
  • Fulani
  • Oyo

Central Africa

  • Nubiii
  • Ethiopia

Age-set System

The Meaning of Age-Set System

Explain the meaning of age-set system

Age set is a social system or organization which involves age and sex in the distribution of activities and duties. Therefore age, sex and gender are highly considered in division of labor and specialization. Examples of tribes that practiced age set are the Maasai in Tanzania, Karamajong in Uganda and Nandi in Kenya.

The Social, Political and Economic Organisation of Societies which Practiced the Age-Set System

Explain the social, political and economic organization of societies which practiced the age-set system

The social, political and economical organization of societies that practiced age set organization was based on age and sex in the division and specialization of labor. The main economic activity in age set system societies was livestock keeping which resulted in a semi-nomadic life. The tribes which practiced the age set system were Maasai in Tanzania, Karamajong in Uganda and Nandi in Kenya.

Age set covered a specific group of years for example.

  1. Children group aged 0-8 years were regarded as non producers group.They were not directly involve in production.
  2. Youth group 8-18 years their main responsibility was to graze animal, trading young animals and milking cattle they were assisted by women.
  3. Moran group (people between youth and adults aged between 35 years) and above these were solders of the society and the society and the main responsibilities of the Moran were as follows; i. To protect the whole society as trained solders. ii. To protect live stock against dangerous animals and raiders. iii. To increase the number of animals through raiding their neighbours; iv. To travel with their herds in search for water and pastures;
  4. Laibons this is the group of elders aged 40 years and above it consisted of elders who were divided in groups namely;Junior elders; Elders and senior elders.Responsibilities of elders included:
  • To control live stock and the properties on behalf of their communities.
  • To enable norms and ethics to govern the society.
  • They were top overseeds of all the spiritual and political matters of the community.
  • They were responsible for counseling other members of the society.
  • To settle disputes among the society members.
  • They were regarded as retired producers of the society but their ideas and skills were highly appreciated.

Ntemiship

The Meaning of the Ntemiship System

Explain the meaning of the ntemiship system

Ntemiship is a socio-political organization or system characterized by being made up of separated groups. The word Ntemiship is derived from the word Kutema which means split apart. The ruler in a Ntemiship system was called Mtemi. The Nyamwezi tribe practiced the Ntemiship system.

HISTORY: FORM ONE: TOPIC 4 - DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEM -  MSOMI BORA

The Social, Political and Economic Organisation of Ntemiship

Explain the social, political and economic organization of ntemiship

Ntemi comes from the word ”kutema” which means opening up of new land. It also means finding a locality Ntemi was the name given to a leader who organized the action of opening up new land and controlled the people.Ntemiship was being practiced in Unyamwezi by 1300 AD.It then spread in the neighbouring such as the sukuma,sangu,hehe,kimbu,gogo and bena of Tanzania.There were about 300 Ntemiship in Tanzania in the 18th C. Among the sukuma, the ruler in Ntemiship organization was called Ntemi. He became Ntemi because he founder he was founder of the locality.He was chosen by a counsel of elders choosing a person to become Ntemi depended on his wisdom courage and experience.

Responsibilities of the Ntemi:

  1. He was the top authority in the political and matters provided over all guidance in the community.
  2. He enforced proper uses of resources such as land,water,forest resources etc.
  3. He was the overseer of the community food reserve.
  4. He settled disputes in the community.
  5. He had the religious power.He led the people in his community in performing religious and offering sacrificies to the sprits.
  6. To collect tributes from his subjects.
  7. He provided over all guidance in the society.

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

State Organisation

The Meaning of State Organisation

Explain the meaning of state organization

State formation in Africa

Environmental factor

Location of a place e.g. in trading while some of the African States were near to the trading towns as they obtained tax and commodities.

Iron technology in Africa also helped in the development and rise of Africa states e.g. By Iron they made weapons like spears, Arrows, guns etc. weapons were useful on conquering small states eg. Buganda conquered Bunyaro-Kutoro, Nyankole.

Some states had good leadership and they were able to organise their states e.g. Shaka Zulu, Mirambo of Nyamwezi, Mkwawa of Hehe. Tunkumanin of Ghana, Sunsiata of Mali etc.

Men belonging to African societies were involved in long and short distance trade which led to:

  • Outbreak of wars and migration
  • Formal governments

Prime minister, council of elders, Provision chief, general commander and others like Abakungu, Abalangira.

Some states rose up due to the influence of the Islamic religion e.g. through the use of Jihad while states were turned into Islamic states. For instance in West Africa we see the Sokoto caliphate (under Uthman Dan fodio) who managed to conquer several states in the forest zone.

Some of African tribes had strong armies and had improved weapons for conquering other states. It is said that before the White man’s intrusion, Ghana had about 20,000 experienced soldiers and Mali had 10,000 soldiers.

Fall of some states in Africa

  • Increase in size of states led to poor organisation and state management e.g. Ghana and other states.
  • Wars and conquest while some of the states were conquered by strong states e.g. In Mfecane war about 100 states were conquered by Zulu.
  • Slave trade in Africa also affected a lot of weak states while strong states managed to conquer small states e.g. Fulani in West Africa declined due to this.
  • The system of obtaining leaders through heritage did not lead to the development of states but the fall of states that were following this system.
  • The conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims in some societies while non-Muslimsocieties being conjured by the Muslim societies.
  • Weak leaders in some societies failed to organise their states leding to their decline.

STATES ORGANISATION

TYPES OF STATES IN AFRICA

  1. Decentralised states (Non centralised)
  2. Centralised states.

These emerged as a result of one powerful family to control other classes in domination of wealth and political power.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DECENTRALISED STATES

  1. Most decentralised societies were small in terms of population and area.
  2. Decentralised states had no political connection with a large kingdom.
  3. Each village was politically separated and was not politically connected to neighbouring villages.
  4. Most decentralised societies did not have a system of chiefs.
  5. Council of elders were religious leaders . Organisational structure of kinship ties lineage groups.

CENTRALISED KINGDOMS AND EMPIRES

Some African societies were large empires governed by kings, who had near absolute power. For Example:

  1. North Africa – Egypt, Nubia, Axum in North East
  2. Ghana, Mali, Soghai and Kaneroi Burnu in Western
  3. Buganda, Karagwe, Ankole and Tero in East Africa

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRALISED POLITICAL SYSTEMS

  1. Presence of a king or queen.
  2. The clan had to pay tribute to the monarchy
  3. Availability of enough food to feed the settled population
  4. The centralised authority was responsible for solving social disputes.

Example: Ancient Egypt

Origins:According to archaeological evidence, the Egyptian state arose between 1500 and 500 BC. The evidence also show that by this time there were already villages of self sufficient producers who grew wheat, barley and kept animals. These producers formed permanent settlements as they increased in population.

The Factors that gave Rise to Centralised States and Non-Centralised States

Appraise the factors that gave rise to centralized states and non-centralized states

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE EGYPTIAN STATE

  1. The development of agriculture and pastoralism
  2. Specialization of labour
  3. The rise of Nemes who united the upper and the lower Egypt
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Taxation
  6. Strong Army
  7. Development of productive forces

Therefore any one with the following rose to power:

  1. Anyone who could control disasters by rituals and charms
  2. Anyone who had experience and stored knowledge of floods
  3. Anyone who had knowledge of predicting floods

CLASSES IN THE EGYPTIAN STATE

  1. The ruling class- Consisted of the Pharaoh who was at the top followed by the nobility, priests, court officials and other officials- Followed by administrators of the people called the Vizier.
  2. The working class
  3. The peasants and slaves

ETHIOPIA

Ethiopia started as a small kingdom known as Axum, was founded near the red sea coast by a dynasty of Sabean from the other side of the Red Sea. The Ethiopia arose around 1000 BC

FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF THE ETHIOPIAN STATE

  1. Strong leadership
  2. Agriculture
  3. Unity among the people
  4. Growth of local industries
  5. Strong army
  6. Taxation
  7. Christianity

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

CLASSES IN ETHIOPIA

  1. Feudal Lords
  2. Peasants (tenants and serfs)
  3. Slaves.

Feudalism was consolidated by the introduction of Christianity during the 4th AD and King Ezana was the first to be converted. King Zangwe built 30 churches. A descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba.

Expansion done by 3 emperors (leaders):

  1. Zangwe Dynasty – 12th C – 13th C
  2. King Theodire – 19th C – 1855 – 1868
  3. Menelik II – 19th C – 1889 – 1913 Menelik II made Addis Ababa his Capital

THE KINGDOM OF NUBIA

Nubia lay in the area that cut across the borders of modern Sudan, Egypt, and Ethiopia. The Nubian State arose around 200 BC. It was called Kush and its capital was Napata. In 3rd C the capital shifted to Meroe.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE/GROWTH OF THE NUBIAN STATE

  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Trade
  3. Availability of valuable goods e.g. Gold and Ivory
  4. Development of local industries

DECLINE OF NUBIA

  1. Feudal lords were against the peasants
  2. Attacks by Muslims
  3. Disunity

WESTERN SUDANIC STATES

The early State in western Sudan was established in the region between the Sahara desert and the forest region of the South. The most important states are Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Kanem Bornu

GENERAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF WESTERN SUDANIC STATES

  1. Geographical location
  2. Iron technology
  3. The growth of population
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Taxation
  6. Trans – Saharan trade
  7. Availability of valuable goods e.g. gold
  8. Good centralised government
  9. Capable leaders
  10. Strong army

GHANA EMPIRE

During its rise Ghana had two main towns, one occupied by Muslims and the other by Pagans. The rulers and the people were Soninke speaking group. The word Ghana as the King title emerged in 5th AD. The capital center of administration was Koumbi Saleh.

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE GHANIAN EMPIRE

  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Availability of valuable goods e. g gold
  3. Trans – Saharan trade in gold and salt
  4. Good leadership and efficient system of government.
  5. Common language.

FACTORS FOR THE DECLINE OF GHANA EMPIRE

  1. Almoravids constant attacks
  2. Disunity among people
  3. Jihad wars
  4. Lack of stable system of royal successions
  5. The rise of rural kingdoms e.g. Mali

MALI EMPIRE

Early in the 3rd C Ghana fell apart as a result of the war between Samangwa the king of Ghana and Prince Sundiata Keita the king of Kagaba. Ghana was defeated and Ghana fell under Sundiata’s rulership. Sundiata formed a large kingdom known as Mali the capital was Niani and the title of the ruler was Mansa.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE MALI

  1. The fall of Ghanaian empire
  2. Control of gold fields of Bure
  3. Strong army
  4. Agricultural activities
  5. Trans – Saharan trade
  6. Strong leadership of Sundiata Keita and later Mauna Kan Kan Musa
  7. Islamic faith which promoted libraries and Islamic universities.

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

DECLINE OF THE MALI EMPIRE

  1. Weak leadership after the death of Mansa Mahmud IV
  2. Empire became too large to control
  3. Lack of unity and the empire was divided into three spheres of influence and they foughtagainst each other.
  4. Attacks by Tuaregs
  5. Civil wars
  6. The rise of Songhai empire

SONGHAI EMPIRE

In the late 15th Century the Songhai empire originally the Gao, conquered neighbouring states under the leadership of Sunni Ali and formed the large empire of Songhai. Gao became its capital at around the 11th C and remained the capital under the empire. Its famous leaders were Sunni Alli, Askia Mohamed and Askia Daud.

FACTORS FOR THE GROWTH OF SONGHAI EMPIRE

  1. Agriculture activities
  2. Strong army
  3. Trans – Sahara trade
  4. Good administration
  5. Taxation
  6. Islamic faith

DECLINE OF THE SONGHAI EMPIRE

  1. Weak leadership after the death of Askia Daud
  2. The Moroccan invasion
  3. The empire was too large to control
  4. Religious hostility between Islamic and traditional beliefs
  5. The shift in orientation of trade towards the Atlantic

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

FOREST STATES

THE BENIN EMPIRE

Benin empire was a very small state made up of the Edo speaking people. The highest authority at the time were chiefs known as Ogiso which meant the ‘Kings of the Sky’ and the administrative centre was Ubinu. Between 1388 – 1431 there was a series of civil wars which divided the Edo. After the death of the last Ogiso, his son Prince Ekaladerhan left for exile and established himself in Ile-Ife, so when the Edo people requested his return, he sent his son, Prince Oranmiyan who took up the throne.

EXPANSION INTO CITY-STATE EMPIRE

By 15th C the empire expanded into a city-state under the leadership of Oba Ewuare the Great

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE

  1. Some of capable rulers the greatest of whom was Ewuare
  2. Good centralized system of Government
  3. Trade
  4. Unity
  5. Development of Handicraft Industry

DECLINE OF THE BENIN EMPIRE

  • Introduction of slave trade
  • Trans- Atlantic trade
  • Firearms introduced through European trade caused tribal wars that led to the finaldecline of the Benin Empire.

THE EMPIRE OF OYO

Oyo empire began in the late 14th C or early 15th C likely 1388 – 1431. The people of Oyo were Oranmiyan, their capital was Oyo-Ile and the King of Oyo was called Alaafin. The Bashoran was the leader of the army.

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE OYO EMPIRE

  1. It had organised political system headed by a number of great Alafins
  2. Strong organised army
  3. Agricultural activities
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Slave trade
  6. Dahomey tributary

DECLINE OF THE OYO EMPIRE

  1. Conflict between Alafin and Basharon
  2. Conquest from the Fulani and Dahomey
  3. Civil wars and disunity

DAHOMEY EMPIRE

Dahomey rose after the decline of Oyo in the 19thC. it was founded by the Fon people. It had good leaders such as King Agaja and Houegbadja who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey.

THE RISE OF THE DAHOMEY EMPIRE IN THE 18th C

  1. Growth of centralised and powerful monarchy
  2. Boyul succession system was effective
  3. Strong army
  4. Good leadership of King Gezo and later Aguja
  5. Control of slave trade

DECLINE OF DAHOMEY

Dahomey declined after the arrival of the French.

ASANTE EMPIRE

Asante or Ashanti empire was found as a result of emergence of several cities in the region of Kumasi. The people of Asante were Akan ruled by the Oyuko clan. The King was Obiri Yeboa who was Osei Tutu. The capital city of Asante or Ashanti was Kumasi. The symbol of Asante union was a Golden stool. The ruler of Asante was known as Asantehene.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ASANTE

  1. Agricultural activities
  2. Development of local industries
  3. Some of its capable rulers e.g. Osei Tutu
  4. Well organised political system
  5. Trade

DECLINE – The state declined after the arrival of Europeans.

The Organisation of Centralised and Non-Centralised States

Explain the organization of centralized and non-centralized states

CENTRALISED STATES OF CENTRAL AFRICA

Example: Onya empire, it was founded in the 14th C. The head of the kingdom took the title of Munikongo or Mwekongo means lord of Kongo. The capital was Mbaza which the Portuguese later baptised Sutrador.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF KONGO EMPIRE

  1. Technological development e.g. Iron technology
  2. Trade
  3. Taxation
  4. Development of local industries
  5. Emergence of traditional leaders with a strong belief in spiritual and magic power

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SYSTEMS

DECLINE OF THE CONGO EMPIRE

  • The arrival of the Portuguese
  • Slave trade
  • Weak leadership after Manikongo Mingo Mkuwa who acquired up an Embassy inPortugal. His son Mzingo Mbemba was baptized as Dan Alfonce. He was a puppet of thePortuguese and caused civil war in Kongo.

MWENEMUTAPA KINGDOM

This Kingdom was created under the leadership of Mutola. Mutola conquered Tongu and Torura of the Zambezi valley. He acquired the title of Mwenemutapa which means ‘Master of conquered lands’. He was a political, military and religious leader. Mutola died in 1450 and his son Matope inherited, after Matope’s death in 1480 Changamire took over in 1490.

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF MWENEMUTAPA

  1. Agriculture activities
  2. Good leadership of Mutola
  3. Availability of valuable goods e.g. copper, iron and gold
  4. They controlled trade routes
  5. Trading centres

REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF MWENEMUTAPA

  1. The arrival of Portuguese who monopolized the gold trade
  2. The kingdom became divided into two parts Mutapa and Ruzwi
  3. Rebellion from local people

After the death of Matope, his son Nyahuma took over. He was younger than the other chief who wanted power so that chief rebelled and caused civil war.

THE LUBA STATE

This state is found between the tributaries of river Kongo. The Songiye people migrated from Katanga led by a leader from the Kangolo clan. The united Kaniok and from Luba kingdom, Ilungambila married into the Kangolo clan. This intermarriage gave rise to the Luba lineage of Kalala Ilunga, the founder of Munza as capital of Luba.

REASONS FOR THE RISE OF THE LUBA STATE

  1. Centralised system of administration where the kingdom had final say in wars and external trade
  2. The development of trade
  3. Agricultural activities
  4. The presence of iron technology

THE LUNDA STATE

The centre of the empire lay in the valley of Nkala river. The Luba kings took the title of Mwanta. It began as a simple village and their first ruler was called Mwantagaand. Ilunga Tshibinda who came from Luba married a princess from the area and their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda State.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF LUNDA STATE

  1. Iron technology
  2. Development of local industries
  3. Agriculture activities
  4. Good leadership
  5. Trade.

The empire declined after the arrival of Europeans

 

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