HISTORY FORM 6 -THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
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HISTORY FORM 6 -THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
Socialism refers the fifth mode of production proposed by Karl-max, 1818 – 1883 where by all major means of production like Land, bank, industries etc. are public owned and there should not be Exploitation between man and man and the highest stage of socialism is called Communism. Therefore socialism began in Europe after the industrial development led to the rise of the two antagonistic social users which where the proletariat(workers) and the capitalist or factory owners , especially after the industrial new there were intensive exploitation of workers led workers to form their union / working trade union to demand for their rights e.g. Britain there was the rise of Chartism and Laddish and in France the inspiration of socialism was brought by the French new of 1989 which advocated for liberty, equality and fraternity to all, hence socialism was practiced in every part of the world , such as in Europe, Asia and Africa and it was most successful in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe, China, Northern Korea, Cuba and Africa.
AIMS / GOALS / OBJECTIVE OF SOCIALISM
1.Fulfilling its aim by placing all major means of production in the hands of the people directly or through government ownership.
- Making resource available i.e. Oil, natural resources like minerals etc to be used according to the needs of the people.
- Replacing capitalism with socialism where capitalism was seen as an evil of mode of production in the society which used to make society not to enjoy in their life.
- To create a strong workers party; this will control the government on behalf of all people in the society.
- Eliminating exploitation of man by man, humiliation, segregation, oppression in the society.
This means somewhere, no where land imaginary which individual think of doing but it is not; therefore Utopia is like Smith imaginary where things should be obtained imaginary and not practically while Utopia socialism thought.
Refers to early ideas of socialism that developed in Europe particularly in Britain and France Motivated mainly by the problem of industrial class resulted from industrial revolution of the first phase, the pro pounders /founders of autopian socialism thought were people like count Henry de Saint Simon, Charter Fomlio Robert Owen, Louis Blano, Thomas more and Tomes comparative.
THE MAIN IDEAS OF THESE SOCIALIST THINKERS
- COUNT HENRY DE SEINT SIMON (1760 -1825).
He advocated the state ownership of pond process and distribution of goods and the state should pay according to one attribute i.e. paying base on experience skills and professional.
- CHARLES FOURIER (1772 -1837).
He proposed the re-organization of the society into a democratic self governing unit of about four hundred families which should be self sufficient economically and that distribution of the profit must be done in liberal minimum i.e. the profit must be given to each in definite proportion to the community depending on labour, talent and capital.
- ROBERT OWEN (1771 – 1838).
He advocated the re-organization of the society in a group of about 500 – 3000 people; these society should own and use in common all major means of production for the well being of all members of the community or group and such community should be agricultural society and also carry out other occupation so as to render it near self sufficient.
- LOUIS BLANO.
He proposed that the state should be reconstructed or re-organized on a democratic base, should supply working men with instruments of labour and every individual had a natural right to work for his own benefits but he cannot find employment on just terms at the hand of private individuals rather the state should were to its help i.e. the state is responsible to find a job for his people and replace or eliminate the private individuals/ capitalist; so if the state eliminate the private individual there should not be competition among workers.
- THOMAS MORE (1478 – 1535).
He was English states man and philosopher who saw capitalism as an exploitative system. He concluded that equality and happiness was not possible for women under capitalism he also advanced the ideas that the private ownership of the major means of production should be abolished and the society should be reorganized of collective ownership of means of production and collective labour.
- THOMASO COMPANELLA (1568 – 1639).
He named his imaginary society as “the city of the son”; where in this society there should be no exploitation of man by man, people should not be slaves but the owners of capital, and social progress would be base on science and the rules of such society and to be scientist too.
Utopian socialism was a view which opposed class struggle and revolutionary means because they believed that negotiations between the capitalist and workers would be the solutions for the capitalist to change the way of exploitation to workers and be a friendly mode of production to workers.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM TO THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
1.They criticized capitalism by showing that capitalism was not a good mode of production because is too exploitative workers and majority who do not own means of production. The Utopianist argued workers to re–organize to the mode which will fit to their life.
- They proposed on a move of human economic set up. The Utopianist wanted reorganization of the society and mostly liked a society characterized by collection.
- Utopianist expressed the features of ideal society for the good future of the society in which such ideal society must not be ex-send by exploitation of man by man, oppression, humiliation, segregation and should maintain natural rights.
- They conscioutised and awake and the society to protest against capitalism because capitalism is a bad mode of period which cannot feet in the society due to its evils like humiliation, exploitation and segregation.
- They lay a foundation to the rise of scientific socialism which come into existence after it had learn the failure of utopian socialism e.g. The failure to use class struggle and revolutionary means to overthrow capitalism.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN TO THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
- Utopianist concerned the evils of capitalism such as exploitation, humiliation oppression, and segregation and exposed its weakness to the society that; capitalism is the bad system and it should be fought in the society by all people in order to end its evils like exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
- Utopianist led to a foundation for the beginning of scientific socialism where by Utopianist provided the over for scientific socialism especially the idea of Utopian thinkers which was re-organization of a society so once scientific socialism come in it based on such theories.
- Utopianist socialism created awareness and consciousness among the workers of the world by guiding and directing them to the directions to be done in order to fight capitalism in the future e.g. workers were consciotized to unite together and fight together for their common enemy until they win because workers have nothing to lose except to gain.
- Utopianist provided some ideologies like command economy; where by the state should control the economy and organize the economy but also state should be able to organize the formation of organization to the ideal society, hence scientific socialism come to existence because on those ideologies like the state should be the one that controlled the economy on behalf of the people.
- Utopianist provided a lessons to the capitalist to get prepared in the future of exploitation of workers would continue because worker would not tolerate with such exploitation rather they have to protest such exploitation and if possible to over throw the system hence scientific socialism come to base on such lesson provided by Utopianist.
6.Utopian duped a theory of scientific socialism out of an experience of utopian thinking hence socialism become scientific socialism when the two variables were adopted in its value i.e. this were directs and historical materialism.
7.Utopian socialism feared bloodshed and that is why they depended on moral persuasion to being about socialism because they feared war as the only alternative way to remove capitalism system in the society.
- Utopian were too theoretical and idealistic without any clear means to achieve and implement the ideology and theories.
- Utopian lacked mass support from the mass because they occurred during the premature workers period of the early phase of industrial revolution which most workers were still illiterates /ignorant to know and fight for their rights e.g. during Luddism where majority of workers were ignorant.
SOURCES OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
The source of Utopian socialism was due to industrial and its effects during the development of capitalism in Europe as follows:-
1.Poor conditions of the facing system e.g.there were long working hours,Absence of model service, low wages, poor transport, child labor etc.
2.Poor working conditions and living conditions problem. People lived in congested house with poor ventilation, sleeping on the Float a socialist theory of Michael Hegel a Germany philosopher.
THE FAILURE / WEAKNESS OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
Utopian socialism had pointed out many problem social, economic, and political problems which faced the society but had one solutions or answers to those problems faced a society could be achieved through so utopian socialism failed to achieve their goals which they aimed as discussed below.
- The use of wrong method of reforming the system. This was because Utopianist prefer the use of discussion , morality ,negotiation or persuasions so it could be practically impossible to achieve socialism by using negotiations because capitalism is based on exploitation, limitation oppression and segregation and it could not totally to be removed or formed by using wrong method or reformed by using wrong method unless through class struggle and revolutionary likewise Utopian socialist hated class struggle and evolutional means as one of the way to achieve socialism.
- Utopian socialist had a false way of hoping the attain / achieve better society by relying on the good will of the rich or capitalism to change the life of poor people in the society and sometimes on the lavender but also they were faced with problem of famine and hunger while living in acute poverty.
- Advancement is science and technologies which removed many workers from their employment during the industrial rev. Many workers went on losing their jobs and the chances of getting bank their employment were limited.
- Mass dispossession. Majority of people were deprived from owning the major means of period and they were made as laborers for industrial owners.
- Refer to the effect of industrial revolution to workers.
OBJECTIVES / AIMS / OF A UTOPIAN SOCIALIST
Utopian socialist addressed themselves to the problems which were created by industrial revolution therefore the general objectives were to reform the capitalist system and make it possible to the needs of poor people in the society as elaborated below,;-
- It aimed at elimination of private property which insists/instigate on exploitation, oppression and segregation to the majority in the society.
- It aimed at creation of society under which exploitation and oppression do not exist but people in such society will live in harmonious life.
- It aimed at provision of social welfare to the people especially the poor people. This can be verified when the utopians wanted the owners of the capital to care for the poor people by providing them with social welfare such as free milled , free, settlement, free medicine, free education etc.
In short the major aim of a utopian socialism was to reform the capitalist by eliminating all evils created in the society by capitalism & make people in the society living in harmonious life where by life which are full of happiness, equality etc.
This was advocated by Karl Max (1818 – 1883) and his friend Fredrick Angles who was born in (1820 – 1895) who was aimed at destructing capitalism and establishing a dictatorship state of workers (proletarians) hence scientific socialism was the one which put socialism into practice in the world as the case study was in Russia after the Russian revolution of Oct. 1917. Scientific socialism contained scientific principles of building socialism and philosophical basis of the class struggle and revolution e.g. act (means). These founders of scientific socialism believed that socialism can be attained through class struggle and revolutionary means so there should be the struggle between the workers and the capitalist in which workers should struggle to take control of the state and the major means of production while the capitalist wanted to remain dominant.
Ultimately there should be the revolution by workers (proletariats) to take control of the state and major means of production, so Karl max, Fredrick Engels and Later Vladimir Lenin succeeded to make a revolution and build socialism in Russia in Oct. 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution. Following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia Oct. 1917 Socialism came into reality/existence through class struggle and revolution action in which the capitalist was overthrown in Russia.
Max and Angels wanted workers to make revolution and establish dictatorship state of workers in which worker could seize or get political power and establish socialism but later socialism should transform to its highest stage of communism , hence Max , Angels, Lenin and other socialist theorists saw socialism as a traditional stage so they wanted a society to establish communism in which a society would be classless, state less and would be no private ownership of the major means of production. Society under communion would be provided with all needs and each individual will contribute according to his talent or ability. Also under communism there should be ideal society whereby would be no exploitation of man by man, labor power of workers would stop to be a commodity because workers will be working for themselves and for their society as a whole. The private property under socialism after proletariat revolution must be nationalized by the state controlled by workers and the major means of production such as banks, miner, transport and communication, industries and plantations must be under the control of workers through state super vision.
Large scale of import – export should be also under the public control in a society for the benefit of all people especially poor people in the society, under socialism after scientific socialism, property must be divided into two i.e. personal property and public property in which the public property must include all nationalized properties from the capitalist like banks, factories etc while the other personal property must product and labour intended for personal consumption.
KARL MAX MAJOR IDEAS
In his analysis Max observed the followings:-
(i) Exploitation of man by man was a feature of capitalism.
(ii) It could not be possible to persuade the capitalist to stop its evils like exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
(iii) What was to be done to put an end of capitalism in which the major means of production was to be put under the control of workers for their benefits and was only through class struggle and revolutionary actions.
(iv) History has been a process of change through class struggle, so workers and other people in a society should struggle to end the system of capitalism and write a new history in a society.
(v) Capitalist are to be over threw by the exploited class who are oppressed, humiliated and exploited, in order to establish socialism.
(vi) All wealth and property in the society is created by labor of the working class who in capitalism own neither factory nor tools of production, hence workers should write together to own and control wealth and property created by labor power.
(vii) The personal greatly and selfishness at the people must be replaced by religion and other ideas of ideal society.
(viii) Workers own only their labor power which they do sell to the capitalist as a commodity so they live only by working to the capitalism hence they must unit together to fight capitalism and eliminate all like bank industries etc in order for workers to enjoy for their life. Max argued that capitalism was creating condition to socialism to exist because of the evils of capitalism in the society and also argued that once all capitalist class had been broken and overthrown then no longer any exploitative class in society rather socialism would have reduced in climax (peak) and dictatorship of proletariat would not be necessary in the society rather socialism had to transform to its highest stage known as communism in which the following characteristics, features or elements should be observed.
(i) Production is at the highest stage and according to his needs.
(ii) Classless society would come to existence.
(iii) Manual and intellectual labor would have no difference.
(iv) The difference between town and country (rural) would be eliminated.
(v) All other qualities produced by capitalism would be eliminated.
(vi) There must be high science and technology in society.
(vii) There would be no law, police, prison or army because under communalism there is no need of having state and instruments of force.
MAX AND PROLETARIATES (working class)
Socialism has propounded by Karl Max become attractive to working class more than other socialist in the world, hence the following were the suggestions of Max to the workers.
(i) Max organized the first group of socialist from different countries which was known as International working class of the socialist formed on 1864 in London.
(ii) Max manifests become wide spread as the socialist document in the world, calling all workers of the world to unite together and fight capitalism with its evils until they win because labor (chains).
(iii) From 1848 there were a lot of revolutions in the world including France, China etc. where by the workers were demanding for their rights 15 years after the end of the first international , 2nd international workers must was found under Fredrick Engels because Max has died so in 1893 the 2nd international workers must was put into practice in Switzerland which was attended by socialist must of different countries who represented their countries e.g. in Russia there was the social democratic party which was under V.I Lenin. Later on VI Lenin carried out the first socialist revolution in Russia.
Generally Max interpretation of history indicated that socialist revolution could take place first in the most highly development countries like Britain and France however this did not happen due to many reasons such as;-
(i) Improvement of working condition of workers.
(ii) Introduction of collective bargaining.
(iii) Introduction of Western democracy etc.
With those factors the first socialism occurred in Russian in Oct. 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution.
THE THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
This was written as scientific socialism when the communist manifest was published by Karl Max and Fredrick Engels. The philosophical bases of scientific socialism is class struggle and revolutionary action as the most effective way of building socialism, according to Max and Engels in the absence of class struggle and revolutionary action if is impossible to build scientific socialism. From the analysis of Karl Max (1883 -1818) and Engels (1820 -1895) the following were observed.
(i) Destruction of capitalism can only be achieved by revolutionary actions and class struggle since exploitative class i.e. capitalist would not voluntarily surrender.
(ii) The working class is the only revolutionary force capable of overthrowing capitalism because workers has the majority in the society but there the one who are exploited, humiliated, oppressed and own nothing except their labor power until they win.
(iii) The working class will have to form a common front with its alliance with peasant and other progressive social groups must join together to over throw capitalism.
(iv) Overthrown of capitalist state will be replaced by dictatorship of the proletariat which must defend and protect the interest of masses.
(v) The government of workers must ensure the followings:-
(a) The major means of period and distribution of wealth and property are put in hands of workers and peasants.
(b) Labor is no longer treated as a commodity.
(c)The economic structure must dissolve the contradictions in the society because the socialist government of workers must plan the economy for all people in the society.
THE ORIGIN /GENESIS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
(i) German Ideology of dialectics.
(ii) The contribution of French revolution of 1789.
(iii) Utopian socialism with its ideal.
(iv) The English political economist.
(v) The contribution of Karl Max and Fredrick Engels.
- Contribution of Germany Ideology of dialectics.
This Ideology was put forward philosopher known as Michael Hegel whereby Hegel with his Ideology of dialect insisted on changes in the society is inevitable and always this changes arise out of contradictions, Hegel used three concepts to verify the theory of dialects which are thesis – Antithesis thesis from the German Ideology Max borrowed. The concept of dialects – and used them to develop the concept of Historical and direction materialism which is called correct outlook of the world, the concept of historical materialism stated that matter is in a constant motion or change and people should understand the laws governing nature. Max Later concluded that the change from capitalism to socialism was inevitable even by revolution because the society as a matter keeps on a constant change.
- Contribution of French revolution of 1789 in building socialism.
The French revolution which advocated for equality force for the rise of scientific socialism, this was because after French had made a revolution it managed to establish French socialism which stay for start time of only 72 days but it collapsed so Karl max fear its weaknesses involved in French socialism that the French socialism after the revolution of 1789 failed because it was led by idealistic way of thinking and not scientific approach. From this weakness Max disposed a scientific theory of building socialism which insisted workers to struggle not make revolution/ in order to remove the capitalist more scientifically and not by emotion or immorality.
- Contribution of Utopian socialism.
This intended to build socialism through moral approach / discussion / persuasion to the capitalist. Karl Max criticized their wrong way/ approach that it was practically impossible to ask the exploiters to stop exploitation and oppression since they were the one who benefited of the capitalist system and usually capitalism operated through exploitation from this weakness Karl Max and Engels depend the method of class struggle and revolutionary action as the scientific way of building socialism in the world.
- The contribution of the English political economist
The contribution of the English political economic from the English political economist Karl Max criticized them because of their weakness and because they were emphasizing capitalism in the society, there were like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Robert Malthus because their theory justified capitalist exploitation in the society.
In his book of the “wealth of the nations” published in 1776 said that all business and economic activities are regulated by the natural Laws which are the Law of supply and demand & the Law of competition that is in any business price will be fixed by the supply and demand; so Smith argued that every man should be free to do what he thought to be the best for himself e.g. to involve in business or to involve in capitalism.
He was an Anglican clergyman who become a professor of economics in his book titled as “An essay on the principle of population” published in 1798 he wrote that the greatest obstacle to human progress was the increase of population, therefore he argued that population was increasing geometrically while production and food supply was increasing arithmetically e.g.
Population Production and food supply
16x 4x etc
Then he comes out with the possible solutions to the problems.
(i) He advocated wars, famine and hunger, diseases especially epidemic diseases etc. all these aimed to reduce population size.
(c) David Ricardo.
He advocated the theory of comparative advantages where in his book titled as “principle of political economy and taxation” of 1870 he recommended that each region as to dwell/continue on producing what is suitable for each region i.e. Agrarian societies should remain agrarian and industrial societies should remain industrial.
Therefore Karl Max come out with the theory of scientific which aspired for building a socialist state under exploitation of man by man, oppression, and segregation of people in a society should not exist.
- The contribution of Karl max and Fredrick Engels.
These thinkers were the initiatives of scientific socialism who advocated their time to write and expand the idea of building socialism through the principle of scientific socialism hence the ideas of Max and Engels were taken and put into practice by people who aimed and volunteered to build socialism in the world history e.g. Lenin, who built socialism in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution of Oct. 1917.
PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
According to Karl Marx, construction of scientific socialism must be led by scientific principles these are economic base, mode of production, class conflict and class struggle, revolution strategy, agent of revolution.
1. Economic base
The contribution of scientific socialism depended on economic base of particularly society according to Max if the economic is weak do not dream to build scientific socialism but if the economic base of a particular society is strong the scientific socialism will be constructed base in a society were economy, therefore the poor struggle to achieve better economic situation but if the economic base is weak no struggle of the society.
- Mode of production.
This is one of the determinant factor for building scientific socialism because mode of production determines human nature at a particular stage & conflict tend to exist in such mode of production e.g. in capitalism exploitation, humiliation and segregation are very high this led to antagonistic class struggle between the capitalists and the workers so the class conflict in capitalism become sharper and sharp created a conducive environment for socialism revolution. Max concluded that scientific socialism is possible to be launched successful under capitalism because of its evils in the society.
3.Class conflict and class struggle.
According to Max the production process determined the existence of class and class conflict which these two led to the rise of class struggle in the society and according to him the class difference and conflict is the result of economic factor or reasons therefore the class conflict. Class struggle and class are related to the questions like who produce what and who has got what. This resulted to scientific socialism in order to end the class conflict and class struggle which the result of capitalism and its evils in the society.
- Revolution strategy.
By revolution we means the total overthrow of the rulling class from power and those who were rolled by that ruling class, so Max wanted workers to have a clear strategy like what time should the revolution take place and where to start the revolution and who should take power after the revolution.
- Agents of the revolution.
According to Max scientific socialism must be led by most exploited and oppressed people who are the proletariat class because this class is the once which feels the pains of the capitalist like humiliations, segregation, oppression and exploitation. This class where they get tired of capitalism they must decide to overthrow the capitalism and thus why for Max the exploited class is the correct agent for the socialist revolution.
SOCIALISM IN PRACTICE
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN OCT. 1917
A revolution is a political term which can be defines as the total over throw of the existing government by those who were previously subjected to it. The Russia socialist revolution took place in 26th Oct. 1917 under the Bolsheviks. This revolution however preceded by another revolution which took place in Feb. 1917 but this was not successful like the Bolsheviks’ because of its weakness in the society/ to the Russians but both of these revolution come into existence because of the problems faced Russians b4 and during 1917.
THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY BEFORE AND DURING 1917
This were the majority in Russia who used primitive method of cultivation like hand hoe without any mechanization in agriculture like the use of tractors, no use of machines for planting and harvesting;
(i) The economy of the peasant was very Low because of the use of primitive methods of cultivation.
(ii) At the beginning of the 19th Russian agriculture was still low in comparison with other western European countries.
(iii)Land distribution was unfair because a large number of acres of land which belongs to the millions of peasants were taken by the ruling class and given to the few Land Lords who were about 30,000 hence there were serious Land shortage among the peasants which led them to support the Oct. 1917 revolution in Russia.
- The Proletariat
(i) This was a very small number of people in the 20th C.
(ii) This group of workers was concentrated in very few areas especially in towns.
(iii) They had very Low standard of Living because they earn a little.
(iv) Workers had to supplement their wages with cultivation of small plots in the country side but also the cultivation was done by primitive way (hand hoe) hence they supported a revolution seriously in order to get out all these problems.
- The big Land Lords (Land Lords)
This group comprised of the rural capitalist who own rural farms and most of the peasant had to work in their forms for their benefits and this group was small in number in Russian society.
- The capitalist class / Bourgeoisie class.
This class was weak and small which operated its economic activity by using foreign capital because Russia by that time were very much behind of the western industrial stage of capitalism so their influence to the ruling class was negligible.
- The Russian Orthodox Church.
This comprises the bishops and upper clergy this Orthodox Church (class) had cooperated with the ruling class in Russia to oppress the normal Russians.
- The Adminisrators.
This class composed of the Tsa (csar) or the King and the nobility, in this class the parliament (DUMA) had unlimited power because it based only on restricted electorate and its role was to make Laws and order only while all the powers of implementing those powers were given to the ruling class under the Tsay. The revolution intended to overthrow the ruling class, hence the revolution of Russia was took place when Russian was partially feudal state in Rural areas and partiality a capitalist state especially in urban areas however a large percent of Russia was under feudalism.
Socialist ideas were introduced in Russia by political socialist who were in exile and who made socialist from other countries.
NOTE: The Russia Revolution was led by a social democratic Labor party which some years before revolution had already split into two groups which are the Bolsheviks and Men shevicks however both of them agreed that at feudal and at capitalist revolution was necessary for establishing socialist.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEN SHEVICKS AND BOLISHEVICKS
Men shevicks, these socialist thought that contradictions in Russia were not ripe for socialist revolution due to Lack of Large industrial working class and industrial sector, So they felt that capitalist should led the revolution against feudalism in the country and later on workers will be able to gain experience for Later socialist revolution.
Bolsheviks, these are extreme socialist, this group was led by V.J. Lenin. The Bolshevik criticized the men shevicks for treating Marxism as a dogma (doctrine) which means theories said by Marx should not be changed VI Lenin argued that Karl-max once said. In time of revolution there must be flexibility.
This group believed that the capitalist could not play a progressive ant feudal lord in Russia because the capitalist asked with the ruling class under TsaNicholaus II to oppress, humiliate and exploit the normal Russians (Majority) hence Lenin and his group believed that the revolution should be Learn by the party of the working class which must make alliance with the poor peasant.
In short the problems faced the Russians between 1860 up to 1917.
- The peasants were not independent because they had no Land, they were exploited by the ruling feudal class, they were terribly living in poor conditions where by their life were very bad under acute poverty.
- There was not real freedom to the serfs who usually they offered their works to the feudal Lord but their life was in Low standard.
- Serfs were almost slaves where they had no rights in their life, in spite of the emancipation of 1861 movement to demand for their rights but they were not given their rights but they were not given their rights e.g. not given Land, freedom of human rights etc and they continued to pay a fee for 49 years for the benefit of the ruling class.
- The Russian society also faced a lot of problem in their life e.g. humiliation, segregation, exploitation oppression etc. where by the feudal ruling class in collaboration with capitalist and feudal lords used to humiliate, segregate and exploit the normal Russians.
- Workers were not allowed to form their trade unions in order to demand for their rights despite of the problems they faced while working in industries.
- Russia was not well developed and it was characterized by backwardness economy and under development because during this the Russia was still depending on Agrarian economy.
- Russian people were forced to pay high taxation which led them to be deprived their rights and freedom of speech by Tsa regime, orthodox church and the feudal lords because Russians who had nothing to own were forced by the ruling class to pay high tax for their benefit.
8.There was a miserable life to all Russians e.g. people lived and sleeping in congested houses with no ventilation no sufficient food, no education to children, people were punished publicly by the feudal Lords etc, all these problems Led the people of Russia to support the Oct. 1917 revolution in Russia.
CAUSES / FACTORS / REASONS / BACKGROUND FOR RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917
- A poor leadership of TsaNicholaus II.
The poor leadership led to the Russian revolution of 1917. This is because when Russia was under the rule of TsaNicholaus II the capitalist and feudal Lords allied with the TsaNicholaus to exploit and oppress the ordinary people in Russian this ordinary people were poor, having no land, faced poor working condition hence the intensive exploitation and oppression by Tsa led the Russians to support the revolution in Oct. 1917.
Moreover the Tsa regime refused to introduce Reforms and changes in Russia, These led TsaNicholaus to adopt a bogus or sham democracy which increased the problem in the society because in this democracy the Tsa would dissolve the DUMA at any time he wish to do so e.g. The fist DUMA was introduced in 1906 but dissolved in the same year by TsaNicholaus II other Dumas which was introduced in 1907 lived for short period be being dissolved again, these led the increase of strikes, boycott and demonstrations and blood killings increased in Russia especially from 1905 which paved a way for Oct. 1917 revolution.
2.The effects of the World War 1 of 1914 – 1918.
The World War 1 accelerated to the Oct, revolution in Russia because during this war Russia allied with the triple entente of Britain, France and USA to fight against the triple alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. In the war Russian army which fought in the two general fronts which was in the East against Germany and South against Austria-Hungary but in his front Russian army was defeated by Germany, where by many soldiers were lived and many others were wounded. But also the war increased expenditure which led the decline of economy in Russia while the coast of living increased e.g. workers in factories for long working hours to earn little in order for them to survive and goods distribution was inefficient which led long lines for bread in Russia cities especially in petrograd.
This increased strikes of workers who demanded for bread, The war also led soldiers who were living in villages to increase strikes demanding for their rights which they were promised to be given after the war hence the increase of boycotts, demonstrations and strikes which become the all of the day in major cities led TsaNicholaus II to resign from power on March 1917 officially 15/03/1917 and his power was taken by prince Lvov.
- The weakness of the formed provisional government.
This was formed after the resignation of TsaNicholaus II had a lot of weakness revolution, Prince Lvov who assumed leadership on July 1917 and thereafter Kerensky led the provision government not interested to make changes in Russia and become un popular to the majority in Russia due to the followings:-
(a) This government was in favor of continuous WWI which could not loving peace in Russia while people were no longer with the war.
(b) This government could not provide food and guarantee land to the majority in Russia.
(c) The government failed to solve the fundamentals of Russians who were the majority like to remove inflection, un employment hence once Bolshevik come in exposed the weakness of the provisional government to the majority and succeeded to mobilize them for more support in 1917 Oct. revolution e.g. V.I Lenin who a lived in Russia April 1917 from exile in Switzerland through Germany he organized the Bolshevik who promised them food, peace and land restoration therefore in Oct. 1917 the Masses allied with him in Bolshevik revolution.
4.The good and strong leadership of V.I Lenin and other committed socialist to make a revolution.
The strong and committed leadership under the Bolshevik party led the revolution of Oct 1917 because these Bolshevik leaders wanted nothing except the revolution e.g. Leaders like V.I Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Trotsky worked like a five in order to active a socialist revolution regardless a number of obstacle they faced like improvement, exile in Finland and Later on Switzerland, Trotsky escaped to America and Joseph escaped worked day and night even in exile and even when they come back secretly they did not surrender rather they continued until they succeeded to make a revolution in Oct. 1917.
E.g. Lenin when he arrived from exile he outlived his program to the Bolshevik at the railways station in April 1917.
(i) Breads for workers, Land for workers, good life for Russians, good education for Russian children hence his program attracted the majority in Russia who supported him in a revolution.
- The teaching of Karl-max and Engels.
Contributed much in the Oct. 1917 Russian revolution because Max and Engels inspired a lot in the development of socialist thought in Russian e.g. in their famous books “ Das capital” and “Communist manifesto” Max and Engels spread the revolution ideas of establishing a communist state which would be out of capitalist evils hence it was those ideas that V.I Lenin used to implement in consciously Russians to participate in the Oct. 1917 Russian revolution. In fact if Karl-max and Engels had not propounded the ideas of socialism then it could not be possible for socialism to be successful in Russia.
- The Russia – Japanese war (conflict) 1905.
In this conflict/ war Russian was miserable defeated by Japan, this accelerated to Oct. 1917 revolution in Russia because many Russian become annoyed and disappointed with Tsar regime (government) and they lost hope with Tsa’s regime due to the fact that this war led to the decline of Russian economy, the life of normal Russian become difficult. Most of the soldiers were not given their good economic aspects like Land which were promised to be given after the war Russian government had to borrow money to run the government from the capitalist so all the people in Russia were to look for another alternative way to remove the Tsa regime from political power hence they supported Oct. 1917 revolution.
- The miserable economic condition of Russia.Before the revolution Russia was under feudalism in most parts of Russia except the few towns where a small number of workers worked under a foreign capitalist invested in Russia. So majority of Russians lived in acute poverty, faced with hunger and famine, natural calamities was common to the people of Russia all these miserable economic conditions in Russia promised people to ask for change so as to be in better life. The only way for a change was through the Oct. 1917 Revolution.
THE EFFECTS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION TO RUSSIANS
- The revolution managed to over throw the provisional government of Kerensky and established the Bolshevik government under VI Lenin.
- Russia was immediately able to restore peace, security and bring unity among Russians after withdrawing from World War 1.
- Russia was nationalized all the private properties such as crow land, Land Lord Land, churches Land without compensation and gave it to the peasant through peasant committee. Likewise the foreign investments which was industries were nationalized but because the industries nationalized belongs to western power it led to the occurrence of the war between the white (Army of Western investors) against the Reds (Bolshevik army) from 1918 – 1920 however the Bolshevik won.
- The Church and the state were separated while religions and education in school was abolished (secular state).
- Class differences in the society were abolished in which equality between man by man, sexes was observed and a decree (Law) was passed against inheritance of property.
- The revolution led the communist of the Bolshevik party to be able to consolidate themselves in power by using different mechanism e.g. using special secret police called cheka, to imprison, to kill or exile anti communist leadership where by some people exiled early and all anticommunist element in Russian society was eliminated.
- In 1921 Lenin introduced a special program known as the new economic policy (NEP) by which a limited degree of capitalism was allowed e.g. people were allowed to own small enterprises, small scale industry, not allowed to own and control the key economic sectors e.g. banking, heavy industries, foreign trade etc.
Addition: In promoting the development of the country the five years development plan was started by the Bolshevik starting from (1928 – 1932, 1932 – 1937, 1937 – 1942, 1942 – 1947, 1947 – 1952). In this program the Bolshevik mobilized people but also the Bolshevik were responsible to evaluate the success of the goals by directing people to involve in expected goals of development.
- The Bolshevik party had a socialist democratic structure for mass participation in discussion, decision making and implementation of the goals, this structure was from the grass root level to the national level which always ensured discipline and national unit within the party but it also directed Russian foreign policy, education and others in Russian society.
THE IMPACT OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF OCT. 1917 WORLD WIDE
- The revolution led to spread of socialist & communist ideas in different parts of the world especially in eastern Europe Asia, Southern America and in Africa e.g. the spread of Asia to Asian where by several states emerged as a socialist state like China, North Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Raos, Northern America to Cuba, Southern America it spread to Chile and in Africa was in Mozambique, Tanganyika, Angola, Ghana, Egypt etc.
- The Oct. revolution of 1917 Led to cold war politics in the world between the Eastern camp led by USSR and the Western camp under U.S.A where by these two camps followed different ideology thus why led to the emergence of cold war politics.
- Revolution of 1917 led to the formation of military alliance between the eastern camp and western camp where each camp formed a military alliance to defend and e.g. the eastern camp with socialist ideology formed the WARSAW PACT in (1950’s) while the western camp with capitalism ideology formed NATO in 1948.
- The revolution of 1917 led to decolonization process in the colonized areas in Africa and Asia; where by Russia helped the nationalist morally and materially like provided food, money, advice and guns to the nationalist in order to defeat colonialism because Russia believed that colonialism and capitalism is like brother and sister due to the fact that it colonized people, humiliating them, looking for labor, raw materials, expanding market in different colonized areas for the world.
- Russian revolution of 1917 led to nationalization of all private properties and wealth in other socialist countries in the world e.g. private property are land, bank, factory were nationalized and put under the control of the government in different socialist country for the benefit of the people in those countries .
- The revolution of 1917 led to formation of NAM (Non Aligned Movement) in the third world countries or poor nations where by these poor countries formed NAM in order to government economic, political, social and technical assistance from both socialist and capitalist countries.
- The revolution of 1917 led to the emergence of the two enmity blocks in the system of production and administration where by the socialist invited themselves under the eastern bloc while capitalism led the followers of the system to unite themselves under the western block, this two block existed until early 1990’s when socialism collapsed in Russia due to economic and political reforms occurred in the world.
EFFECTS OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA
- It intensified/ increased ant colonial struggles for those who were fighting for self determination and self rule whereby Russia provided more support and moral support to African nations in order to fight against colonialist due to the fact that colonialism and capitalism are two sides of the same coin.
- It intensified / increased to spread of socialist ideology and adoption of socialism in various African nation e.g. Ujamaa village which was the result of family hood in Tanzania, common mans charter in Uganda Harambee (Kenya) and Humanism in Zambia.
- Created a political awareness in Africa especially when many Africans began to go in Russia for education, this was because Russia provided scholarship to Africans to go in Russia to study many things including socialism.
- In increased the enmity in African nations due to the fact that there some African nations which followed capitalist ideology and others followed socialism. Those nations which followed socialism were not in good learning with those nation followed capitalism e.g. Due to that ideology in East Africa let to the collapse of former EAC in 1977.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF OCT. 1917 IN THE WORLD
- The Russian revolution brought a new social and political system in the world because after Russian revolution which witnessed at the first time the theory of scientific socialism to put into practice in the world history led the birth of socialism as a new social and political system.
- The Russian led to polarization of the world in to conflicting ideological camps; which were socialism in one hand with Eastern black and capitalism with western block so there was a great advantage to different nations of the world because those nations which were under socialism were to get assistance both material support and moral from USSR, and those nations which were under capitalism were to get assistance from U.S.A for both economic, social, political and technical development.
3.The Russian led to demonstration that socialism can be build even under unprompted conditions that is can be built anywhere because by that time of socialist revolution in Russia, Russia was still dominated by feudal mode of production in large parts but it managed to build socialism.
4.The Russian led to the formation of NAM in the LDC in which the intention of formation of NAM was to look for a middle cause of the cold war politics involved in the super powers but also it aimed to attract economic, social, political and technical assistance from both super powers of the world in that time which was USSR and U.S.A to the power nation.
- The Russian inspired and accelerated liberation struggles and decolonization process in colonized areas of Africa and Asia by providing both material and moral support to the nationalist e.g. the concept of the national question advocated by Joseph Stalin called upon the colonized people to fight against colonialism as well as imperialism led by U.S.A which wanted colonies to be free for her to invest, to exploit, to get labor, market and raw materials.
- There was ideological reliance, this advocated by Russia after the revolution of Oct 1917 led newly nation in Africa and Asia to rely on USSR in matters related to socialist construction all wise Russia provided tangible support to the newly nations of African and Asia by providing those newly nations grants and aids also Asia vice technical assistance, military assistance of so that these newly nation could defect colonialism and imperialism led by U.S.A.
- There was a joint political standard of socialist countries in the international organizations like in the UN where all socialist countries relied with the USSR as the biggest power to be the more spoken man of the third world countries in the international organization and other meetings or agreements.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF USSR AS A LEADING THE SOCIALIST NATION
After WORLD WAR II USSR emerged as a leading socialist nation due to the following reasons:-
- The Victory (triumph) of USSR against the forces of fascism during the World War II in (1939 – 1945) and establishment of socialism which was dominance in Eastern Europe following the communist government in those countries.
- Expansionism of socialism in other parts of the world led USSR to become powerful leading the entire socialist. E.g. Socialism spread in Cuba, China, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Africa all these were to follow socialist ideology of USSR.
- The Unique role of Bolshevik party in shaping and directing the economy of USSR. E.g. The Bolshevik government planned the economy for the benefit of people in Russia; this made USSR to become very power full economically and started to help other socialist countries in the world.
- The formation of military camp (Alliance) of war saw pact in 1950’s to defend and protect USSR with ideology of socialism and their friend in the world against capitalist countries with the ideology of capitalism.
This led Russians sphere of influence to dominate the socialist countries in the world e.g. Capitalist wanted to overthrow the Czechoslovakian communist government but Russia jointly with war saw parts interfered and finally defeated the capitalist rebels.
- Good leadership of Russian leaders such as the import role played by V.I Lenin from 1917 – 1924, Joseph Stalin 1928 – 1953 thereafter followed by Kruisher, Bresher, to bring unit among all Russians in constructing socialism, controlling the economy, clear use of resources available in Russia, restoring peace, This made Russia hence it become a powerful nation leading other socialist nation in the world.
- Nationalization of private properties and wealth such as land, which were owned by feudal Lords, and ruling class, industries which were operated foreign capital, all these nationalized properties which were put under the control of Bolshevik government led Russia to be strong economically and dominate other socialist countries in the world after the WWII up to its collapse in early 1990’s,
Withdraw of Russia from the WWI.
This enabled Russia to engage on building on her own economy for so long, bringing unity among the Russians, development of milling, social, culturally and technologically but also it made Russia to restore peace and security in a Russia for so long. All these enabled Russia to become strong even before the WWI and even after the war Russia started to dominate other socialistic nations in the World.
THE FALL (COLLAPSE) OF SOVIET UNION AND THE COMMUNIST BLOCK
FACTOR FOR DECLINE OF RUSSIA
The decline of Russia as the socialist hegemony was due to political and economic factors for the late of 1980’s. These was due to socialist crisis which was seen on the wind of in Russia; so this political and economic changes swept Eastern Europe including Russia from the late of 1980’s to early 1990’s hence it was the last soviet leader known as
Mikhail Gorbachev; where policies accelerated the fall of communism in Russia.
Reason for the collapse:-
- Interference of democracy and violation of human rights by the communist party with one political party, this led people to be discouraged with one party (communist) and they started to ask for freedom of independence in different small nation from USSR e.g. During the ruling of Gorbachev people were not allowed to oppose the government even to give out their social opinions on how to develop USSR.
- Stagnation of the economy, science and technology due to over centralization and over monopolization of the economy by the state; this led to limitation of competition that could help the economy to grow therefore Russia was to be weak economically and it had no support to other socialist countries.
- Emergence of the two policies introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev this were perestroika and glasnost, these two policies of Mikhail the last president of USSR accelerated the collapse of the former USSR.
(a) Glasnost – Opens for democratic process and decision to be under taken by Russian masses; so when Mikhail introduced glasnost all the 15 states of the former Soviet Union decided to declare independence individually.
(b) Perestroika – Was the policy of Gorbachev intended for the restriction of economy by introducing to Russia of free market economy which was pure a capitalist economy, this undermined socialism because instead of the government to control the economy as it was during Lenin and other Mikhail allowed private ownership of properties hence the 15 states opted out /divided to withdraw from the formal USSR e.g. Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Russia.
- Reduction of budget in Army.
The Government of Gorbachev in Russia reduced the budget of army e.g. the number of soldiers recruited and trained was reduced. Industries necessary for manufacturing of weapon was minimum all these reduced the ability of Russia army for a large extent and accelerated to its collapse.
- Disintegration and collapse of communist state in Eastern Europe which took place between one state with another withdrawing from the former USSR, this happened when Gorbachev gave freedom to them (15 state) to choose whether to stay or not to stay within the former USSR union. Among the states which pulled out were Georgia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia etc in early 25.12 1991.
LESSON THAT AFRICAN CAN LEARN FROM RUSSIA REVOLUTION
- Building of socialism does not wait for capitalism to mature. This influenced some Africa socialism.
- It gave a lesson that may progressive change in any country can be brought about by the indigenous people themselves not by outsider/foreigners as it was ingenious people of Russia during socialist rev
- It gave the lesson that unfit leaders (corrupt). From power by force or violence can be over thrown.
- It gave a lesson that in any struggle efficient and committed leadership is needed. This helped much during African liberation struggle.
- The United efforts of the peasants workers and soldiers can bring meaningful changes in the society.
- Violent socialist revolution involve bloodshed as it was in Russia. This was avoided by African countries which decided to build African socialism by peaceful means e.g: TANZANIA, ZAMBIA and GHANA.
- Also it gone a lesson on that socialist revolution take place in Un-industrialized.
- African learn that capitalism is an evil which bare on the exploitation of the proletariat through provision of law wages and long working hours.
SOCIALISM IN THE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES
These countries adopted socialism in their countries due to the following reasons e.g. Cuba, in 1959, North Korea 1948, North Vietnam 1970’s Nicaragua etc.
- They were supported by Russia during struggle for independence so after the independence they had to follow socialism like what was followed in Russia.
- They were against colonialism, imperialism & western capitalism so they had to follow socialism which was the system against colonialism and imperialism.
- Revolutions in those countries were led by communist political movements supported by peasants and workers. Under such situation the government in the 3rd world countries had to follow socialism.
- Most of those nations were poor economically. They believed that; the under development of those nations were caused by humiliation and exploitation of the capitalist which led the capitalism in Europe to benefit from the resources of these nations, they have to follow socialism which was the system which could bring equality in the society.
- Russia helped the 3rd world countries both materially and moral support e.g. Russia provided ideological support during struggle for independence, offered military and economic support to the third world countries e.g. Food, money, weapon, hence they have to follow socialism.
- In the UN Russia also supported the decolonization of all third world countries in order to end imperialism, colonialism and with their evils like oppression, humiliation, segregation and exploitation of third world countries hence they have to follow socialism.
- The building of the Lumumba University for provision of scholarship to students from the third world countries to go and study in Russia where these students, could be trained skilled workers and specialist in Russia, these led the third world countries to follow socialism.
THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS OF SOCIALISM / EFFECT
After the collapse of socialism in Eastern Europe led by USSR in early 1990’s the
Following effects were seriously noted in the world.
- The collapse led to the end of cold war politics between the east following socialism and the western following capitalism.
- The collapse of Russia led to attainment of German re-unification which before the collapse German was divided in west under socialist ideology where by the two independence nation were devised by the Berlin wall was officially removed on 3/10/1990 to allow free movement of people to the two parties which were western German and Eastern Germany hence Germany become one gain.
- The collapse of socialism held to the collapse of the war saw pact; because no one particular state out of the 15 states which disintegrated / collapsed from the formal USSR and remained responsible for the war saw pact even Russia become the member of NATO which the Western camp of capitalist ideology.
- The 1991 Gulf war, against Iraq where the east especially Russia joined with the west to fight against President Saddam Hussein of Iraq who invaded and annexed Kuwait.
- Led to assassination of the former communist leaders who were in front line to practice workers dictatorial government proposed by the Karl-max e.g. In Romania where by Nicholas Ceases and his wife Helen were assassinated by followers of the capitalist ideology (system) on 23/12/1990.
- The collapse of the former USSR led to the decline of one political system of the East. After the collapse of socialism in USSR the east with socialism ideology dissolved the system of following one political party and the room was opened for liberal democracy which insists on multiparty as the philosophy of the west.
- The foreign policies of the east which were for less cooperation with the west also changed this was because after the collapse of USSR it witnessed the closed cooperation between the east and the west like IMF, World bank and European union be invited the invest in the east hence penetration of capitalism in Eastern Europe.
- Humanitarian assistance and Aids from the West have been directed to the east to serve the fallen economic situation in the east e.g. Scientific technology assistance have been directed in the east in order to provide essential basic needs and services to the people in the east.
- The collapse witnessed the freedom of worship in the east where by massive missionary assistance was directed to the East by the West in order to revive worshiping situation in the east thus led people in the east to be free to choose their denomination for worship.
THE CHINESE REVOLUTION 1949
The situation in China before Revolution:-
- Before the revolution; China was ruled by oppressive and exploitation feudal system which were disliked by the workers. This feudal class comprised the feudal dynasty (class) at home but also there were imperialist powers which had invested in China, these imperialist powers exploited the workers by giving them low wages Working long hours and living in poor condition or situation.
- The serfs were tortured, harassed and over worked by the Land Lords.
- All the land belong to the land Lords and majority of the peasants were land less hence they obliged to work under the feudal lords who paid them low wages and made them to work long hours etc this increased enmity among the Chinese.
- Geographical condition; China had harsh climatic conditions which led droughts, famine hunger and starvation but also floods and epidemic diseases were common among the Chinese.
- There were rampant unemployment among the people in China hence the huge number or majority of China had no employment and they lived like beggars.
- There were poor provision of infrastructure and social services in China. E.g. there were no good roads, ports and harbor, telecommunication no education facilities which made majority illiterates and poor medical care which led massive death among the people in China.
- China was highly divided into two classes whereby at the top there was King, group of literate, Land Lords and at the bottom were the serfs who were the majority being exploited by the land Lords.
- Chinese industries were poorly developed; whereby these industries used low and poor technology but also industries were un evenly developed and distributed however these industries were owned by the capitalist in the West who invested in China and therefore industries played a minimal role in national economy because they were very backwardness and they were not own by the people of China rather foreigners.
- Japan was a traditional enemy of China where she used to attack China for raw materials e.g. In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria which was the part of China etc.
CAUSES OF THE CHINESE REVOLUTION IN 1949
1.Good leadership of Mao Tse-Tung.
Mao managed to mobilize the peasants in the country side to against the feudal dynasty and later they succeeded to make a revolution in 1949.
2.The philosophy of Confucianism.
These philosophies developed among the people in China which was insisting on cooperation, unit working hard and resting exploitation, humiliation and oppression of the feudal class and the foreign imperialist; hence the philosophy of Confucianism led people in China to unite themselves under the comrade of Mao Tse-Tung to make the Chinese Revolution in 1949.
2. An autocratic rule of the feudal class in China; during the feudal class the Chinese were oppressed exploited, tortured, harassed by the feudal class in their country, they had no freedom to talk and propose anything about the development of their country therefore they united under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung to make the Chinese revolution in 1949.
4.The problems of the Chinese / Massive.
During the feudal rule the Chinese society faced with a lot of problems like unemployment, Famine and hunger, floods in the country, droughts, epidemic diseases, poor provision of social / services and Chinese society to be unsatisfied with the ruling feudal class therefore decided to unite together under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung to make Chinese revolution in 1949.
- The teaching of Karl-max and Engels accelerated to Chinese revolution because Mao who was a founder of Chinese revolution read the books of Karl max and Engels which was about the revolution as the solution to establish socialism in the world history; therefore Mao understand well the theory of Max and Engels who insisted on revolution to insist socialism hence Mao used the teachings of Karl-max to mobilize and unite his fellow Chinese to make the revolution in 1949.
- The failure of Chinese rule to end the conflict with Japan was also another cause for Chinese revolution 1949. During the feudal rule in China; Japan which was the traditional enemy of China used to attack and annex some parts of China for raw materials like coal and iron ore and the Chinese rule kept quite during those enormities e.g. In 1931 when Japan attacked Manchuria, 1937, 1936 and 1940’s hence the people accrued the feudal ruling class for failure to dissolve the conflict hence they have support Mao Tse-Tung for Chinese revolution in 1949.
POLITICAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA SINCE 1949
The revolution in China which was conducted by Chinese communist party under comrade Mao Tse-Tung for almost 30 years (from 1921 – 1949) was mostly centered in struggle in rural areas, hence it was peasant based revolution and therefore far within 30 years Mao Tse-Tung become popular and government large mass support.
NB; – There was no specific training for those who wanted to join the revolution; it involved all peasants. It started in the rural areas and spread to town; this is because the revolution in China involved more peasants rather than the working class and this is why Marxist scholars have argued that the Chinese revolution was against the Marxist way of conducting a socialist revolution.
After the revolution, the following political and economic development was seen in China, this was due to the various strategies adopted in order to build China.
- Industrialization policy
This policy Chinese did the followings:-
(a) Nationalized all the industries which were previously under, the imperialist and Japanese control, these industries were put under the control of the government in Municipalities and rural areas.
(b) At Shanghai and Hong Kong a modification of the control of the private own of industries were done whereby workers were allowed to supervise their employers activities, working conditions, raw material and sell the finished goods.
(c) The soviets (USSR) model of heavy industries was adopted during 1953 to 1957 that is there were five years development plan; this was capital intensive which led to heavy industrialization in China.
(d) The great leap forward of 1958-1960 was adopted; this policy was first industrialization whereby people were allowed to use their own initiatives towards industrialization.
- On Land policy
The Chinese government under the communist party led by Mao Tse-Tung did the following strategies on land;
(i) All the land was taken from the land lords and given to the peasants.
(ii) The great revolution on land was done where by the rapid change in agricultural period was adopted such as to improve the varieties of seeds in order to increase production, the use of fertilizers, prevention of soil erosion, land reclamation, deep ploughing, plant protection, close plating, floods control in the river of Yang Tse– Kiang, Si-Kiang and HwangHo, pest and diseases control, irrigation system and seeds improvement.
(iii) Research stations were also built to make quick maturing and high yield seeds and diseases and pest controlled drugs.
(iv) Collective farming in China was adopted and implemented where by mutual aid terms (1949 – 1952) this included neighboring villages in the rural areas could cultivate together, weeding together, sowing together and harvesting, this speed the work and increased efficiency and also there was agricultural cooperatives starting from (1953 – 1957).
(v) People’s communes 1958 . This was the largest agricultural period unit comparing several people in China but also it included factors, shops schools, big farms and banks whereby in these communes each member was argued a task to perform by the administration.
Advantages of communes:-
(i)It enabled people to conduct central planned agricultural production system through proper use of human labor force.
(ii)The communes consolidated the capital resources available in China.
(iii)It diversified (diversification) economy.
(iv)The commune eliminated the differences between the rich and the poor.
ADVANTAGE /ACHIEVEMENT OF CHINESE REVOLUTION
1.The revolution changed the curriculum to suit the new condition in China where it combined academic, field works and other professionals to suit in the environment of the country.
- There was introduction and encouragement of student participation in management while they were in schools.
- Following the change of curriculum the revolution led to new books, and new subjects to be introduced in China in order to facilitate political indoctrination that is all subject such as literature, painting, Music, theater etc had to show the importance of workers and peasants.
- The revolution led to introduction of the link between the community and schools, Intellectuals and manual works.
- The revolution led to preach the socialist ideology of Maoism which was contrary with maxis ideas.
- The Revolution made China to follow socialism ideology and joined the eastern block with its WAR SAW PACT military alliance.
7.The revolution led the universalization of primary education and Mass education whereby every member in China was supported to get primary education which was necessary for development of the country
WEAKNESS / FAILURE / DISADVANTAGES OF CHINESE REVOLUTION OF 1949
1.The revolution discouraged further studies like post graduate studies; this limited the country capacity of having enough experts.
2.Old books were discouraged with new books replacement which praised Mao theory of building socialism in China.
3.The Chinese revolution was based more in Maoism which was contrary to Marxist theory of building socialism.
4.The revolution destroyed the scientific research which was introduced by imperialist in China by introducing Chinese research stations, this hindered to source of innovations and technology of the west until 1970’s when Mao died.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CHINESE AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
- Both revolutions aimed at building socialism.
- Both revolutions were anti – capitalist, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialism.
- Both eliminated exploitation of man by man and established a society of equality in China.
- Both were under the dictatorship of workers or peasants or both.
- Both revolutions all major means of production such as land, bank, industries, etc. and the distributions from those major means of production were under peasant and workers government
THE CHINA – SOVIET RELATIONS
Prior to and during the Chinese revolution and even immediate after 1949 Chinese revolution, there were good relation between Russia (USSR) and China but later the conflict between China and USSR started in the late of 1950’s and early 1960’s due to ideology differences and misunderstandings due to Chinese Marxist cultural revolutions.
CAUSES OF MISUNDERSTANDING BETWEEN CHINA AND RUSSIA BETWEEN (1960’s – 1970’s)
- China accused USSR of giving her aid during the revolution but the aid was not based on mutual interest rather the aid was meant to turn china into a future satellite of Russia which would make China to lose her position as independent nation world international relations
- When in 1956 Russia announced a peaceful coexistence policy with the west at the 20th congress led by president Krusher of Russia; china condemned that policy as Marxist to dissolve the disputes with the enemy rather than fighting with them.
- When Russia spent massively on space i.e. to expose her explorations and making dangerous weapons like nuclear bombs; China complained that USSR was support to spend that money on liberation struggle in the third world countries.
- When the war emerged between China and India over their common border, Russia supported India rather than her communist brother, this angered China which expected Russia to support her.
- When 1962 Russia withdraw her missiles from Cuba due to America threat China temped it as a coward and rick named as a toothless dragon.
(i) Russia accused China for the following; China was trying to replace Marxist with Maoism in building socialism in China.
(ii) Russia complained that, Mao carried the revolution by using peasants only in the rural area rather than working class in the town as Marxist thought
NB: – However to Mao this was necessary because the working class was small and peasants were the majority who organized under Mao to make the Chinese revolution in 1949.
THE EFFECT OF DISPUTE / CONFLICT BETWEEN CHINA AND RUSSIA
- The conflict decided that communist world living the big scar on Marxist ideology because other nations were supported by Russia and other was supported by China who has the same ideology of socialism.
- The conflict weakened the communist support to liberation in the 3rd world countries because China and Russia supported different sides of the same struggle taking place in one country e.g. In Angola, USSR supported MPLA while China supported FNLA.
- The conflict narrowed the chances of success of the world communist revolution followed Marxist ideas.
- China deviated from Marxist whereby China modernized her economy by relaxing tension with the west particularly USA hence China sent student to study new production Techniques in USA. China established special investment Zone for investment with the West and China established joint venture with the West.
Why was 1949 Chinese revolution regarded as a peasant revolution?
– The revolution of China was against the old feudalism which was under the feudal dynasty, Japanese and Western colonialist in China thus the unemployment; but also these colonies were depending on capitalist to development economically so, the environment hindered the contraction of socialism not only in Europe but also in colonized areas like Africa.
- Creation and adoption of welfare state (capitalist states), Many states in Europe provided basis needs to workers and unemployed e.g. provision of food, education, unemployment benefits, free social services all these avoided the adoption of socialism in capitalist world.
- Introduction of collective bargaining; when this was introduced in western Europe employees allowed the workers together on the prices, salary to be given to workers fort the works they offer/do per month or week, also employees were to sit together with the capitalist on how to improve the making condition in their working environment, this hindered the construction of socialism in capitalist world.
- Introduction of liberal democracy; This democracy made people especially workers to be free to do what they like/wanted, provided that they were within the law boundary e.g. people were free to join trade unions, to choose their leaders, and their representative in their comments, this contributed in their socialist revolution in socialist world.
- Propaganda of Europe with the ideology capitalism against socialism and communism. The Western capitalist nation in Europe used a lot of propaganda to make sure that socialism should not be established in capitalist world, e.g. the capitalist world associated with socialist as the highest stage of socialism.
- U.S.A aid to Western Europe; U.S.A provided aid to western Europe in order to suppress the spread of communism and socialism therefore the aid provided by U.S.A in Western countries enabled western European countries to follow and consolidate themselves under capitalism where by leaders in those nations used a lot of mechanism to avoid socialist revolution in Western Europe so as western European countries should continue getting or attracting AID and other assistance from U.S.A.
- The political revolutions in Western Europe; many western European countries like France 1789, Britain 1648 – 1688 undergo political revolution, and these revolutions abolished automatic rule and feudalism which oppressed the majority in the country. Also the revolution which led to the rise of capitalism in those nations led to improvement of conditions of peasant and other people in those nations including workers. All socialist ideas were suppressed in capitalist world due to political revolutions.
The wave of socialism inspired African states men, politicians and intellectuals to build socialism in Africa because socialism was seen as the best way for development in African countries due to its main features in society like no exploitation of man by man, no oppression, no segregation and no humiliation. Hence after the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917 many African states which had got independence began to adopt Socialism as their political policy which was popularly known as African socialism while was designed according to African environment.
Examples of African socialism:-
- Nyerere of Tanzania designed a brand (type) of socialism known as ujamaa (brother hood) in 1967 following the Arusha declaration on 5/2/1967
- Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia designed type of socialism known as Humanism.
- Milton Obote of Uganda designed as the common man’s charter in 1980.
- Nkrumah of Ghana designed known as conscinitization.
- In Senegal socialism was known as Negnitude.
- In Egypt socialism was known Nasserism.
- Tom Mboya in Kenya adopted socialism known as seasonal paper no 10 of 1965.
- Communicative – Guinea.
- Hanti – Wadagagadiniga – Kudhisani in Somalia.
FEATURES OF AFRICA SOCIALISM
- African socialism was against all evils of colonialism and capitalism like exploitation, humiliation, segregation and oppression because the systems of colonialism and capitalism was seen as the source of under development of African nations due to exploitation of human and natural resource of African.
- African socialism rejected/ opposed the private ownership of the major means of production and its profit created by private individuals.
- African leaders wanted to build socialism in Africa based on African type of communal social system or communalism where by African were helping each other on their areas.
- African state were attempting to create a type of socialism which was not based on Marxism – Lenism based on class struggle and revolutionary action in steady they focused on reviving of indigenous cooperative work and common ownership of land and cattle.
Question: – Why African state failed to build the strong socialism like that of Russia?
Many African socialism failed e.g. in Tanzania the Ujamaa of Nyerere had a little success, Nkrumah was overthrown with his socialist ideology, Tom Mboya in Kenya was assassinated with his ideology of socialism , Milton Obote of Uganda was overthrown by Amin.
The following are the reason to why Africans failed to build strong socialism like that of Russia.
1.Lack of clear theory of socialist ideology.
Many African was dominated by pseudo that lacked committed people to implement African socialism.
- Existence of poor working class.
Many African states were dominated by peasants who lived in acute poverty and who were ignorant therefore they fall to organize themselves to support African leaders in establishing the string African socialism.
- Existence of dependent economy.
Since the period of colonialism and even after independence many African states had dependent economy which forced them to rely to metropolitan countries and even after independent they continue to lie on colonialist or former colonial members. This can be verified on what African used to say we produce what we don’t consume and we consume what we don’t produce, hence the capitalist nation used the weakness of African economy to hinder African economy.
- Puppets / some African leaders were puppets.
Some African leaders, intellectuals and African politicians were used by the capitalist nation in order to suppress all ideas of construction African socialism,, e.g. African leaders who were very rich and had investment feared socialism due to lose their properties and wealth therefore they had to cooperate with capitalism to suppress African socialism.
- Imperialist mechanism / maneuvers.
The imperialist used a lot of mechanisms to suppress socialist ideas in Africa e.g. they sabotage and sometimes they cut AID to that countries that adopted socialism, this contributed to the failure of socialism in Africa.
- Internal problems of African states.
African states before, during and after colonialism experienced internal problems like civil wars, tribalism, diseases, poverty, illiteracy, famine and hunger, death, floods etc. therefore after they adopted socialism these instead problems hindered African socialism because African did not have simple time to concentrate on construction of socialism needs unity, mobilization and strong leaders hence the failure of African socialism .
TANZANIA SOCIALIST EXPERIMENT (1967 – 1985) UJAMAA SOCIALISM IN TANZANIA
Socialism and self reliance was philosophy advocated BY J. K. Nyerere that intended to create self sufficient economy with mass participation in sharing of economy resources
Some of the key characteristic of socialism in Tanzania were absence of exploitation of major means of production and exchange are under the control of workers and peasants, existence of democracy. Also socialism is perceived as a belief, therefore people had to be trained and educated on how to accept and implement socialism
THE POLICY OF SELF RELIANCE
- To fight the war against poverty and oppression
- We should not depend money for development
- To discourage foreign aids and loans
- To discourage foreign investment and encourage local investment
- To depend on our financial resources for development
- To put much emphasize on industrial sector
- To improve peasants condition by providing subsidies (farm implements)
- To abides by the belief that development is brought by people and not money
Arusha declaration refers to the decision made in Arusha in which the essence of socialism and self reliance through villagenization program was discussed and realized.
MAJOR ECONOMIC CHANGES AFTER ARUSHA DECLARATION
- Increased centralization economic authority
- Abolition of cooperatives and local government
- Nationalization of all public enterprises
- Encouragement of home market
People of Tanzania were urged to consume home product. There was discouragement of foreign goods.
- Improvement of industrial sector.
- Agriculture was recognized as the backbone of Tanzania Economy.
EFFECTS OF UJAMAA IN TANZANIA
- The creation of one party system under the leadership of CCM
- The villagenization of production which capacity
- Transformation of economic and cultural attitudes
- The implementation of free and compulsory education for all Tanzanians in order to sensitize them to the principles of Ujamaa.
- Establishment of collectives farms. Nyerere forced people to relocate into collective farms.
- A substantial amount of the country wealth in the form of building structured and improved.