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The development of capitalism in Europe led to the development of the industrial revolution which started in Britain in 1750 and by the end of the18th century Britain was the only industrialized nation in the world.However in the 19th century, other European countries such as France, Belgium, Germany and Italy also industrialized.

The industrialization of almost all European countries meant that there was no area to expand within European hence there was the need to find colonies. From 1870 monopoly capitalism demanded for the following:-

(a) Markets

(b) Raw materials

(c) Cheap labor

(d) Investment areas

(e) Areas to resettle surplus labor force.

Therefore the demands made capitalism to change to its monopolistic stage called imperialism. Colonialism was therefore linked with the development of capitalism in Europe, in the sense that it was undertaken to meet the demands of capitalism.


The scramble for Africa refers to the way European powers struggled among themselves to acquire colonies in Africa while the partition of Africa refers to the different steps taken by the European powers to divide Africa into territories and fixing colonial boundaries.

The major European powers that were involved in this exercise were Britain, Germany, France, Portugal and Belgium.

By 1880‟s it was only Africa which was not colonized therefore it became the centre of imperialist attention which was driven by the development of capitalism.


During the scramble and partition of Africa; there were some areas that witnessed serious conflicts among the imperialist powers for example the Congo Niger basin. There were various factors that determined the pattern of the scramble for and partition of Africa.

(a) Accessibility into the interior of Africa.

The imperialist powers scrambled for those areas that offered means of transport into the interior of Africa. These powers were interested in the interior because they wanted raw materials and markets where they can sell their manufactured goods. This explains why the Congo River was competed from the Belgium, France, and Portugal and the Niger River were competed for by France, Britain and Germany.

(b) Strategic factors.

This is one of the factors that determined the pattern of the scramble and the partition of Africa. Britain controlled Egypt because of the Suez Canal which was used to transport raw materials and manufactured goods into and outside Africa.

Britain also controlled Uganda because it wanted to protect the source of river Nile which is found in Uganda.

(c) Agricultural potentialities.

The imperial powers struggled for areas that had fertile soils that could support the growth of cash crops. Various powers struggled for the Congo and Niger rivers because the areas around the rivers were very fertile and therefore suitable for cash crop production.

(d) Mineral potentialities.

The imperials powers struggled for areas that had minerals in large quantities. Colonies such as Zimbabwe was very vital because it had large amounts of gold and diamond. Many imperialist powers were also interested in the Congo (DRC) because of the existence of large quantities of copper.

(e) Population

Population was one of the major factors that determined the nature of the scramble and partition of Africa. The colonial powers struggled for those areas with high population because they ensured constant supply of cheap labor and ready markets for the European manufactured goods.


The partition of Africa marked the end of Africa‟s political independence and the beginning of subjection to foreign rule. In the event of establishing colonial rule, the European powers used different methods depending on nature and attitude of the nature population.

Sometimes the methods depended on the prevailing circumstances on the ground such as geographical location of the colony.

The tactics that were used to establish colonial rule include the following:-

(a) Treaty signing

(b) Use of military force

(c) Alliances

(d) Gun butt diplomacy

(e) Mercenary technique

(f) Berlin conference

(a) Treaty signing.

This was one of the most common techniques that were used to establish colonial rule in Africa. The European powers urged African leaders to sign treaties with the European claiming to give protection against their local and foreign enemies. Karl Peters signed treaties African chiefs in Tanganyika which put Tanganyika under German control.

Moffat an Anglican Missionary encouraged Lobengula.

(b) Use of Military force.

Sometimes direct military confrontation was used to establish colonial rule in Africa. The military was used in areas that resisted the establishment of colonial rule. The British used military force against the Nandi in Kenya and the Germans used force against the Hehe and Abushiri in Tanganyika.

The colonial powers used force because they were determined to establish their rule in Africa so as to exploit African resources.

(c) Alliances.

This method was used in areas were two societies were in conflict, that is situation of enmity. The colonial powers allied with one society against the other one and then controlled all of them together. In Tanganyika the German sided with Sango and Bena against Hehe and in central Africa, the British allied with chief Lewanika of lozi Kingdom against lobengula of the Ndebele people in Zimbabwe.

This led to the defect of Lobengula and the final colonization of Zimbabwe by the British

(d) Gun butt diplomacy.

This was the tactique where the colonial powers had threatened to use force but they did not actually use force. This method aimed at forcing African into submission. This method was used by British against King Jaja of Opobo in West Africa.

(e) Mercenary Technique.

In this policy, colonial powers used Africans to establish their rule in Africa. Here they used people who had no blood ties with the people who are being invaded for example the Germans used the Rugaruga in Tanganyika.

(f) Berlin Conference.

This was one of the methods used to establish colonial rule in Africa. This conference legalized the scramble for and partition of Africa. It laid down the principles that were to be followed when controlling Africa. One of the principles was effective occupation of African territories.


The colonial state refers to the extension of the metropolitan state in the colony. The colonial state was established immediately after scramble for and partition of Africa. It was followed by the establishment of the colonial economy.

The colonial state was an instrument of the colonialists and not the African masses. It was responsible for the exploitation and oppression of the colonies.

Objectives of the colonial state:-

(a) The colonial state was supposed to provide a link between the colonies and the metropolitan state. It had to ensure that the demands of the capitalists are satisfied such as the acquisition of raw materials and markets.

(b) The colonial state was supposed to enforce laws and orders in the colony. These laws were supposed to ensure that the interests of the capitalists are protected.Laws concerning land alienation and taxation were meant to ensure the exploitation of African resources.

(c) The colonial state was supposed to suppress or control African resistance against colonial. The suppression of African resistance aimed at ensuring that there is a good atmosphere for the exploitation of African resources. This explains why resistances such as Maji maji in Tanganyika and Nandi in Kenya had to be defeated at any cost.

(d) The colonial state was supposed to construct physical infrastructure such as roads and railways. These establishments could not be established by individual capitalists thus it was the duty of the colonial state to establish them. The roads and railways facilitated the colonial economy by transporting raw materials and manufactured goods.

(e) The colonial state was supposed to supervise colonial production in the colonies. The Africans in the colonies were supposed to produce cash crops and minerals that were needed in the metropolitan capitalist countries. Primarily the colonial economy was supposed to respond to the demands of the metropolitan economies.

(f) The colonial state was supposed to provide security and protection to the white settlers. The colonial state established the judiciary, prisons and the police. The colonial state was imposed on the Africans thus it received state was imposed on the Africans thus it received resistance from the Africans, thus the colonial state had to ensure the safety of the Africans.



Significance of agriculture in colonial economy within African colonies may be seen from the advantages which colonialists got after the establishment of agriculture and to less extent Africans also benefited.

1. Agriculture led colonialists to get raw materials such as (cotton, tea, sisal, Pyrethrum, cocoa.etc)that were needed in their capitalists industries for more development.

2. Expansion of market for European manufactured goods such as Agricultural tools.

3. It destroyed African technology in order to avoid competition with African technology.

4. Facilitated exploitation of African resources for the benefit of European capitalist, resources being both human and natural resources.

5.Agriculture boosted the development of industries in Europe because industries operated nicely because of enough availability of raw materials.

6. Agriculture led to the construction of social services infrastructure like schools which prepared African elites such Mwl. Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Jomo Kenyatta and hospitals.Other physical infrastructures like roads and railways were contracted for transporting raw material from productive areas to the coast to full fill the interests of capitalists.


The main objective of the colonial state was to establish the colonial economy that would respond to the demands of the metropolitan economies, in establishing such an economy. The colonialists used extreme violence and that is why many scholars such as Frants Fanon asserted that, the colonial state was the most violent.

The colonial state used various measures to ensure that the needs of capitalism are met; these measures show that the colonial state was violent.

(a) Colonial conquest.

The colonial state used the military during the establishment of colonial rule. Those African societies that put up stiff resistance against the colonialists, the colonial state responded by using force e.g. Force was used by the British against the Nandi in Kenya and by the Germans against the Hehe in Tanganyika.

(b) Exploitation, which included

• Introduction of taxes.

The colonial state introduced taxes such as the pole and hut taxes as ways of getting revenue to run the colonies. The collection of these taxes was done in a very brutal manner. Those Africans who failed to pay taxes were usually flogged and some were even killed, these actions show the violent nature of the colonial state.

• Acquisition of cheap labour.

The colonial state used violent means to acquire labour. It introduced various labor laws in Africa to ensure constant supply of labor on economic enterprises; these labor laws include the Kipande system in Kenya and the pass laws in South Africa and Zimbabwe. When the Africans failed to provide labor, punishment was meted out.

• The colonial policy of land alienation was associated with use of violence.


Land alienation was supposed to create room for cash crop production and mining activities. The police used to force people away from their land so that it can be used for colonial production.

(c) Suppression of African resistance against the colonial economy.

The colonial state used force to crash Africans, who resisted the establishment of colonial economy. The colonial state used the military against the Nama- Herero resistance in Namibia and the Majimaji in Tanganyika.

(d) Destruction of African traditional industries.

The colonial state destroyed African traditional industries to ensure that Africa remains a producer of raw materials and a market for European manufactured goods. The destruction of these industries involved the use of force. E.g. in Belgian Congo the colonial state decided it was illegal for Africans to engage in handcraft industries, those who are caught will have their hands chopped off.

(e) Distribution of colonial social services.

The distribution of colonial social services such as education and health involved the use of violence (psychological). These services were made available only in those areas where the production of raw materials took place. E.g. in Tanganyika there was mainly offered in Arusha , Morogoro etc. Those areas that had nothing to offer to the colonialists were danced education.


Given the above scenario; one rightly assets that the colonial state was the most violent or ruthless because it used the element of force to satisfy the interests of the capitalists in the metropolitan countries.



(i) Dense population made it difficult for and alienation to be practiced. Settler and plantation agriculture was impossible to develop, thus peasant agriculture was reinforced.

(ii) Centralized and strong kingdoms were preferred for indirect rule and a peasants economy rather than settle and plantation system were introduced. These kingdoms proved to be on the establishment of settler agriculture. In this regard, peasant agriculture was introduced. The notable examples are Buganda and Northern Nigeria.

(iii) Different governors preferred peasant agriculture. For example, Governor

Harry John stone of Uganda and Governors Horrace, Byatt and Sir Donald

Cameroon of Tanganyika preferred peasant agriculture.

(iv) Territorial and nationality problems. Before 1919, Tanganyika was ruled by Germans, but after the First World War, it was ruled by the British. Disagreements appeared regarding various issues of administration and the creation of a settler colony. Thus peasant agriculture dominated in many parts of Tanganyika.

(v) There was always a labour supply problem when the economy favored. only one crop.

(vi) Nature of the crops. Certain crops such as cotton, coffee and cocoa needed great care and could not be mixed easily with other systems of agriculture.

(vii) Climate condition. Some area were thought to be unfit for the European settlement as far as climate condition was concerned. The notable examples are

Nigeria and Uganda. In these areas, peasant agriculture was encouraged.

(viii) In case for mandate territories after the world War II, colonies would be granted independence. Therefore, no settle could be invited because they were preparing for majority rule. The notable examples are Tanganyika and Cameroon.

(ix) soil fertility favour plantation agriculture to cultivate different crops. Hence plantation agriculture encouraged fore example: Morogoro in Tanganyika.



By the end of the 19th century European powers had already suppressed African resistance and extended their rule almost throughout the entire continent, the countries that were subjected to colonial rule by this time were Ethiopia and Liberia.

Colonial economies were established in Africa over a span of years. During that period African self sufficient economic were transformed and made inferior. The colonialists reorganize the traditional African societies to meet their selfish interests.

The colonial economy refers to the production and consumption patterns that existed in Africa during the colonial period. The colonial economy was imposed on the Africans.


Specific objectives

i. Analyse agricultural policies and strategies undertaken to improve. Agricultural production in the colonies during and after the second world war.

ii. Analyse the various development schemes undertaken in the colonies

iii. Explain the objectives of introducing progressive or master farmers

iv. Discuss the reasons for introducing cooperatives and marketing boards.

Objectives of the colonial economy

There are various economic reasons that made the colonial powers to establish the colonial economy in Africa. These are the following:-

1. Need for markets

– By the late 19th century, the industries in Europe were producing more industrial goods than Europeans could consume, Industrialists encourage their government to undertake colonization in Africa in order to protect markets for their Industrial goods. – There was over production in Europe where their goods were unmarketable, hence they decide to come Africa to find market for their goods products.

The colonial powers were looking for areas where they can sell their manufacture goods.

2. Need for raw material

– They were looking for cheap raw material such as cotton, minerals. They took material in

Africa to European Industries -Colonial power were established processing Industries in Africa so that they can process material before they took to their countries. Example cotton and sisal.

– In 19th century experienced the Industrial revolution, so they nee industrial production like mode of production, which include human resources , capital resources and natural resources

– European Industrial were dependent on raw materials from Asia, America and Africa

– They Need raw materials to feed their industries in Europe, Example: cotton,

They were looking for cheap raw material because in Europe they had been exhausted and the remaining ones were quiet expensive.

3. Need for investment.

-They need to get Investment areas, They had large capital which made them to unable to sell their product:

-There was high population in Europe and shortage of land, rich people were control land where poor become landless.

They were looking for areas where they can invest their excess capital; they could not invest in Europe because the markets were saturated.

4. Need for cheap labour.

They need cheap labour, Industrial revolution in Europe introduced new machine which replaced human labour after abolition of slave trade The colonial powers were searching for cheap labour. Labor was expensive in Europe because the workers were demanding for high wages.

These motives clearly show that the colonial powers established the colonial economy not to serve the Africans, but to satisfy their own selfish interests. Characteristics of the colonial economy:-

1. Export-Import oriented.

The colonial economies were export oriented because they were based on the export of raw materials both mineral and agricultural and importation of manufactured goods from Europe.

2. Monoculture economies

The colonial economies were specialized in the production of the major commodity for example Mauritius specialized in the production of sugar, Ghana, Zambia and Zaire in Cocoa now the Democratic Republic of the Congo specialized in the production of copper.

3. Manufacturing sector was small and weak.

The manufacturing sector was small and weak because the colonial powers discouraged the establishment of heavy manufacturing industries in Africa. Africa had to remain a producer of raw materials and a market for European manufactured goods. The few industries that were established were semi–processing industries that aimed at reducing the weight of raw materials to facilitate their exportation of Europe.

4. Production was based on coercion.

The colonial economy was imposed on the Africans and they were forced to produce for the export market rather than their own consumption consequently there was no time to produce food which led to frequent famine in Africa.

5. Exploitation

• Land alienation.

Land alienation involved taking land from the Africans so as to create room for cash crop production and mining activities. The land that was taken was the land which was fertile and had minerals in large quantity land alienation was common in settle colonies such as Zimbabwe and Kenya.

• Taxation.

The colonial economy was characterized with the introduction of taxes such as the poll and hut taxes. Taxes were introduced as an indirect way of getting labor. To get money to pay the taxes, the African had to sell their labor thus the colonialist got both cheap labor and cash crops.


The colonial economy was established through recreation, destruction and preservation.

A. Creation:-It was a method established by European to Introduce new element that were not existed in the native areas.


Under creation new elements were introduced by the colonial powers on the traditional

African economy. These elements include the following:-

1. Land alienation, By occupying method and dividing land. Example: North Tanzania, high land were created as production area while south and central

Tanzania were created as labour reserve.

Land alienation involved the grabbing of land from the Africans as a way of getting areas where the growing of cash crops and mining activities could take place. It was the fertile land and land with minerals in large quantities that was taken by the colonialists. Land alienation was common in settle colonies such as Kenya and Zimbabwe.

2. Taxation.

The colonial powers introduced taxation as an indirect way of getting cheap labor. To pay taxes the Africans had to sell their labor on the colonial farms, in this way the colonialists acquired both cheap labor and cash crops that were needed as raw materials in Europe. Example: hat tax , matiti tax and head tax.

3. Forced cash crop production.

The colonial powers forced Africans to produce cash crops such as coffee, cotton and sisal which were needed as raw materials. The Africans produced cash crops at the expense of food crops; this explains the widespread occurrence of famine in colonial Africa.

4. Introduction of the monetary system.

The colonialists introduced money as a medium of exchange; to get money the Africans had to sell their labor on the farms thus the colonialists obtained both the cheap labor and cash crops which were the needs of the colonial economy.

-Exchange of goods or service by using coins or paper money.

5. Destruction- Greate forced labour, labour were completed to work in the collonial farmers, Forced labour was required to reduce costs that were needed in public services. Africa chiefs were forced to produce labour at low cost.

The colonial powers destroyed Africans traditional industries, by this policy all industries were to remain in Europe and Africa was to be a source of markets for European manufactured goods and a producer of raw materials. The traditional industries were destroyed in two main ways i.e. force and competition.

1. Force

Here different laws were passed by the colonial government that threatened the African from engaging in industrial activities for example in the Congo one would have his arms chopped off if he engaged in industrial activities.

2. Competition

Here the colonial powers imported high quality products from Europe in order to destroy the markets for the local products.

They Introduced processing Industries

C. Preservation

The colonialists preserved some elements of the pre–colonial African economies.

1.The basic tool of production remained to be the hand hoe except that this one was imported. There were no improvements in the tools of productive force.

2. The pre – capitalist relations of production were preserved for example the feudal relations of production, but these served the interests of the colonialists.

3. The basic unit of production remained to be the family; this limited the division of labor and also hindered the development of science and technology.


The colonial economy refers to all production and consumption activities found in Africa during the colonial period. The Second World War which took place between 1939 and 1945 had a significant impact on the capitalist powers and they spent huge sums of money financing the war, it is estimated the loss of Second World War was $ 13,849,000,000.

The destruction of the capitalist economies forced the European powers to introduce various changes in the colonial economy.

Conolonial economy was anchored on five important sectors namely:-







The main aim of colonial agricultural policy was to promote the production of cash crops for export, to feed the industrial of the metro Politician states, integrate the Africans into capitalist system through growing cash crops in which they wail sell, stimulate capital investment and maximization of pro by buying African crops at low prices and paying to wages.


Three types of Agriculture were established namely settle economy, plantation economy, and peasant economy


This involved the small – scale production of cash crops by individuals for purpose of coming cash and providing food for survival colonial rule.

The peasant and cash crop forms of agriculture were area transferring part of subsistence farming to the cash sector but the create part of the pre-colonial system of product social control unchanged.

In Ghana, Ivory Coast and western Nigeria, the British colonial administration wanted the peasant to devote much of their time and energy to the cultivation of cocoa and coffee.


(i) It was based on land units which were very small bed of the big are as being directly populated

(ii) There were individual ownership of land

(iii) There were intercropping in order to maintain various and cash crops at the same time

(iv) Elementary tools such as hoes and arrows were used as instruments of labour.

(v) There was hardly any use of scientific methods of farming.



(i) Dense population made it difficult for land alienation to be used. Hence, settler and plantation agriculture impossible

(ii) Centralized Kingdom proved to be tough on the establishment settler agriculture

(iii) There was always a labour supply problem when the economy favored only one crop.

(iv) Peasant agriculture was cheaper in the production of materials and settlers needed big capital, land, modern equipment



This involved production by foreigners. These foreigners usual presented the interests of the metropole (i.e. their main interest were mining and agriculture in the colonized countries).

The promotion of agricultural production was to go hand in hand with white settlements in Africa, especially in those areas that were fertile.

Settlers settled in big numbers in central Africa (Malaysia, Zambia, Zimbabwe), South Africa, parts of French equatorial Africa, French West Africa, and in East Africa (Kenya).


(i) Land alienation with differently issue land ordinaries, in 1900 the land occupation ordinance was enacted in Zambia.

The ordinance required that Europeans who had been allocated land must occupy and use that land or otherwise they would pay taxes for leaving such land redundant.

In Kenya in 1597, the land regulation office set as vacant land for European settlements, in 1902, the owner land ordinance allowed the commissioner to sell or give crown land to the Europeans, and large scale land alienation in Kikuyu began.


(ii) Forced labour: The French, German land Portuguese follow a similar policy of forced labour and unpaid labour.

Forced labour was required to reduce costs that were needed in public services. In Zimbabwe in 1897, the Nature egulation Act was passed, forcing African chiefs to produced labourers at law coast.


(iii) Taxation: the hut tax was introduced in Malawi in early 1890 in Zimbabwe in 1898, and in Zambia in 1900. In Kenya the Hut Tax was introduced in 1980, and poll tax in 1910.

The intention of the tax was to cover administrative expansion ways by which Africans would be forced to work in European farms and mines in order to raise money to pay their taxes.


(iv)Migrant labour were transported from far away places to work in settler plantations.

(v) The development of infrastructures to serve the settlers.



i) Was a very distinctive from of cultivation in which specialized commercial crops were grown.

ii) It employed large of number of unskilled lobourers who more brought to supervise and work. On the other hand, plantation agriculture extended monoculture during colonialism.


iii) In West Africa, French settlers owned Senegal groundnuts and cocoa farms. German settlers owned Dohomey palm oil and the fire stone Rubber Company of the U S A opened its plantation in Liberia in 1926. The other plantation in Tog were owned by the German and other in Ghana and Nigeria were owned by the British.

iv) In east Africa, Kenyan tea, pyrethrum and effect were owner by British seltters. Sisal plantation in Tanga and Morogoro are owned by Germans and sugarcane plantation in Uganda were owned by the Indians (mujidival).

v) In Zimbabwe, Malawi and Zambia, plantations were by the British while in Mozambique and Angola plantations were owned by the Portuguese.



i. They were larger estates covering over 100 acres each ii. Production was mainly for export and market oriented iii. The government ensure a constant supply of cheap laborer, they needed intensive labour

iv. Plantation were scientifically- managed and involved the use of machine and fertilizer for qualitative and quantitatives out put to meet the demands of the metropole.

v. Larger land was needed for commercial agriculture. This was led to land alienation


i) Mining was very important and one the pillars of the colonial economy, it accelerated the exploitation of Africa


ii) In West Africa there were coal mines at Enugu, tin mines in jos plateau in Northern Nigeria and gold mines in Ghana, Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone and Silver in sierra leone

iii) In central Africa, there was gold and coal in southern Rhodesia, copper, tin, zinc and lead in the Belgian congo, copper and leadin Zambia and diamond and oil in Angola

iv) In East Africa, there was diamond in mwadui , gold in Geita and Musoma (Tanganyika) and copper in kilembe (Uganda)


i) Under colonial rule, there emerged many companies that claimed to import and export goods into and out from African colonies, some were huge companies some were petty companies and some were fake companies but all of them come to exploit African resources. ii) Among these were very big companies including.

– Companies franchise Afriques occidental (C.T.A.O)

– Socrete commercial Quest African (S.C.Q.A)

– The United African Company (U.A.C)

– Ronrho


iii) In East Africa


– Smith maokenzie (ascothah Company of maennon)

– Ralli Brothers

– Leslie and Anderson – Broke Bond iv) These companies were responsible for expatriating great amounts of wealth from Africa


v) Many of these companies started during the slave, They engaged in the following works:

– They bought raw material cheaply in Africa and exported

– They insured the property of the seltters.

– They imported manufacture goods.

– They invested in mines and plantations.


Colonial agriculture was the main sector of the colonial economy so as to produce cash crops that were needed as raw materials by the capitalists industries. Emphasis was laid on the production of cash crops and not food crops.

The changes in colonial agriculture included the following:-

(i) Establishment of progressive master farmers.

The colonial state introduced progressive farmers under peasant agriculture; these farmers are given modern farming tools, loans and could hire labor. The main goal of the colonial state was to increase the production of cash crops.

(ii) Introduction of agricultural development schemes and plans.

This is where there was introduction of scientific methods of agriculture; these included terracing schemes in the hilly areas to avoid soil erosion, restocking so as to increase animal husbandry and modernization and a forestation to keep soil fertility and prevent soil erosion.

(iii) Introduction of agricultural experiments in the colonies.

The goal of the agricultural experiments was to introduce new cash crops for example there was introduction of groundnuts to solve the problem of edible oil in Europe, palm oil was introduced in Kongwa, Nachingwea and Urambo.

(iv) Setup of settlement schemes.

This is where the colonial state was shifting farmers to fertile places so as to avoid more room for cash crop production. All the fertile land in pre–colonial Africa was supposed to be subjected to cash crop production.

(v) Development of state farms.

The colonial state introduced state farms so as to reduce its dependence on subsidies from the metro-pole. These farms were supposed to generate revenue that was needed to run the colonial administration. State farms were very common in French colonies in West Africa.


Some of the reforms that were carried out by the colonial state failed to meet their expected goals, they failed due to various reasons:-

(i) Existence of poor soils.

Some of the land chosen for those agricultural reforms was not suitable for cash crop production thus leading to low yields. Yet the colonialists wanted to maximize agricultural output.

(ii) Poor administration.

Most of these agricultural projects were run by ex-soldiers who did not have the expertise to fully manage them. The absence of skilled personnel contributed greatly to the failure of the projects.

(iii) Opposition from the natives.

The establishment of agricultural reforms faced resistance from the natives; these schemes were viewed by the natives as ways of exploiting them. Various riots and strikes were staged against the schemes thus contributing to their failure.

(iv) Poor planning.

Most of the schemes collapse because of poor planning. The groundnuts scheme in Tanganyika collapsed because little time was taken to assess the suitability of the land chosen.

(v) Inadequate funds.

Most of the project wanted large sums of money which were not available especially after the Second World War. Inadequate funds hindered the successful implementation of the agricultural projects.





Master farming system was done by making African peasants to become involved in intensive production of raw materials.


1. Selection of few African peasants to be developed by giving them assistance like technical assistance in the processes involved in agricultural production.

2. Provision of labor, capital and fertilizers to African farmers in order to produce raw materials, the reason behind was to attract others to engage in production of raw materials.

3. Encourage more Africans to grow cash crops because African peasants were given low prices and the cost of production was low.

4. Creation of model farmers in order to influence others to grow more cash crops,

5. Introduction of agricultural schools and agricultural production of raw materials. For example Ukiriguru in Mwanza, Amboni-Tanga, Uyole in Mbeya, Lindi.etc. All these aimed at getting agricultural extension officers who could provide advice to African farmers on how to grow cash crops.

6. Introduction and expansion of cooperative farmers (union). For example KNCU (Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union), Nyanza.etc in order to advice more farmers to produce raw materials and to fix the prices of African agricultural crops.

7. Destocking schemes were adopted in African colonies in order to make Africans to concentrate on production of raw materials only and not on cattle keeping. For example in Sukuma land and Mburu land (Maasai).

8. Production policy was adopted by colonialists in African colonies where by Africans were invited to live in more productive areas and concentrate in production of raw materials. For example in sukuma land, more farmers were forced and invited to live in Geita which allowed production of more cotton.


1. It was aimed at getting agricultural extension offices that could help African to produce raw materials for the benefits of Europeans.

2. It aimed to provide agricultural education to African peasants hence more agricultural schools and colleges were built in several African areas. Therefore the colonial education helped the colonialist to get Africans who were able to mobilize their fellow Africans and provide agricultural expert advice to Africans in order to increase production of raw materials.

3. It aimed at increasing production of raw materials through giving Africans agricultural knowledge on better ways of practicing agriculture.

4.It aimed at conducting researches which necessitated the production of various agricultural raw materials and testing agricultural crops. Example the agricultural research helped the colonialists to know where some crops were in the right location for planting a particular type of crop example; Sisal in Tanga, Cotton in Sudan and Palm oil in Nigeria.

5. It aimed to get African labor that could help the colonialist to produce more cash crops needed in the capitalist industries for their own development.

6. It aimed to get more and large land from Africans for agricultural production.

7. It aimed to get areas for investment, More areas in African colonies were needed for European investment due to the fact that the capital accumulated from agricultural production was to be invested in other economic sectors such as financial institutions, industries, trade and commerce.etc.


The implementation of the agricultural schemes in Africa had a great impact.

1. The schemes contributed the introduction of classes among the farmers. Under peasant agricultural there was creation of a group of farmers known as progressive or masters farmers who were given loans by the colonial state and could hire labor and on the other hand there were peasants who were not given any of these privileges by the colonial state.

2. The schemes contributed to class consciousness among the peasants. The peasants produced various products which they sold to the colonial state, but the colonial state bought them at very low prices. The exploitation to which the peasants were subjected contributed to the rise of class consciousness.

3. There were various riots and strikes by the natives in the various colonies. The low prices at which the colonial states were buying the products contributed to the outbreak of various riots and strikes.

4. The schemes have contributed to making the agricultural sector to be the backbone of the economy in Africa. It should be noted that the colonial state did not make attempts to mechanize agriculture; this is why the agricultural sector is still backward.

5. The schemes contributed to increase in the volume of exports to the metropolitan countries which enabled them to reconstruct their economies that had been devastated by the Second World War.

6. The schemes contributed to environmental degradation which was due to over utilization of land. The colonialist wanted to receive their economies that had been destroyed by Second World War thus they had to utilize African land to the maximum which depleted the resources.

7. There was increase in industrialization on the form of processing industries which aimed at reducing the weight of raw materials to keep freight charges low. These industries solidified the linkage between the colonies and the colonial powers because the processed products had to be taken and the finishing industries were located at Europe.

8. The schemes contributed to the emergence of a commercial group, these were the middlemen such as the Indians in East Africa and Lebanese in West Africa. These middlemen brought products from the peasants at low prices and sold them to the colonial state at high prices.


The industrial sector was the smallest of all the sectors of the colonial economy. It should be noted that before the First World War. These were the only processing industries that aimed of reducing the weight of raw materials to keep the Freight charges low. The examples of these industries were the cotton and coffee ginneries.

After the Second World War the capitalist powers established import substitution industries, there were industries that produced goods which were formerly imported from Europe.

Import substitution industries.

There were industries that were formed by the capitalist powers to produce goods that will replace the ones imported from Europe. The main goal of these industries was to produce consumer goods mainly for the white settlers and few Africans, African civil servants; these goods included soap, cigarettes, and tooth paste.

Features of import substitution industries:-

(a) Light industries.

– All the import substitution industries were light industries. They avoided the establishment of heavy manufacturing industries so as to ensure that they create competition with goods coming from Europe.

(b) Production of consumer goods.

The import substitute industries were based on the production of consumer goods such as biscuits, soap and cigarettes. These industries were producing goods for the bourgeoisie (capitalist) and a few African petty bourgeoisie’s. The industries were not producing goods for the African masses.

(c) Labor intensive.

The industries were using labor intensive technology. They used more labor than machines. The colonialists were relevant to import advanced technology, because their goal was to exploit African resources.

(d) Uneven distribution.

The industries were unevenly distributed; they were mainly located in urban centers where most of the white settlers were found. The industries were producing goods for the white settlers.

(e) Owned by foreigners.

These industries aimed at exploiting African resources to the maximum so as to generate more profits for the capitalists.


Colonial labor refers to African labor force used by colonialists in their colonial economic sectors like in Agriculture, mining, trade and commerce, industrial sector etc. During the colonial period i.e. soon after the second world war (1939-1945). The colonialists emphasized on large quantity of raw materials and export commodities in the colonies so as to help the colonialists in economic recovery program in their metropolitan countries. In order to attain these demands, the colonialists were forced to adapt new labor policies in the colonies hence the post war period experienced effective mobilization and utilization of African labor .The following techniques and mechanisms were used.

1. Rehabilitation and creation of infrastructure system in the colonies. There was introduction of railway harbor and parts were constructed and rehabilitation in African colonies from the coastal areas to the interior where African laborers and producers of raw materials were found or lived.

2. Improvement of working condition in plantation and mining areas. This was done by the colonialists in order to motivate African laborers to move in mining and plantation areas to offer their labor power. This ensured a constant supply of migrant labor. For example, there was improvement of wage labor, provision of social services, shortening working hours.

3. Consolidation of labor recruiting agencies in the colonies, this was done in order to ensure a constant supply of labor in the colonies for agricultural production of raw materials, mining production and construction of infrastructure system like roads, ports and harbor.etc. For example we had WENELA in central Africa which recruited African labor from southern Rhodesia to South Africa in order to ensure labor power.

4. Assignment of special duties, quotas and other working conditions in different colonies. For Example peasants were assigned different duties, quotas per season in order to make African peasants fully involved in colonial production of raw materials and add more volumes of raw materials needed in hungry industries in Europe like in cotton growing region each family in those areas was required to cultivate at least 3 acres of cotton per season.

5. Local rulers were required to recruit a specific number of laborers in their areas of control per annum. This mechanism enabled the colonizer to utilize full African labor for advantage of European colonialist in their plantation and mines and other economic sectors.

6. Introduction of taxation; where the colonialists introduced different taxes in African colonies in order to force Africans to offer their labor power in European plantation, mines and other economic sector e.g. different taxes as it was in Kenya; there was Matiti, head, property, taxes etc. forced Africans to offer their labor power in settler economy.

7. Enactment of different labor laws by colonialists in different African colonies the colonialists enacted different labour laws which forced Africans to get involved in production of raw materials needed by the colonialist in their countries for their development.

8. Land alienation where by Africans were alienated from their fertile land and pushed to unproductive areas in order to make Africans to continue offering their labor power in plantations, mining etc.


Colonial transport and communication refers to all transport and communication established by colonialists in African continent during colonial period in order to meet their interests (demand). These infrastructures include colonial railway, ports, airports and harbors and telecommunication networks. Therefore after the second world war the colonial infrastructure change in order to get and increase their demands in colonies and in metropolitan countries.

Changes which were made

1. Introduction and expansion of roads; where different roads in African colonies. Example the feeder roads were introduced, introduction of tarmac roads which were expanded to the interior of African countries to collect raw materials and transport laborers from labor reserve areas to the working stations., Introduction of rehabilitation of roads which was introduced even before the second world war.

2. Introduction and expansion of ports and harbor in African colonies where by new ports and harbors were introduced and others were rehabilitated in order to meet colonialists demand in African colonies.

3. Introduction and expansion of railways in order to meet European demands. After the Second World War the colonialists made some changes in railway where by new railways were introduced and others were rehabilitated for the aim of transporting laborers, raw materials and colonial administrative officers and coercive apparatus.

4. Expansion of telecommunication networks in African colonies purposely for providing information on how to produce raw materials and layout administrative matters within African colonies.

5. Introduction of airports in colonies so as to facilitate movement of people such as transportation for administrators and information from metropolitan countries to African colonies.



1. To transport raw materials from production areas to the harbours where they are later shipped to metropolitan countries to feed European industries. In addition some raw materials were transported from the interior where they were produced to the main roads by using feeder roads where they are transported to the ports for being shipped to metropolitan countries.

2. To Transport colonial officers and administrators between urban areas to supervise production of raw materials.

3. To transport colonial African laborers especially the migrant laborers who were working under contracts from labor reserve areas to productive areas to offer cheap labor in plantations and mines.

4. To transport and import coercive apparatus forces such as police and army to seize resistance in productive areas when resistance occurs so that production is not interfered. Resistances such as MAUMAU resistance in Kenya.

5.To transport manufactured goods after being imported in African colonies; these imported manufactured commodities were transported to the market areas for example they transported to the productive areas (interior) where most Africans lived hence goods like clothes, food, agricultural tools were distributed to the European settlers. European administrators and to African laborers by using colonial infrastructure.

6. These colonial infrastructures aimed to facilitate communication from one area to another area either of the same colony or different colony in order to make easy ruling of the colonies.










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