HISTORY FORM FOUR TOPIC 4: AFRICA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
HISTORY FORM FOUR TOPIC 4: AFRICA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
Africa in International affairs is largely concern with the relationship and cooperation between African nations among themselves and cooperation between African and the outside world.
1. CONTINENTAL COOPERATION
OBJECTIVES OF ESTABLISHMENT OF CONTINENTAL COOPERATION
2. To fight against economic exploitation such as land alienations, poor wages and force labour.
3. To unite all people of African origin in the struggle against polities oppression
4. To challenge the ideology of European supremacy which undermines African political independence, economic stability and cultural civilization
5. To protect African dignity
6. To preserve African culture from destruction
2. Through African Development Bank Tanzania received some money for improvement of various sectors like agriculture and education
3. Tanzania made friendship with all countries which had joined O.A.U through participation in various meeting of O.A.U members.
4. Tanzania got chances to give out its opinion over many problem through various meeting.
viii. To work with relevant international parties in the elimination of printable disease and the promotion of health on the continent
2. To administer common serves such as civil aviation, east Africa posts, telegraphs and meteorological department.
Objectives of EAC were desired ends which the numbers intended to achieve, they include:
iii/ To promote the free trade of goods and services among the members of state.
iv/ To provide common services in East Africa, such as East Africa railways and East Africa airways based in Nairobi, Harbors whose headquarter were Dar es salaam and African community in Arusha while Uganda became the headquarter of post and telecommunication as well as East African Development Bank.
v/ to manage the East African examination council.
vi/ To conduct research in various areas such as agriculture and population.
2. Peaceful co-existence and good neighborliness
3. Peaceful settlement of disputes
4. Good governance, acceptance of principles of democracy, rule of law and respect for social justice
5. Co- operation for equal mutual benefit among the member states.
1. Production of goods that compete rather than complement each other
2. Political instability some of the member states experienced political instability which has interfered with the organization operations. Eg Democratic Republic Congo
3. Language barrier
4. Differences in political ideology- eg Tanzania and Angola capitalism, others capitalism
5. poor coordination and communication between member states
6. Some member states exhibit divided loyalties as some belong to other regioner organization such as COMESA
7. South Africa is seen as domineering over other member states due to her strong economy this causes a lot of anxiety to some countries.
Before 1993 COMESA was known as the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa- P.T.A. The heads of member states met in Kampala Uganda on 6thNovember 1993 and signed a treaty which created COMESA. A member of COMESA includes Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Lesotho Botswana, Swaziland, Mauritius, Comoro, Djibouti, Ethiopia Somalia and South Africa.
OBJECTIVES OF COMESA
Promoting and facilitating cooperation among member countries in trade, trade, transport and communication.
Harmonizing and coordinating development strategies, policies and plans within the region
It encourages cooperation in monetary and financial affairs in order to facilitate sub regional integration.
It aims at establishing joint industrial and agricultural institution to raise the production capacity.
It aims at reducing and eventually eliminating tariffs among members in order to facilitate trade
It encourages economic independence of the region by establishing strong economic base
ACHIVEMENT OF COMESA
Member states have become more cooperative in the field of trade, industry and agriculture.
The organization has also established a bank known as the trade and development bank situated in Bujumbura Burundi which finances trade and development projects
PROBLEMS OF COMESA
Different levels of development of member states
Poor transport shipping facilities and communication links
Existence of too many currencies in the region
Weak economic base of member states ie dependency economies
Civil wars, natural calamities and neo colonialism
The Reasons Which Made Tanzania Withdraw From COMESA:
As shown earlier Tanzania withdrew from COMESA in 2002. There are various reasons which made this country move out of the organization.
Tanzania was discouraged by political conflicts in Zimbabwe and Civil war in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. She realized there could not be effective economic co-operation with the members which had these problems at the moment.
the country wanted to maximize her efforts in some organizations like East African Community which was formed in early 2000s’. The government could not be able to unite fully with other EAC if she was still a member in many other organizations.
Tanzania withdrew from COMESA because she was avoiding duplication of regional co-operation. The country learnt that there was no new benefits the people could get from COMESA. Most of the benefits were similar with those which were gained from SADC and EAC.
financial contributions to various economic organizations became a burden on the government expenditure. The country could not be able to collect and spend money in many organizations like SADC, EAC, AU and COMESA. Withdrawal from COMESA was a way to reduce financial cost on regional co-operation
Tanzania moved out of COMESA as a way to protect its industrial development from other COMESA members such as Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe. This country still lagged behind in industries. She feared that those countries could use many opportunities in regional co-operation to export manufactured goods which could compete against the products from Tanzania industries. Thus, she withdrew to protect domestic industries and their markets.
All the points given above could explain the possible reasons which made Tanzania move out of COMESA in 2002
1. International Governmental Organizations(IGOs)
2. To maintains international peace and security
3. To promote respect for human rights and freedom
4. To promote human welfare by uplifting living standards
5. To promote international understanding among nations.
(a) The general assembly. This is the most supreme organ of the UN.
It meets once year unless during extra ordinary sessions and comprises of all members states of the UN
b. The Security council
2. Investigates situations that pose a threat to international peace
3. Urges states to conform to peaceful settlements of disputes
4. To expel countries that violate UN regulations
5. To recommend procedures to be followed in dispute settlements for countries experiencing squabbles
17. Explain the reasons for the failure of the former East African Community. (Six points) (MBEYA PRE-NECTA-2016)
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