HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFURI 2020
Dar Es Salaam,Tanzania

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

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HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

Preliminary history Preliminary history

The country has the remnants of a very old zamadamu (who came together and being human in form). Part of the Rift Valley, as the valley of Oltupai (formerly Olduvai Gorge) lies in the Serengeti, is the creation kulikogunduliwa vestige of the ancient community of people with age greater than all the world’s known so far.

As a result of this discovery, some scientists around the world believe that mainland Tanzania is a human being. Scientific evidence from footprints discovered in the Laetoli area just south of Oltupai has added weight to Tanzania’s argument for human origins.

The first humans to live there are believed to be hunters-gatherers of the Sani community, then the Pygmies. The first is developed by their Sandawe grandchildren, the second tribe is swallowed up by other tribes

The Last Millennium Before Christ they moved to the Cushites from the north, and they devoured large numbers of indigenous peoples, bringing in agriculture , animal husbandry, and production in general. Today’s Iraqis are the descendants of these migrants.

It is known that the coasts of Tanzania as well as the coasts of East Africa were generally visited by sailors from distant lands; The first report of an unencrypted available in the book of ” Periplus of the Eritrean Sea ” compiled in the year 200 AD. The beach was earlier part of the business internationally in the Indian Ocean. The origins of Swahili cities are found in the trade.

In the century first CE arrived by installments from western immigrants Bantus who have knowledge of agriculture and metalwork. And they swallowed up the inhabitants of the land before them. Many of today’s tribes in Tanzania are descendants of these immigrants.

Eventually the Nileots from the north continued to enter until the 18th century. The ancestors of the Luo and the Maasai arrived in this process.

Swahili cities grew in line with the transformation of international trade ; The arrival of the Portuguese after 1500 brought temporary violence, while several Swahili cities allied

themselves with them and other cities opposed them. Eventually the Omani rulers intervened and expelled the Portuguese remnant and thereby created a period of supremacy by the Sultan of Oman over coastal cities.

Before the advent of colonialism were ma dollars smaller and smaller areas of various ethnic.

The coastal zone as well as caravan routes towards Lake Tanganyika were under the influence of the Zanzibar Sultanate established after the Sultan of Oman moved to Unguja.

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

Sultanate of Zanzibar

Zanzibar Sultanate Zone in 1885

The sultanate was a country on the east coast of Africa between 1856 and 1964.

Since 1890 it has been a protected country under Britain.

It was founded during the division of the Omani Sultanate in 1856 and ended in 1964 after the Zanzibar revolution and the alliance with Tanganyika that spawned Tanzania.

Sayyi Said moved to Unguja

Sultanate was established when Sultan Sayyid Said decided to relocate his headquarters from Maskat (Oman) to Unguja.

Sayyid Said has been the Sultan of Oman since 1804. He strengthened the Omani rule on the East African coast.

In 1829 he succeeded in conquering Mombasa which was the only independent city among all the Swahili cities.

The islands of Unguja and Pemba have been under Omani since 1689, when the Portuguese were expelled from the Swahili coast.

Clove and slave trade

Sayyid Said he saw a great opportunity for businesses of clove for a market of India and beyond. In 1829 he established carnation farms using the work of slaves from the mainland.

Businesses that ikabadilisha face of the city of Zanzibar of the 19th century has ever been the village considerably in the booths along the rampart built by Oman as a barrier against the Portuguese.

After the declaration of the year 1832 to transfer the capital of Oman to Zanzibar, a number of residents of the city grew quickly.

Foreign countries recognized new capital and built relationships. Embassy of the United States was built in 1837, Britain followed in 1841 and France in 1844 .

The Sultan himself left Maskat altogether in 1840. The growth of Zanzibar led to the thinning of the city of Maskat

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

The distribution of Omani was the beginning of Zanzibar

After the death of Sayyid Sultan in 1856, the Sultanate of Oman was divided among his sons. Sayyid Majid bin Said Al-Busaid (1834 / 1835 – 1870) became the first Sultan of Zanzibar and brother her Sayyid Thuwaini bin Said al-Said became Sultan of Oman was ruled that no areas of East Africa.

The new sultanate was a powerful country between the Delgado Peninsula (border with the Portuguese colony of Mozambique) to Mogadishu (Somalia). Its influence spread through ivory and slave caravans to the Congo River.

Traders like Tippu Tip who were citizens of the Sultanate passed through Tabora and Ujiji to Lake Tanganyika and entered the territory of present -day Democratic Republic of Congo. Their porters carried goods from Zanzibar converted to ivory in particular. Slaves were captured or bought and carried horns to the shore.

Zanzibar Sultan’s Palace Sayyid Bargash

Zanzibar’s second sultan himself, Sayyid Bargash, sought to establish relations with foreign countries. He closed the Zanzibar slave market in the city in accordance with international agreements, but allowed the slave trade to continue underground. When Bargash ma building much of the Old City were completed.

Finally, in his reign saw fall short due to its location and ma competition countries Europe spread in Africa after the Berlin conference.

In 1885 Karl Peters made protection agreements with the lower rulers under the Sultan in Tanganyika. The Sultan’s opposition failed because the Germans sent a submarine to Zanzibar and he had to accept new German territories.

The spread of colonialism

In 1886 treaty between Britain and Germany was the sultan’s bana in the region with a width of miles just ten between Cape Delgado and Mogadishu. Bargash and his successor Khalifa bin Said decided to sell or lease the land.

1887 / 1888 coast of Kenya was leased to the British. During Kenya’s independence this section was incorporated into the Republic of Kenya.

The Tanganyika coast was leased to the Germans in 1888 and finally sold in 1890 .

Cities off the coast of Somalia were leased to Italy in 1892 and sold in 1906 , except Mogadishu in 1924 .

In fact, the sultanate remained with only two islands of Unguja and Pemba .

The British were skeptical about Zanzibar but after Karl Peters’ attempt to make an agreement with the Sultan to bring the islands into German East Africa , Britain decided to seek control of the islands.

Zanzibar-Heligoland Treaty and the end of independence

The Zanzibar-Helgoland agreement between Germany and the United Kingdom brought about an agreement that Zanzibar would be under British rule.

Since 1890 the Sultan’s prime minister was an Englishman who had received orders from London .

Since 1913 the position has been taken over by the chief resident officer.

For 26 years dominions had money it only called Riyal Zanzibar .

German colony

Places called the Future ( 1920 ) “Tanganyika” and later re mainland hookup first time since 1886 as a colony of Germany called the South East German .

Since 1885, Karl Peters , on behalf of the German Colonial Organization (Gesellschaft für Deutsche Colonization), began negotiating with the local rulers in the Usagara , Nguru , Useguha and Ukami areas, which laid the basis for his claim to take control of the territories.

The spread of the Germans continued especially after the defeat of the opposition in the battle of Abushiri and the war against the Hehe .

The German colony was larger than later Tanganyika, meaning it also included parts of Rwanda and Burundi as well as a small part of Mozambique .

During the First World War ( 1914 – 1918 ) the German colony was captured by British and Belgian forces .

The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 contained regulations for the takeover of all German colonies and the transfer of them to war-torn nations. Much of German East Africa was placed under British rule, except for the areas of Rwanda and Burundi that were handed over to Belgium.

Tanganyika Territory of English after the departure of the Germans

German rule came to an end in mainland Tanzania after Germany lost the first world war and lasted from 1914 to 1918 .

In 1919 a large part of the German colony, with a population of about 3,500,000, was officially handed over to the British as a protected area under the jurisdiction of the United Nations under Article 22 of the Versailles treaty.

In 1922 the United Nations ratified the move and determined the terms of the transfer.

The British needed a new name for the colony and since January 1920 decided to call it the “Tanganyika Territory” using the name of a large lake on the eastern side of the area.

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFULI 2020

Freedom and Union

Julius Nyerere

Julius Nyerere demanding Tanganyika’s independence in 1961. Tanganyika gained its independence on December 9, 1961 .

HISTORY OF TANZANIA FROM COLONIALISM TO PRESIDENT MAGUFURI 2020

Zanzibar gained its independence on 10 December 1963 . The independence of the sultanate lasted only a short time. Revolution dated 12 January 1964 yakamuondoa Sultan. The massacre of many families of Arab descent followed.

On 26 April 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanganyika leader Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere then became the first President ( 1964 – 1985 ) and Zanzibar revolutionary leader Abedi Amani Karume became the First Vice President .

Ali Hassan Mwinyi

Tanzania, under the second term President Ali Hassan Mwinyi ( 1985 – 1995 ) allowed the multi- party system in Tanzania and embarked on a program to reform the economy in line with the requirements of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund .

President Ali Hassan Mwinyi
President Ali Hassan Mwinyi

Benjamin Mkapa

The third phase President, Benjamin Mkapa ( 1995 – 2005 ) continued the economic system of free market where public agencies are personalized.

Benjamin Mkapa
Benjamin Mkapa

Jakaya Kikwete

On December 21, 2005, Jakaya Kikwete was sworn in as the country’s fourth President ( 2005 – 2015 ), and he developed his predecessors’ policies from the same CCM party .

Jakaya Kikwete
Jakaya Kikwete

John Magufuli

John Pombe Magufuli (born 29 October 1959) is a Tanzanian politician and the fifth President of Tanzania, in office since 2015. He was the chairman of the Southern African Development Community from 2019–2020.

First elected as a Member of Parliament in 1995, he served in the Cabinet of Tanzania as Deputy Minister of Works from 1995 to 2000, Minister of Works from 2000 to 2006, Minister of Lands and Human Settlement from 2006 to 2008, Minister of Livestock and Fisheries from 2008 to 2010, and as Minister of Works for a second time from 2010 to 2015.

Running as the candidate of the ruling party in Tanzania (CCM), he won the October 2015 presidential election and was sworn in on 5 November 2015. Magufuli ran on a platform of reducing government corruption and spending while also investing in Tanzania’s industries, but has been accused of having increasing autocratic tendencies brought on by restrictions on freedom of speech and a crackdown on members of the political opposition

John Magufuli
John Magufuli

President John Magufuli has officially won a second term 2020-2025, with a landslide victory of more than 84% of the vote in this week’s election. His main opponent, Tundu Lissu, earned 13% of the vote, according to the official count. Tanzania’s citizens have accepted the results.

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